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► 



lAo>u- Vi.&<\ . "i-0 



l^arbacb College Itbrarg 



FROM THE 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 



1 I 



1 



I I 



^^^•m^m. _. 



I 



PERSIAN GULF PILOT 



COMPRISINC 



THE PERSIAN GULF, THE GULF OF OMXn 

AND 

THE MAKRAn coast 



FIRST EDITION 



PUBLISHED AND SOLD BY THE HYDROCRAPHIC OFFICE 

UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE 

SECRETARY OF THE NAVY 



PRICE, M CENTS 



iTd i'O eg- Libmy 
Oct. 1^ , 1920 
From c,he 



js/ olat 1 5- C| . :)>o 



X. 



H. 0. 158. 

A Summary of Notices to Mariners, for the year 1920, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the TTnited States Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C. 
(See Preface.) 

ITame 



Address. 






H. 0. 158. 

A Summary of Notices to Mariners, for the year 1921, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the United States Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C. 
(See Preface.) 

Name 



Address. 



E. 0. 158. 

A Summary of Notices to Mariners, for the year 1922, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the TTnited States Hydrographic Offioe, Washii^^n, D. 0. 
(See Preface.) . 

Name 



Address. 



H. 0. 158. 

A Summary of Notices to Uariners, for the year 1923, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the United States Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C. 
(See Preface.) 

Name 



Address. 



H. 0. 158. 



A Summary of Notices to Uariners, for the year 1924, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the United States Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C. 
(See Preface.) 



Name. 



Address. 



H. 0. 158. 

A Summary of Notices to Mariners, for the year 1925, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the United States Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C. 
(See Preface.) 

Name 



Address. 



• • 



« ^ • 



PREFACE. 



This publication, the first edition of Hydrographic Office Publi- 
cation No. 158, The Persian Gulf Pilot contains Sailing Directions 
for the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Omdn, and the Coast of Makran, 
commencing at Kas al Hadd and following the southwestern shore 
of the Gulf of Oman, with the southern and western shores of the 
Persian Gulf to the Shatt al Arab, at its head. Then from Ras 
Muari (lat. ^° 60' N., long. 66° 40' E.) along the Makran coast, 
the northern and eastern shores of the Gulf of Oman, and the north- 
ern and northeastern shores of the Persian Gulf, to and including 
the Shatt al Arab. The work is taken mainly from the British 
Admiral publication, Persian Gulf Pilot and Supplement No. 4, 
1919 ; and is corrected to H. O. N. M. No. 12, 1920. 

The bearings and courses are true and are given in degrees, from 
0° (north) to 360° (clockwise). 

Bearings limiting sectors oi lights are toward the light. 

The directions of wind refer to the points from which they blow ; 
of currents, the points toward which they set. These directions are 
true. 

Variations, with the annual rate of change, may be obtained from 
H. O. Chart No. 2406, " Variation of the Compass." 

Distances are expressed in nautical miles, the mile being approxi- 
mately 2,000 yards. 

Soundings are referred to low water ordinary springs unless 
otherwise stated. 

Heights are referred to mean high water, spring tides. 

The latest information regarding lights, their characteristics, sec- 
tors, fog signals, and submarine bells should always be sought in the 
Light Lists, as all the details are not given in this volume, and 
changes are likely to occur. 

Summary of Notices to Mariners. — While it is the intention of 
the Hydrographic Office to publish about the first of each year a 
Summary of Notices to Mariners, of the preceding year, aflFecting 
the volume, it must be understood that these summaries are intended 
to include only important changes and corrections and that their 

in 



IV 

« 

publications may be discontinued at any time, especially when a 
new edition of the book is issued. 

Masters of vessels should keep complete files of weekly Notices to 
Mariners and supply themselves with the latest List of Lights, and 
seek from local authorities, pilots, and harbor masters the latest 
information relative to any special regulations in force in the par- 
ticular locality visited. 

Mariners are requested to notify the United States Hydrographic 
Office, Washington, D. C, or one of its branch offices of errors they 
may discover in this publication, or of additional matter which they 
think should be inserted. 



*.-, 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 
Preface 1 ni 

Information relating to navigational aids and general navigation 1 

Index 807 

Index chart Faces in 

List of Hydrographic Office agents Follows Index 

Glossary vi 

OUAPTEA I. 

General remarks and information. — Soundings. — Winds. — Climate. — Tem- 
perature. — ^Barometer. — Currents. — ^Tides. — ^Tidal currents. — Communi- 
cations, etc. — ^Passages . 15 

Chapter II. 

Gulf of Om&n. — ^Arabian coast — R&s al Hadd to Rfis ash Shateif, including 
MaskAt 44 

Chapteb III. 



Gulf of Om&n. — ^Arabian coast — RAs ash Shateif to Sal&ma wa Bina- 
tftha - -- ei 



Chapter IV. 
Persian gulf— Coast of Omftn. — Sal&ma wa Binat&ha to Abu Thabi 78 

Chapter V. 
Persian gulf, southern part. — ^Abu Thabi to R&s Rakkin 97 

Chapter VI. 

Persian gulf. — Rfts Rakkin to Jazfrat Bubiyftn, including Kuweit and 
Khtir Abdalla -^ 119 

Chapter VII. 
Coasts of Las Bella (Bfila) and Makr&n. — Rds Muari to Gwfidar Head 161 

Chapter VIII. 
Coast of Makrftn. — Gwdar Head to R&s al Kuh , 177 

Chapter IX. 

Entrance to Persian gulf. — Eastern and northern shores. — RAs al Kuh to 
Rfts Bist&na 195 

Chapter X. 

Persian gulf, northeastern shore. — RAs Bist&na to and including Abu 
Shahr (Bushire) ^ 234 

Chapter XI. 

Persian gulf, northeastern shore and head. — ^Abu Shahr (Bushire) to and 
including the Shatt al Arab 269 

Appendix I — ^List of principal ports and anchorages .. 305 

V 



GLOSSARY. 
Olosaaries of wards occurring in the charts <md sailing directionM. * 

ARABIC. 



Arabic. 


English. 


Arabic. 


English. 


'Abbas 1 




Muhammad's uncle. 

Father of, i. e., producing or 
abounding in; also large. 

A hard bank. 

A narrow strait; a gate. 

A town; village; land. 

Territory; country; land, 

A shoal which dries. 

A bay. 

A rocky reef. 

Source of a stream. 

A cave. 

Spit of sand; low sandy point; 
also boundary. 

A sandbank which is dry or 
dries. 

A rock. 

A pearl bank. 

A fort. 

A hill or mountain: also island. 

Plural of Jabal or Jebel. 

Plural of Jazlrat or Jeztrat. 

An island; sometimes penin- 
sula. 

Large., 

A shoal. 

A peaked hill; a point. 

A x)alaoc. 

A rock above or below water. 

A patch of rocks. 

A patch of rocks. 

Southeasterly wind. 

Large. 

A bay or creek; a deep channel 
between shoals. 

Diminutive of Khtltr.. 

A deep water bay or inlet. 

A fort. 


.1^4, 


Water. 


Abu or ] 

Aichor 
B&b.... 


Bu 

Aik 


MaldAn 

MaJIdi 

Marakat 

Mersa 

Mindr 

Naiwa 

Nakhil 


Plain, open space. 

A silver Turkish coin, value 

about 3s. 6d. 
A shoal with soft bottom. 


Balad 


An anchor^ffe. 


Bar 


Towflf. minarAt. "* 


Beiyat 


A shoal. 


Dohat 01 


r Diihat. . 


A date Krove. 


Fasht.. 


NftVhl 


A palm tree. 

Northeasterlv wind. 

A hard bank or ^oal. but do 


Ohall 


Nashi 


GhAr 


Dak or Rakat.... 
R&s 

Rig 

Runs 

Saghira 

Seghir 

Sen 

S^ria 

Shab 

Shatt 

Sherm 

Shur 

SIfa 

Suhail 

Suhaili 

Tal 

Turbat 

Umm 

Wadi 


Hadd 


overfialls; not dangerous. 
A cape, head, or a projecting 

point above or below water. 
A shallow flat bank extending 

oflshore; sand. 


H&lat 


Hassar 


Heir 

HlsAr 

Jabalor Jebel 

Jabdior Jeb^l.... 
Jaz&iror Jez^r... 
Jazlrat or Jezlrat . 

Kabira 


Plural of R&s. 

«mal1. 

Small. 

A torrent. 

Small. 

A rocky shoal. 

Fresh water river; large river. 

A creek or small cove. 


Kad 

Kam 


Low clay hills. 

A SATxA hAftoh. 


TTftsr 


Canopus. 


KaQs4r 


Southwesterly wind. 


Katah 


A hillock. 


TCt^sit 


A tomb. 


Kau.s 


Mother of, used similarly to Abu 
it is often joined to the follow 


Kebir 


Khoror Kht^r... 

« 


ing words by omitting the u, 
and prefixing m, as Tmm 


Eubbat 




A river bed; valley. 


KAt.... 













^ Also Persian. 



PERSIAN. 



Persian. 




'All Son-in-law and fourth successor 

I of Muhammad; high. 

Bid I Wind. 

B&d-gir A wind chimney ; wind tower. 

Bandar An anchorage sheltered from 

any direction; harbor; landing 

place. 

B&r Ditch; entrance; load. 

B&z&r: Marketplace 



I)4man. 
Dasht... 
DAtid... 

Diz 

Farsakh. 



I 



Garmslr 

Oil 

Oumruk 

Imlm 

Ka)iid 

KaAt 

Ka'r(BaluchlK. 

Khin 

Khirw&r 



Skirt: foot of mountain. 

Desert. 

David. 

A fortress. 

The distance that can be covered 

by a baggage animal in one 

hour; its mean distance is 

3.915 statute nules. 
Winter pastures 
Mud, clay. 
Customs. 
Religious leader. 
Blue. 

A castle on top of a mountain. 
A stream. 
Lord. 
A donJrey load; a Tabriz Khar- 

war=6.50 pounds; it varies in 

different parts. 



Persian. 



Kr&n.. 

Kdh.. 
Man. . , 

Masjid. 
Nahr... 
N&ib.. 
Nasfm . 
Rig.... 

Sabz.. 
Safid... 

Sar 

Shdhi.. 

Shahr.. 
Shaikh. 

ShamAl 
Sharki. 
Siah... 
Surkh . 
TiimAn 



English. 



A Persian coin; one-tenth of a 
ti^m&n. 

A mountain or hill. 

A Tabriz man=6i pounds; it 
varies in different parts. 

A Mosque. 

A canal or creek. 

Lieutenant. 

A breeze. 

A shallow flat bank rctending 
offshore; sand. 

Green. 

White. 

A peak or summit. 

A Persian com; one-twentieth of 
a kr&n. 

A city. 

Chief; venerable learned man 
old man. 

Northwesterly wind. 

Southeasterly wind. 

Black. 

Red. 

A Persian money unit, equiva- 
lent tx) 10 kr&ns. 



▼I 



GLOSSARY, 



VII 



Glossaries of ivords occurring in the charts a/tid sailing directions — Continued. 

TURKISH. 



Turkish. 


English. 


Turkish. 

1 


English. 


Agfa&or Ak& 

Buljit 


Master 

Cloud. 

A mountain. 

Black. 


1 

Kum Sand. 

Su Water. 


D4gh 


Taeh , A mountain. 


Kara. 


- " 1 






' 



BAgala, a native vessel of 100 to 400 tons in Persian Gulf. 

Bakiu^, a native vessel of 10 to 120 tons in Persian Gulf. 

BatU I 

Dangi >Native vessels on Makr&n coast. 

Machwal 



The words al, ar, as, ash, az, an, ad, at, which precede many names, are 
different sounds of tJie Arabic definite article. 

The letters g, j, and y, also g and If, are often permutable in the names used 
in this book» according to the dialect of the speaker; also the letters 1 and r, 
p and f, are used indifferently. 



-^ 



mrORMATION RELATING TO MVAGATIONAL AIDS 

AND GENERAL NAVAGATION. 



Publications.. — ^The principal publications of the United States 
Hydrographio OflSce for the use of navigators are: Charts, Sailing 
Directions, American Practical Navigator, Altitude and Azimuth 
Tables, International Code of Signals, Light List, Notices to Mari- 
ners, Pilot Charts, and Hydrographic Bulletins. Of these the 
Notices to Mariners and the Hydrographic Bulletins are free to 
mariners and others interested in shipping. The Pilot Charts are 
free to contributors of professional information, but are sold to the 
general public at 10 cents a copy; other publications of the office 
are sold imder the law at cost price, and can be purchased directly 
from the office or through its sales agencies, but are not sold by 
branch hydrographic offices. 

Charts when issued are corrected to date. 

The dates on which extensive corrections are made are noted on 
the chart on the right of the middle of the lower edge; those of the 
smaller corrections at the left lower corner. 

The edition and corresponding date of the chart will be found in 
the right lower corner outside the outer neat line. 

Planes of reference. — ^The plane of reference for soundings on 
Hydrographic Office charts made from United States Government 
surveys and on Coast and Geodetic Survey charts of the Atlantic 
coast of the United States is mean low water; on the Pacific coast 
of the United States as far as the^Strait of Juan de Fuca, it is the 
mean of the lower low waters ; and from Puget Sound to Alaska, the 
plane employed on Hydrographic Office charts is low water ordi- 
nary springs. 

On most of the British Admiralty charts the plane of reference is 
the low water of ordinary springs ; on French charts, the low water 
of equinoctial springs. 

In the case of many charts compiled from old or various sources 
the plane of reference may be in doubt. In such case, or whenever 
not stated on the chart, the assumption that the reference plane is 
low water ordinary springs gives a larger margin of safety than 
mean low water. 

Whichever plane of reference may be used for a chart it must be 
remembered that there are times when the tide falls below it. Low 

1 



2 ACCURACY OF CHART. 

water is lower than mean low water about half the time, and when 
a new or full moon occurs at perigee the low water is lower than the 
average low water of springs. At the equinoxes the spring range is 
also increased on the coasts of Europe, but in some other parts of 
the world, and especially in the Tropics, such periodic low tides may 
coincide more frequently with the solstices. 

Wind or a high barometer may at times cause the water to fall 
below even a very low plane of reference. 

On coasts where there is much diurnal inequality in the tides, the 
amount pf rise and fall can not be depended upon and additional 
caution is necessary. 

Mean sea level. — The important fact should be remembered that 
the depths at half tide are practically the same for all tides whether 
neaps or springs. Half tide therefore corresponds with mean sea 
level. This makes a very exact plane of reference, easily found, to 
which it would be well to refer all high and low waters. 

If called on to take special soundings for the chart at a place 
where there is no tidal bench mark, mean sea level should be found 
and the plane for reductions established at the proper distance below 
it, as ascertained by the Tide Tables, or by observations, or in some 
cases, if the time be shorty, by estimation, the data used being made 
a part of the record. 

Accuracy of chart. — The value of a chart must manifestly de- 
pend upon the character and accuracy of the survey on which it is 
based, and the larger the scale of the chart the more important do 
these become. 

To judge a survey, its source and date, which are generally given 
in the title, are good guides. Besides the changes that may have 
taken place since the date of the survey in waters where sand or 
mud prevails, the earlier surveys were mostly made under circum- 
stances that precluded great accuracy of detail ; until a chart founded 
on such a survey is tested it should be used with caution. It may, 
mdeed, be said that, except in well- frequented harbors and their 
approaches, no surveys yet made have been so thorough as to make 
it certain that all dangers have been found. The number of the 
soundings is another method of estimating the completeness of the 
survey, remembering, however, that the chart is not expected to show 
all soundings that were obtained. When the soundings are sparse 
or unevenly distributed it may be taken for granted that the survey 
was not in great detail. 

Large or irregular blank spaces among soundings mean that no 
soundings were obtained in these spots. When the surrounding 
soundings are deep it may fairly be assumed that in the blanks the 
water is also deep ; but when they are shallow, or it can be seen from 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. 8 

the rest of the chart that reefs or banks are present, such blanks 
should be regarded with suspicion. This is especially the case in 
coral regions and off rocky coasts, and it should be remembered that 
in waters wh^re rocks abound it is always possible that a survey, 
however complete and detailed, may have failed to find every small 
patch or pinnacle rock. 

Fathozd curves a caution. — Except in charts of harbors that 
have been surveyed in detail, the 5-f athom curve on most charts may 
be considered as a danger line, or caution against unnecessarily 
approaching the shore or bank within that curve on account of the 
possible existence of undiscovered inequalities of the bottom, which 
only an elaborate detailed survey could reveal. In general surveys 
of coasts, or of little frequented anchorages, the necessities of navi- 
gation do not demand the great expenditure of time required for so 
detailed a survey. It is not contemplated that ships will approach 
the shores in such localties without taking special precautions. 

The 10- fathom curves on rocky shores is another warning, espe- 
cially for ships of heavy draft, 

A useful danger curve will be obtained by tracing out with a col- 
ored pencil, or ink, the line of depth next greater than the draft of 
the ship using the chart. For vessels drawing less than 18 feet the 
edge of the sanding serves as a well marked danger line. 

Charts on which no fathom curves are marked must especially be 
regarded with caution, as indicating that soundings were t6o scanty 
and the bottom too uneven to enable the curves to be drawn with 
accuracy. 

Isolated soundings, shoaler than surrounding depths, should al- 
ways be avoided, especially if ringed around, as it is doubtful how 
closely the spot may have been examined and whether the least depth 
has been found. 

The chart on largest scale should ayways be used on account 
of its greater detail and the greater accuracy with which positions 
may be plotted on it. 

Caution in using small-scale charts. — In approaching the land 
or dangerous banks, regard must always be had to the scale of the 
chart used. A small error in plotting a position means only yards on 
a large scale chart, whereas on one of small scale the same amount 
of displacement means a large fraction of a mile. 

Mercator chart. — Observed bearings are not identical with those 
measured on the Mercator chart (excepting only the bearings north 
and south, and east and west on the equator) because the line of sight, 
except as affected by refraction, is a straight line and lies in the 
plane of the great circle, while the straight line on the chart (except 
the meridian line) represents, not the arc of a great circle, but the 



4 0HABT8. 

loxodromic curve, or rhumb line, which on the globe is a spiral ap- 
proaching but never in theory reaching the pole, or, if the direction 
be east and west, a circle of latitude. 

The diflference is not appreciable with near objects, a(^d in ordinary 
navigation may be neglected. But in high latitudes, when the ob- 
jects are very distant and especially when lying near east or west, the 
bearings must be corrected for the convergence of the meridians in 
order to be accurately placed on the Mercator chart, which represents 
the meridians as parraUel. 

Folyconic chart. — On the polyconic chart, since a straight line 
represents (within the limits of 15 or 20 degrees of longitude) the 
arc of a great circle or the shortest distance between two points, bear- 
ings of the chart are identical with observed bearings. 

The Mercator projection is unsuited to surveying, for which pur- 
pose the polyconic projection is used by the Hyrographic Office 
and the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Notes on charts should always be read with care, as they may 
give important information that can not be graphically represented. 

Current arrows on charts show only the most usual or the mean 
direction of a current ; it must not be assumed that the direction of a 
current will not vary from that indicated by the arrow. The veloci- 
ties, also, of currents vary with circumstances, and those given oiQ the 
charts are merely the mean of those determined, possibly from very 
few observations. 

Compass roses on charts. — ^The gradual change in the variation 
must not be forgotten in laying down on the chart courses and bear- 
ings from the magnetic compass roses, which become in time slightly 
in error, and in some cases, such as with small scales or when the lines 
are long, the displacement of position from neglect of this change 
may be of importance. The date of the variation and the annual 
change, as given on the compass rose, facilitate corrections when the 
change has been considerable. It is better to reduce all magnetic 
bearings and courses to true and then use the true compass rose. 

The change in the variation for a change of position, is in some 
parts of the world so rapid as to need careful consideration, requir- 
ing a frequent change of the course. For instance, in approaching 
Halifax from Newfoundland the variation changes 10° in less than 
500 miles. 

Local magnetic disturbance of the compass on board ship. — 
The term "local magnetic disturbance" has reference only to the 
effects on the compass of natural magnetic masses external to the 
ship. Observation shows that such disturbance of the compass in 
a ship afloat is experienced in many places on the globe. 

Magnetic laws do not permit of the supposition that the visible 
land causes such disturbance, because the effect of a magnetic force 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. 

diininishes so rapidly with distance that it would require a local 
center of magnetic force of an amount absolutely unknown to affect 
a compass ^ mile distant. 

Such deflections of the compass are due to magnetic minerals in 
the bed of the sea under the ship, and when the water is shallow 
and the force strong the compass may be temporarily deflected when 
passing over such a spot; but the area of disturbance will be small 
unless there are many centers near together. 

Aids — Buoys. — ^Too much reliance should not be placed on buoys 
always maintaining their exact positions. They should therefore be 
regarded as wai'nings and not as infallible navigational marks, 
especially when in exposed places and in the wintertime ; and a ship's 
position should always, when possible, be checked by bearings or 
angles of fixed objects on shore. 

The light shown by a light buoy can not be implicitly relied on; 
it may be altogether extinguished or, if periodic, the appo^ratus may 
get out of order. 

Whistle and bell buoys are sounded only by the action of the sea ; 
therefore in calm weather they are less effective or may not sound. 

Liglj^ts.— All the distances given in the Light Lists and on the 
charts for the visibility of lights are calculated for a height of 15 
feet for the observer's eye. The effect of a greater or less height of 
eye can be ascertained by means of the table of distances of possible 
visibility due to height, published in the Light Lists. 

The loom of a powerful light is often seen far beyond the limit 
of visibility of the actual rays of the light, and this must not be 
confounded with the true range. Refraction, too, may often cause 
a light to be seen farther than under ordinary circumstances. 

When looking out for a light the fact may be forgotten that aloft 
the range of vision is much increased. By noting a star immediately 
over the light a very correct bearing may be obtained from the 
standard compass when you lay down from aloft. 

On first making a light from the bridge by at once lowering the 
eye several feet and noting whether the light is made to dip it may 
be determined whether the ship is on the circle of visibility corre- 
sponding with the usual height of the eye or unexpectedly nearer 
the light. 

When a light is sighted it should be identified at once by qhecking 
its ^characteristics. This is particularly necessary when approaching 
well-lighted coasts, where lights with similar characteristics are 
often found close together. 

The intrinsic power of a light should always be considered when 
expecting to make it in thick weather. A weak light is easily ob- 
scured by haze, and no dependence can be placed on its being seen. 



6 PILOT CHARTS. 

The power of a light can be estimated by its candlepower or order, 
as given in the Light Lists, and in some cases by noting how much 
its visibility in clear weather falls short of the range corresponding 
to its height. Thus a light standing 200 feet above the sea and 
recorded as visible only 10 miles in clear weather is manifestly of 
little brilliancy, as its height would permit it to be seen over 20 
miles if of sufficient power. 

Sailing Directions or Pilots are books treating of certain sec- 
tions or divisions of the navigable waters of the globe. They con- 
tain descriptions of coast lines, dangers and harbors, information of 
winds, currents, and tides, and directions for approaching and enter- 
ing habors, and much other general information of interest to 
mariners. 

The Sailing Directions are corrected, as far as practicable, to the 
(late of issue from the office ; they can not, from their nature and the 
infrequency of their revision, be so fully corrected as charts and 
Light Lists, and for that reason, when they differ the one of the most 
recent issue should be accepted as correct. 

Light Lists, published about once a year, are corrected before 
issue, and changes affecting them are published in the weekly Notices 
to Mariners. 

The navigator should make notations of corrections in the tal>ular 
form in the Light Lists and paste in at the appropriate places the 
slips from the Notices to Mariners. 

Notices to Mariners, containing newly acquired information 
pertaining to various parts of the world, are published weekly and 
mailed to all United States ships in commission, Branch Hydro- 
graphic offices and agencies, and United States consulates. Copies 
are furnished free by the main office or by any of the branch offices on 
application. 

With each Notice to naval vessels is sent also a separate sheet, 
giving the items relative to lights contained in the latest Notice, 
intended especially for use in correcting the Light Lists. 

Pilot Charts of the North Atlantic, Central American Waters, 
and North Pacific and Indian Oceans are published each month, and 
of the South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans each quarter. These 
charts give the average conditions of wind and weather, barometer, 
percentage of fog and gales, routes for steam and sailing vessels, ice, 
derelicts, ocean currents, storm tracks, and other useful information. 
They are furnished free only in exchange for marine data or observa- 
tions. 

Hydrograpliic Bulletins, published weekly, are supplemental to 
the Pilot Charts, and contain the latest reports of obstructions and 
dangers along the coast and principal ocean routes and other infor- 
mation for mariners. They are to be had free upon application. 



GENERAL NAVIGATIOIT. 7 

The bulletins are supplemented by the Daily Memorandum pub- 
lished daily, Sundays and holidays excepted, in order that the infor- 
mation relating to dangers and aids to navigation received may be 
disseminated as quicldy as possible. 

Tides. — Aknowledge of the times of high and low water and of 
the amount of vertical rise and fall of the tide is of great importance 
in the case of vessels entering or leaving port, especially when the 
low water is less than or near their draft. Such knowledge is also 
useful at times to vessels running close along a coast, in enabling 
them to anticipate the effect of the tidal currents in setting them on 
or offshore. This is especially important in fog or thick weather. 

Tidal currents. — ^In navigating along coasts where the tidal 
range is considerable, special caution is necessary. It should be re- 
membered that there are generally indrafts and corresponding out- 
drafts abreast of all large bays and bights, although the general run 
of the current may be nearly parallel with the shore outside the en- 
trances. 

The turn of the tidal current offshore is seldom coincident with 
the times of high and low water along the shore. In some channels 
the tidal current may overrun the turn of the vertical movement of 
the tide by three hours, the effect of which is that at high and low 
water by the shoi'e the current is running at its greatest velocity. 

The effect of the tidal wave in causing currents may be illustrated 
by two simple cases: 

(1) Where there is a small tidal basin connected with the sea by 
a large opening, 

(2) Where there is a large tidal basin connected with the sea. by 
a small opening. 

In the first case the velocity of the current in the opening will 
have its maximum value when the height of the tide within is chang- 
ing most rapidly, i. e., at a time about midway between high and low 
water. The water in the basin keeps at approximately the same level 
as the water outside. The flood current corresponds with the rising 
and the ebb with the falling of the tide. 

In the second case the velocity of the current in the opening will 
have its maximum value when it is high water or low water without, 
for then there is the greatest head of water for producing motion. 
The flood current begins about three hours after low water, and the 
ebb current about three hours after high water, slack water thus 
occurring about midway between the tides. 

Along most shores not much affected by bays, tidal rivers, etc., the 
current usually turns soon after high water and low water. 

The swiftest current in straight portions of tidal rivers is usually 
in the middle of the current, but in curved portions the most rapid 



i 



8 TIDE TABLES. 

cnrrent is toward the outer edge of the curve, and here the deepest 
water will generally' be found. The pilot rule for best water is to 
follow the ebb tide reaches. 

Countercurrents and eddies may occur near the shores of straits, 
especially in bights and near points. A knowledge of them is use- 
ful in order that they may be taken advantage of or avoided. 

A swift current often occurs in a narrow passage connecting two 
large bodies of water, owing to their considerable difference of level 
at the same instant. The several passages between Vineyard Sound 
and Buzzards Bay are cases in point. 

Tide rips are made by a rapid current setting over an irregular 
bottom, as at the edges of banks where the change of depth is con- 
siderable. 

The Tide Tables, which are published annually by the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey, give the predicted times and 
heights of the high and the low waters for every day in the year 
at 81 of the principal ports of the world, and, through the medium 
of these by means of tidal differences and ratios, at a very large 
number of subordinate ports. The tables for the Atlantic and the 
Pacific coast ports of the United States are also published separately. 

It should be remembered that these tables aim to give the times 
of high and low water, and not the times of turning of the current 
or of slack water, which may be quite different. 

The distinction between " rise " and " range " of the tide should 
be understood. The former expression refers to the height attained 
above the datum plant for soundings, differing with the different 
planes of reference; the latter, to the difference of level between 
successive high and low waters. 

Full explanations and directions for their use are given in the 
Tide Tables. 

Fogsignals. — Sound is conveyed in a very capricious way through 
the atmosphere. Apart from the influence of the wind large areas 
of silence have been found in different directions and at different 
distances from the origin of sound, even in clear weather; therefore, 
too much confidence should not be felt as to hearing a fog signal. 
The apparatus, moreover, for sounding the signal often requires 
some time before it is in readiness to act. A fog often creeps imper- 
ceptibly toward the land, and may not be observed by the lighthouse 
keepers until upon them ; a ship may have been for many hours in 
it, and approaching the land in confidence, depending on the signal, 
which is not sounded. When sound travels against the wind, it may 
be thrown upward; a man aloft might hear it though inaudible on 
deck. 

The submarine bell system of fog signals, is much more reliable 
than systems transmitting sound through the air, as sound travel- 



GENERAL KAVIGATIOIT. 9 

iiig in water is not subject to the same disturbing influences; the 
fallibility of the lighthouse keeper is, however, about the same in 
all systems, so that caution should be observed even by vessels 
equipped with submarine bell receiving apparatus. 

Submarine bells have an effective range of audibility greater 
than signals sounded in air, and a vessel equipped with receivinj^ 
apparatus may determine the approximate bearing of the signal. 

These signals may be heard also on vessels not equipped with re- 
ceiving apparatus by observers below the water line, but the bearing 
of the signal can not theft be readily determined. 

Vessels equipped with radio apparatus and submarine bell re- 
ceivers may fix their distance from a light vessel having radio and 
submarine bell, utilizing the difference in velocity of sound waves of 
the radio and the bell. Sound travels 4.794 feet per second at 66° F. 
in water, and the travel of radio sound waves for practicable dis- 
tances may be taken as instantaneous. 

All vessels should observe the utmost caution in closing the land 
in fogs. The lead is very often the safest guide and should be 
faithfully used. 

Radio compass stations. — Most valuable aids to navigation in 
a fog are the radio compass stations, which will fix a ship's position 
by two or more bearings from a single radio station, or by simul- 
taneous bearings from two or more stations. 

In localities where only one radio station is available mariners 
may use the single bearing like a Sumner's line of position, or a single 
bearing of any object whose position is known. 

All reports from mariners indicate great accuracy in the bearings 

given by the radio station, and they should be used whenever 

available. 

PILOTING— FIXING POSITION. 

Piloting^ in the sense given the word by modern and popular 
usage, is the art of conducting a vessel in channels and harbors and 
along coasts, where landmarks and aids to navigation are available 
for fixing the position, and where the depth of water and dangers to 
navigation are such as to require a constant watch to be kept upon 
the vessel's course and frequent changes to be made therein. 

Piloting is the most important part of navigation and the part 
requiring the most experience and nicest judgment. An error in 
position on the high seas may be rectified by later observations, but 
an error in position while piloting often results in disaster. There- 
fore the navigator should make every effort to be proficient in this 
important branch, bearing in mind that a modern vessel is usually 
safe on the high seas and in danger when approaching the land and 
making the harbor. 

173608*'—20 2 



10 PILOTING. 

The navigator, in making his plan for entering a strange port, 
should give very careful previous study to the chart and sailing di- 
rections, and should select what appear to be the most suitable marks 
for use, also providing himself with substitutes to use in case those 
selected as most suitable should prove unreliable in not being recog- 
nized with absolute certainty. Channel buoys seen from a distance 
are difficult to identify, because their color is sometimes not easily 
distinguished and they may appear equally distant from the observer 
even though they be at widely varying distances. Banges should be 
noted, if possible, and the lines drawn, both for leading through the 
best water in channels, and also for guarding against particular dan- 
gers; for the latter purpose safety bearings should in all cases be laid 
down where no suitable ranges appear to offer. The courses to be 
steered in entering should also be laid down and distances marked 
thereon. If intending to use the sextant and danger angle in passing 
dangers, and especially in passing between dangers, the danger circles 
should be plotted and regular courses planned rather than to run 
haphazard by the indications of the angle alone, with the possible 
trouble from bad steering at critical points. 

The ship's position should not be allowed to be in doubt at any 
time, even in entering ports considered safe and easy of access, 
and should be constantly checked, continuing to use for this purpose 
those marks concerning which there can be no doubt until others 
are unmistakably identified. 

1 he ship should ordinarily steer exact courses and follow an exact 
line, as planned from the chart, changing course at precise points, 
and, where the distances are considerable, her position on the line 
should be checked at frequent intervals. This is desirable even 
where it may seem unnecessary for safety, because if running by the 
eye alone and the ship's exact position be immediately required, as 
in a sudden fog or squall, fixing at that particular moment may be 
attended with difficulty. 

The habit of running exact courses with precise changes of course 
will be found most useful when it is desired to enter port or pass 
through inclosed waters during fog by means of the buoys; here 
safety demands that the buoys be made successively, to do which 
requires, if the fog be dense, very accurate courses and careful atten- 
tion to the times, the speed of the ship, and the set of the current ; 
failure to make a buoy as expected leaves, as a rule, no safe alterna- 
tive but to anchor at once, with perhaps a consequent serious loss of 
time. 

In passing between dangers where there are no suitable leading 
marks, as for instance, between two islands or an island and the 
main shore when the conformations of the shore line are very simi- 
lar, with dangers extending from both, a mid-channel course may be 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. . 11 

steered by the eye alone with great accuracy, as the eye is able to 
estimate very closely the direction midway between. 

In piloting among coral reefs or banks, a time should be chosen 
when the sun will be astern, conning the vessel from aloft or from 
an elevated position forward. The line of demarcation between 
the deep water and the edges of the shoals is indicated with surpris- 
ing clearness. This method is of frequent application in the numer- 
ous passages of the Florida Keys. 

Changes of course should in general be made by exact amounts, 
naming the new course or the amount of the change desired, rather 
than by ordering the rudder to be put over and then steadying when 
on the desired heading, with the possibility of the attention being 
diverted and so of forgetting in the meantime, as may happen, that 
the ship is still swinging. The steersman, knowing just what is 
desired and the amount of the change to be made, is thus enabled to 
act more intelligently and to avoid bad steering, which in narrow 
channels is a very positive source of danger. 

Coast piloting involves the same principles and requires that 
the ship's position be continuously determined or checked as the 
landmarks are passed. On well-surveyed coasts there is a great 
advantage in keeping near the land, thus holding on to the marks 
and the soundings, and thereby knowing at all times the position 
rather than keeping offshore and losing the marks, with the neces- 
sity of again making the land from a vague position, and perhaps 
the added inconvenience of fog or bad weather, involving a serious 
loss of time and fuel. 

The route should be planned for normal conditions of weather, 
with suitable variations where necessary in case of fog or bad 
weather or making points at night, the courses and distances, in 
case of regular runs over the same route, being entered in a note- 
book for ready reference, as well as laid down on the chart. The 
danger circlete for either the horizontal or the vertical danger angles 
should be plotted, wherever the method can te usefully employed, 
and the angles marked thereon; many a mile may thus be saved in 
rounding dangerous points with no sacrifice in safety. Ranfges 
should also be marked in. where useful for position or for safety, and 
also to use in checking the deviation of the compass by comparing 
in crossing the compass bearing of the range with its magnetic 
bearing, as given by the chart. 

A continuous record of the progress of the ship should be kept 
by the officer of the watch, the time and patent log reading of all 
changes of course and of all bearings, especially the two and four 
point bearings, with distance of object when abeam, being noted in 
a book kept in the pilot house for this special purpose. The ship's 
reckoning is thus continuously cared for as a matter of routine and 



12 SOUNDINGS. 

without the presence or particular order of the captain or navigating 
oflScer. The value of thus keeping the reckoning always fresh and 
exact will be especially appreciated in cases of sudden fog or when 
making points at night. 

Where the coastwise trip must be made against a strong oflfshore 
or head wind, it may be desirable, with trustworthy charts, to skirt 
the shore as closely as possible in order to avoid the heavier seas and 
adverse current that prevail farther out. In some cases, with small 
ships, a passage can be made dhly in this way. The important sav- 
ing of coal and of time, which is even more precious, thus effected 
by skillful coast piloting makes this subject one of prime importance 
to the navigator. However, many vessels have gotten into serious 
trouble by attempting to save time and cut down distances by round- 
ing too closely dangers and aids, and navigators should always bear 
in mind that the safety of the vessels is the first consideration. 

Fixing position. — A navigator in sight of objects whose positions 
are shown on the chart and which he can recognize may locate his 
vessel by any one of the following methods: 

1. Sextant angles between three known objects. 

2. The bearing of a known object and angle between two known 
object^ 

3. Cross bearings of two known objects. 

4. Two bearings, of a known object, separated by an interval of 
time, with the run during that interval. 

5. The bearing and distance of a known object. 

Besides the foregoing there are two methods by which, without 
obtaining the precise position, the navigator may assure himself that 
he is clear of any particular: danger. 

1. The danger angle. 

2. The danger bearing. 

These various methods are fully explained in most textbooks on 
navigation and in Bowditch's American Practical Navigator, a copy 
of which should be in the navigator's outfit. 

The first method of fixing the position, by the " three-point prob- 
lem," is the most accurate of all methods, but requires expertness in 
the use of the sextant and protractor. However, the choice of the 
method should be governed by circumstances, depending upon which 
is best adapted to prevailing conditions. 

Soundings are of very great advantage when approaching land 
or shoal banks in determining the position, and the convenience in 
the use of modern sounding machines renders any neglect to take 
soundings inexcusable. 

Soundings taken at random are of little value in fixing or check- 
ing position and may at times be misleading. In thick weather, 
when near or closing the land, soundings should be taken continu- 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. 13 

onsly and at regular intervals, and, with the character of the bottom, 
systematically recorded. By laying the soundings on tracing paper, 
according to the scale of the chart, along a line representing the 
track of the ship, and then moving the paper over the chart, keeping 
the line representing the track parallel with the course until the 
observed soundings agree with those of the chart, the ship's position 
will in general be quite well determined. 

At sea the only methods of determining the position of the vessel 
are by " dead reckoning " and by observations of heavenly bodies, 
though observations may be made use of by various methods. (See 
American Practical Navigator and textbooks on navigation.) 

The one which should be best understood and put to the most 
constant use is that employing position or summer lijies. These 
lines give the most comprehensive information to the navigator with 
the least expenditure of labor and time. The knowledge gained is 
that the vessel must be somewhere on the line, provided the data 
used is accurate and the chronometer correct. As the information 
«^iven by one line of position is not sufficient to determine the definite 
location of the vessel, it is necessary to cross this line by another 
similarly obtained, and the vessel being somewhere on both must 
be at their intersection. However, a single line, at times, will 
furnish the mariner with invaluable information; for instance, if 
it is directed toward the coast' it marks the bearing of a definite 
point on the shore, or if parallel to the coast it clearly indicates 
the distance off, and so will often be found useful as a course. A 
sounding taken at the same time with the observation will in certain 
conditions prove of great value in giving an approximate position 
on the line. 

The easiest and quickest way to establish a line of position is by 
employing the method of Marcq St. Hilaire, as modified by the use 
of tables of altitude. 

A very accurate position can be obtained by observing two or 
more stars at morning or evening twilight, at which time the horizon 
is well defined. The position lines thus obtained will, if the bearings 
of the stars differ three points or more, give an excellent result. 
A star or planet at twilight and the sun afterwards or before may be 
combined; also two observations of the sun with sufficient interval 
to admit of a considerable change of bearing; in these cases one 
of the lines must be moved for the run of the ship. 

Use of oil for modifying the effect of breaking waves. — 
Many experiences of late years have shown that the utility of oil 
for this purpose is undoubted, and the application simple. 

The following may serve for the guidance ,of seamen, whose 
attention is called to the fact that 'a very small quantity of oil, 
skillfully applied, may prevent much damage both to ships espe- 



14 USE OF OIL. 

» 

cially of the smaller classes, and to boats by modifying the action 
of breaking seas. 

The principal facts as to the use of oil are as follows : 

1. On free waves, i. e., waves in deep water, the effect is greatest. 

2. In a surf, or waves breaking on a bar, where a mass of liquid is 
in actual motioB in shallow water, the effect of the oil is uncertain, 
as nothing can prevent the larger waves from breaking under such 
circumstances ; but even here it is of some service. 

3. The heaviest and thickest oils are most effectual. Befined 
kerosene is of little use ; crude petroleum is serviceable when no other 
oil is obtainable, or it may be mixed with other oils ; all animal and 
vegetable oils, such as waste oil from the engines, have great effect. 

4. In cold water, the oil, being thickened by the low temperature 
and not being able to spread freely, will have its effect much reduced. 
A rapid spreading oil should be used. 

5. A small quantity of oil suflSces, if applied in such a manner as 
to spread to windward. 

6. It is useful in a ship or boat either when running, or lying-to, 
or in wearing. 

7. When lowering and hoisting boats in a heavy sea the use of oil 
has been found greatly to facilitate the operation. 

8. For a ship at sea the best method of application appears to be 
to hang over the side, in such a manner as to be in the water, small 
canvas bags, capable of holding from 1 to 2 gallons of oil, the bags 
being pricked with a sail needle to permit leakage. The waste pipes 
forward are also very useful for this purpose. 

9. Crossing a bar with a flood current, to pour oil overboard and 
allow it to float in ahead of the boat, which would follow with a 
bag towing astern, would appear to be the best plan. 

On a bar, with the ebb current running, it would seem to be useless 
to try oil for the purpose of entering. 

10. For boarding a wreck, it is recommended to pour oil over- 
board to windward of her before going alongside, bearing in mind 
that her natural tendency is always to forge ahead. If she is 
aground the effect of oil will depend upon attending circumstances. 

11. For a boat riding in bad weather to a sea anchor, it is recom- 
mended to fasten the bag to an endless line rove through a block on 
the sea anchor, by which means the oil can be diffused well ahead of 
the boat, and the bag readily hauled on board for^ refilling, if 
necessary. 



Chapter I. 

GENERAL REMARKS— SOUNDINGS— WINDS— CLIMATE- 
TEMPERATURE— RAINFALL— FOG— BAROMETER- 
CURRENTS— TIDES— TIDAL CURRENTS— PILOTS— COM- 
MUNICATIONS— PASSAGES. 

Physical geography — Persian Gulf. — The Persian Gulf lies 
between the parallels of 24° and 30° north latitude and the merid- 
ians 48° and 57° east longitude. From the coast of Oman the gulf 
extends northwestward about 460 miles to the entrance to the Shatt 
al Arab, and it has an average width of about 120 miles, though its 
entrance, between Eas Musandam and the coast to the eastward, is 
only 29 miles wide. 

The Persian coast, or the northeastern shore of the gulf, is moun- 
tainous, with deep water generally close-to. The Arabian coast, or 
the southeastern and southwestern shores, with the exception of the 
northwestern side of the Oman Peninsula, is exceedingly low, and 
reefs and shoals extend from 30 to 50 miles off it in places for nearly 
its whole length. Vessels, therefore, navigating up and down the 
gulf always keep toward the Persian coast. 

The northern end of the Persian Gulf is probably silting up grad- 
ually, owing to the great amount of alluvium it receives from the 
large rivers debouching there. The water of the upper part of the 
gulf is much Salter than that of the ocean. 

The southwestern arid southeastern shores of the gulf, from the 
Shatt al Arab to the Euus al Jebel, are mostly a desert of white 
sand, with extensive tracts quite uninhabited. Near the villages, or 
where there are any people, there are generally more or less exten- 
sive date groves. 

Navigation on the southwestern shore, between the Shatt al Arab 
and Oman, is seldom attempted at night; vessels should anchor at 
dusk, if possible. 

The head of the gulf is low alluvial land. 

The northeastern shore of the gulf, from the delta of the Shatt al 
Arab and other rivers to Eas al Kuh. presents a series of rugged and 
precipitous mountain ranges, generally running nearly parallel to 
the shore. 

The mountain ranges increase in height as they recede inland, and, 
being visible from great distances, are good marks. Wide valleys 
separate the mountains, and there are belts of lowland of varying 

15 



16 TOWNS — ^POPULATION. 

width between them and the sea, which are called by the Persians the 
Garmsir, or winter pastures, and, being at the southern foot of the 
mountains, and watered by no river, are very hot in summer. 

There are numerous islands of various sizes in the Persian Gulf; 
the two largest are Kishm, 60 miles long and 19 miles broad, just 
within the entrance, and Bahrein, off the southeastern shore, 27 miles 
long and 10 miles broad, while some are mere sand islets. Many are, 
at l^ast partly, of volcanic origin. There are anchorages at most of 
the islands, sheltered from some directions, but in winter, as the wind 
may then suddenly shift to the opposite quarter, a sailing vessel 
should anchor in a position from which she could move at the first 
sign of a change. 

Ports. — The sea-boyne trade of Persia passes chiefly through the 
ports of Bandar Abbas, Abu Shahr (Bushire), Basra, and Mu- 
hammera (via Bagdad). There is also considerable trade at 
Bahrein, Kuweit, Basidu, and Linga. 

Towns. — The small towns on the shores of the Persian Gulf are 
all very similar ; a square fort of rough stones with loop-holed towers 
at the angles, or several detached round towers ; the Shaikh's house, 
and perhaps one or two others, of stone, the remainder of mats made 
of date-leaf stalks; a date grove in the immediate vicinity, and a 
detached tower or two near the wells, are the invariable components. 
They are generally situated near a small creek or backwater, where 
there is a smooth place for hauling up the boats. The large towns 
are sometimes walled around and have a larger proportion of stone 
buildings, but there are no pretensions to architecture and seldom 
more than two stories to the houses. 

The guns mounted in Arab fortifications are, almost without excep- 
tion, old and useless. 

The mariner may find that towns and villages herein mentioned 
have disappeared and others not mentioned have sprung up. . New 
places frequently originate through the secession of families who, 
being dissatisfied with the chief of their own tribe, emigrate and 
build a town of their own. Many islands and also villages, which 
were abandoned when piracy flourished, are being gradually re- 
occupied. 

The water reservoirs are often prominent in the towns, or in their 
vicinity, on the Persian coast; they are either oblong and arched 
over, or circular and covered with domes^ being white, they are 
often conspicuous from seaward, especially those with domes. 

Population. — The population of the Arabian coast is exclusively 
Arab ; in the towns they can be trusted, but it is not safe to land un- 
armed on the mainland, on account of the Bedawin, who may be 
occasionally met, and who, for the sake of plunder, attack even their 
own countrymen of the towns. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 17 

Estimates of the population are untrustworthy and difScult to 
make ; people on the Arabian coast are said to number 200,000, about 
one-third of whom are engaged in the pearl fishery during its season, 
and quite half the population is directly or indirectly supported. by 
that industry. The natives always reckon population by the men 
only, and give vague guesses when inquiries are made. The numbers 
given herein for the villages and smaller towns are mostly calcu- 
lated on the basis of the number of houses- in a place, or of the boats 
belonging to it, or from information given by the more intelligent 
men. ^ 

Supplies. — ^The people are generally very poor, and can offer but 
few supplies. Throughout the Persian Gulf, except at its head, 
there are no streams of any importance, and the fresh water is gen^ 
erally rain collected in wells or reservoirs ; it is usually both scare and 
bad, but is best in quantity and quality after the winter rains ; a ves- 
sel must take it off in her own boats. Wood is scarce. 

Health. — In the cold season, fevers are most prevalent; the so- 
called gulf fever of the remittent type is very dangerous, and con- 
valescence can only be obtained by leaving the gulf. Yellow fever 
is unknown. 

Cholera, plague, and smallpox are frequent; a small encampment 
a short distance from an Arabian town is often a kind of lazaretto 
for smallpox, and should be avoided by parties landing. Ophthalmia 
is common among the natives. 

The hot season does not seem to be absolutely unhealthy ; seamen 
suffer from aggravated prickly heat, boils, etc., but if they are kept 
out of the sun and ventilation is attended to there will probably be 
but little serious sickness. As little work should be done aloft by 
day as possible; awnings must be spread, and the men should sleep 
on deck, where the dew does not appear to have an injurious effect. 
Absolute necessity alone can justify the exposure of the men to the 
sun, and white hats should be insisted on. 

Trade. — In norpial times the principal trade of Persia was an 
inland trade on i^orthern and northwestern boundaries and was 
chiefly in the hands of Russian merchants. Russia had 55.7 per cent 
and the British Empire 27.85 per cent of the total trade, Turkey, 
France, and Italy being next in order, and the trade of other nations 
inconsiderable. The British portion of the trade was mainly with 
British India and via the three ports of Abu Shahr, Linga, and 
Bandar Abbas. 

The principal articles of export via the Persian Gulf and through 
the places just mentioned are pearls, wool, cotton, carpets, hides, 
dried fruits, including dates, almonds, gum, wheat, tobacco, rose- 



18 PBODUCTS — ^PEARL FISHERY. 

water, horses, etc. The imports are mainly cotton and woolen goods, 
arms, metal articles, tea, sugar, kerosene, coffee, indigo, etc. 

The direct trade between England and Basra is carried on by Eng- 
lish firms at Bagdad via the Suez canal, the lines of steamers touch- 
ing at Aden, Maskat, and Abu Shahr en route. 

Steam vessels conduct most of the traffic between the principal 
ports of the gulf and have almost monopolized the trade from them 
to India. Local traffic is carried on by native craft. 

Products. — The great heat of summer is very favorable to the 
growth of dates, which fruit forms the staple food of the Arabians. 
Those grown near the Shatt al Arab, said to be the finest in the 
world, are sent to all parts of Asia ; also to Europe and to America ; 
quantities are also exported from the Batina coast. 

Corn and a few asses are exported to Mauritius from Maskat ; also 
salt and salt fish. Shark fins, etc., are sent to India for the China 
market. Salt and a little sulphur are also exported. 

Pearl fishery. — Pearls are the most important export of the 
Persian Gulf, and the fishery gives employment to the greater part of 
the maritime population. In 1905 about 3,411 boats, with crews num- 
bering in all 64,390 men, were engaged in this fishery ; of this number 
no less than 2,395 boats, with crews amounting to 47,635, were under 
British flag, the other half under Turkish jurisdiction. The boats 
vary in size from 10 to 50 tons, and their crews from 8 to 30 men. 

The chief pearl market for the northern half of the gulf is at AI 
Menama, at the northern end of Bahrein island; and for the southern 
part at Dibai, on the Oman coast. Nearly all the pearls pass through 
the hands of wealthy Arabian merchants residing at Linga and Kais 
on the Persian, and at Bahrein, Abu Thabi, and Sharja on the Ara- 
bian side, by whom they are exported in the first instance to Bombay, 
where they are sorted and classified by the dealers for the markets 
of the world. 

There are three seasons for the fishery, the first, known as the 
Ghaus-al-Kabir, lasts 130 days, from about the second week of May 
to the third week of September, during which time it is pursued with 
the greatest assiduity. During September, when the date harvest 
also occurs, the towns and villages are nearly deserted. The second 
season is the ''Radda," which begins a few days after the Ghaus- 
al-Kabir. The third is the cold weather season, conducted by wading 
in the shallows along the coast at low water; the pearls thus obtained 
are generally small, discolored, and of comparatively little value. 

The pearl banks appear from time immemorial to have been open 
without distinction to the Arabians of the entire littoral, and it 
would be futile here to attempt to specify any definite tribal limits, 
but the external boundaries are well known, and all intrusion is 
resented. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 19 

Nearly all the towns on the Arabian side, and many on the Persian,- 
send boats to the fishery. 

The fishery is pursued on any banks where the bottom is hard and 
level without rugged rocks ; the average depth is 8 fathoms and the 
extreme depth about ,14 fathoms. The general Arabian name for such 
a bank is " heir." Of these banks, the names and positions of no less 
than 184 are known between Dibai and Bas Tanura, or between the 
parallels 24° 10' and 27° north latitude, and the meridians 50° and 
55° east longitude, whilst there are also 217 banks known to the fisher- 
men, and 24 different descriptions of pearls. The longest time a diver 
can remain under water does not exceed one minute and a half, and 
but few exceed one minute. 

In the cold season, a few large boats leave Bahrein and the ports 
of Oman to fish for pearls at Sokotra, and also on the northeast 
coast of Africa, returning in time for the fishing season in the gulf. 
A large trade has sprung up in mother of pearl, the oyster shells, 
formerly considered valueless, being now exported, chiefly to Europe. 

Gulf of Oman. — ^The Gulf of Oman, situated between Oman and 
Persian Makran, is the approach to the Persian Gulf. It is about 
180 miles wide at its entrance between Eas al Hadd and Has Fasta, 
the western point of Gwatar Bay, and it extends about 275 miles 
northwestward to Musandam Island. It is generally clear of out-, 
lying shoals and has deep water near its shores, which, on both sides, 
are backed hy high mountains. 

There are a few small islands off the Arabian coast near Maskat, 
and about 30 miles northwestward of it. 

Oman ('Oman) is a Muhammadan State comprising the country 
on the southwestern side' of the Gulf of Oman, from Ras al Hadd 
up to the entrance to the Persian Gulf. It is under the Sultan of 
Maskat, but the extent of his dominions is practically limited by the 
distance to which he can enforce his authority, which is generally 
only near the coast. The interior of the country is arid, desert, and 
mountainous, but the Batina, a wide plain extending from the coast 
to the foot of the mountains for about 150 miles northwestward of 
Maskat, is fertile, and produces much fruit, grapes, limes, peaches, 
apples, etc.; there are also numerous date trees. The population is 
estimated at about 500,000, a considerable portion being nomadic, 
and the people are for the most part poor. Though mainly consist- 
ing of Arabs, there is a considerable admixture of foreigners, such 
as Banyans and Khojahs from India, Persians, East Africans, and 
Nubians, the people of mixed races being generally foimd in the 
larger towns. 

Maskat is the capital and principal port of Oman, being the only 
port of call for steamers, but it has no communication with the 
interior, from its being surrounded by high rocky hills, and Matra, 



20 L.AS BEILA AND MAKRAK. 

about 2 miles to the westward, supplies this want, and is the local 
center for the inland trade. 

Govemment. — The Government of Oman is absolute, and some- 
what primitive. There are no law courts in the European sense; 
cases are usually decided by the Sultan and his Walls in accordance 
with Muhammadan law or local custom. Commercial law does not 
exist, and claims against Arab subjects are difficult to settle. 

The Government has treaties with Great Britain, France, and the 
United States. 

The army, consisting of a small force of Arabs, Makranis. and 
Wahabis, armed with modem rifles, garrisons the Sultan's forts and 
possessions; the fortifications are in a dilapidated condition. The 
Sultan has one steamer. ^ 

The language of Oman is Arabic; many persons in Maskat and 
Matra speak Persian, Baluchi, and Hindustani. Business communi- 
cations can, however, be sent in English. 

Trade. — Dates (the staple food product) are the chief exports, 
and rice, wheat, coffee, cotton and silk goods, kerosene, twist and 
yam, are the chief imports. 

Las Bella and Makran. — Las Bella (Bela) (Bailah) is the 
southeastern, and Makran the southwestern, division of the native 
State of Kalat in Baluchistan. The seaboard of Las Bella extends 
from the Hab Biver, the boundary of British India, 4 miles north- 
eastward of Ras Muari, northward to Sonmiyani Harbor, and thence 
westward to Khur Kalmat in long. 64° 4' E. ; that of Makran con- 
tinues westward from Khur Kalmat to Gwatar Bay. Makran is 
generally known as Kech Makran, to distinguish it from Persian 
Makran, which lies between it and the entrance to the Persian Gulf. 

The Kalat State consists of a confederacy of tribal groups headed 
by the khan of Kalat ; the khan is assisted in the general adminis- 
tration of his State by a political adviser, lent by the British Govern- 
ment. Las Bella is under a chief known as the jam, and Makran is 
under the control of an officer known as the nazim. Gwadar Town 
and Port, with an area of about 307 square miles around, is held by 
the sultan of Maskat. 

The coast from Sonmiyani trends westward nearly 500 miles to 
Jashk. Owing to the small rainfall, the salt nature of the soil, and 
the physical conformation of the country, it is almost entirely desert, 
presenting a succession of arid clay plains impregnated with saline 
matter and intersected by water courses. From these plains rise 
precipitous table-hills, with fantastic peaks and pinnacles, varying 
m hei":ht from 2.050 feet at Bas Malan to hillocks of 20 or 30 feet. 

Farther inland other ranges of mountains of varying height ex-, 
tend parallel with the coast, and all appear to be without vegetation. 



GENERAL BEMABKS. 21 

The coast is barren and deeply indented with bays, but its most 
characteristic feature is the repeated occurrence of promontories and 
peninsulas of white clay cliffs capped with coarse limestone or shelly 
breccia, all approaching the table-topped form. The intermediate 
coast is low, sometimes with high white sand hills, or low sand hills 
with small bushes and tufts of grass; in many places the coast is a 
mere strip of very low sand, with extensive salt-water swamps be- 
hind. Owing to the excessive lowness of such parts of the coast, the 
distance from it is very liable to be dangerously overestimated. 

There is no vegetation except here and there a clump of date trees, 
in the vicinity of a village or settlement, around which there may be 
some small amount of cultivation. There are no perennial rivers in 
Makran, and, near the sea, the streams, which are frequently dry or 
nearly so except after rain, become salt-water creeks, only navigable 
by small boats. 

The onlv fresh water is rain collected in shallow wells or reservoirs. 
There are no regular harbors on the Makran coast, though there are 
many roadsteads or anchorages where shelter may be obtained from 

winds in some direction. 

Churna, Astola, and an islet in Gwatar Bay, are the only islands 
off the Makran coast ; they are very small, but are good marks. The 
coast is unusually clear of outlying shoals. 

The principal ports are Pasni and Gwadar. 

Population. — The population is everywhere sparse; Las Bt»ila 
contains about 56,000, and Makran was estimated to contain about 
78,000; in Las Bella are Jats, called Lasis, and in Makran many 
mixed races occur, varying both in physical and moral qualities. 
They are poor, simple, and primitive; hospitable to strangers, and 
faithful in the performance of duty. They can endure fatigue and 
privation, and are friendly with and accustomed to Europeans. The 
language is a dialect of Persian, and approximates the more nearly 
to that tongue as the western frontier is approached; it is hardly a 
written language, Persian being generally used in correspondence. 

The small seaport towns are chiefly inhabited by Arabs, who origi- 
nallv came from the Arabian coast and formed settlements. In the 
larger places an admixture of Persians is found, also Banyans from 
Sind or Kutch, by whom the very limited trade of the country is 
chiefly carried on. The rural population is almost exclusively Per- 
sian, but Persians do not take to the sea, and all craft sailing from 
Persian ports are manned by Arabs. 

The people live in mat huts, which are easily moved, so that a 
village is often merely a temporary encampment. In more perma- 
nent settlements there is a tower or fort in addition to the huts, and 
it is only at the towns of Sonmiyani, Ormara, and Gwadar that 
masonry or mud houses are found. 



22 TRADE — CURRENCY. 

Trade. — ^The maritime trade is carried on by the vessels of the 
British India Steam Navigation Co., as well as by native craft. The 
native craft are called dangi, machwa, and batfl; the largest are 
about 80 tons, and trade to the Persian Gulf, Maskat, Karachi, Bom- 
bay, and a few to the Malabar coast ; they are all lateen-rigged. 

The exports consist chiefly of salt fish, fish maws, shark fins, ghi, 
raw wool, goats' hair, hides, cotton, dates, and dwarf palm, raw and 
manufactured ; the imports of cotton piece goods, silks, sugar, wheat, 
rice, iron, juari, country oil, and kerosene. 

The sea near the coast abounds with excellent fish, which forms 
the chief food of the maritime population, and is largely salted for 
export ; it can generally be obtained cheaply from any of the numer- 
ous fishing boats. 

Camels are bred in large numbers, and also sheej> and goats, but 
they are not exported. Traae with the interior is very limited on 
account of the insecurity of the roads; it is carried on chiefly by 
camels, but sometimes by donkeys, which come to Sonmiyani, Or- 
mara, Pasni, and Gwadar. 

The trade of Persian Makran is trifling, and is carried on by 
Maskat boats, which visit the coast for salt, fish, pish, ghi, and a 
little wool. 

Formerly Gwadar was the port from which nearly all the trade 
was carried, but since 1903, when the British India Steam Naviga- 
tion Company's steamers commenced to call at Pasni, a good deal of 
the trade has been diverted to that port. 

Currency.^-The silver kran is the current coin in Persia. The 
exchange varies greatly, and is not the same at different places. 
There are nickel coins of the value of one-tenth and one-twentieth 
of a kran, the latter being named shahi. 

The tuman (silver) is a money unit equivalent to 10 krans. 

There is no national Arabian coinage; the current money is the 
Indian rupee, and the Austrian Theresa dollar. The Government 
rate of exchange varies. 

The copper coins used are the pice of India, which pass at Mas- 
kat at an arbitrary fluctuating value. 

The principal Turkish coins are the gold lira of 100 piastres, and 
the silver majidi (5^ to the lira). There are also smaller coins. 

See also Maskat and the principal ports in the Persian Gulf. 

The Indian rupee passes current everywhere, and vessels should be 
provided with it, or be able to draw bills on Bombay, which are 
generally at a premium at Abu Shahr (Bushire). 

English gold could be changed by the English merchants at Abu 
Shahr or at Basra, probably at a premium. 

On the Makran cost the Indian rupee and copper pice, the Maskat 
dollar, and Persian kran all pass current, the latter chiefly in the 
western districts. The Indian coinage is now probably best known. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 23 

Weights and measures. — The unit of weight in Persia is the 
miskal (71 grains). Most articles are bought or sold by a weight 
called batman or man, nominally of about £6.547 English; but the 
weights and measures in use in the country are not uniform. For 
the weights used at the principal ports in the gulf, see places. 

The Indian maund, or English weights, are understood at the tele- 
graph stations on the Makran coast. 

The liquid measure is the English gallon in dealings at Abu 
Shahr, Basidu, etc., where the people are accustomed to deal with 
English vessels. 

Water is charged for per cask, according to distance brought, from 
1 to 24 krans per hogshead (64 gallons). 

The chief Persian standard of measure is apparently the f arsakh, 
of 6,000 zar of 40.95 inches=3.87 miles; it is the distance that can be 
covered by a baggage animal in an hour. Some calculate the f arsakh 
at 6,000 zar of 44.09 inches=4.17 miles. 

The Arabians have no definite measure of distance, which is by 
them most vaguely estimated. 

In the Turlrish ports the weights are: 6.1084 miskals=l ounce; 
16 miskals=l seer; 10 seers=:l charak; 4 charaks=:l Tabriz man 
(6.54 pounds) ; 342^ Tabriz mans=l English ton. Also an board 
ship and for tea : 1 oke or hukka=2.84 pounds ; 800 okes=l English 
ton; 1 kharwar (654 pounds) =100 Tabriz mans; one tagar=li 
English tons. There are also others. The measures are: 1 dra= 
19 inches; 6^ dras (10 feet 3J inches) :=1 gusba. 

Soundings. — ^The soundings in the Gulf \)f Oman and Persian 
Gulf are generally deep off high coasts, but less off low coasts. 

The Gulf of Oman is very deep in the middle, and the greatest 
depth is 1,920 fathoms off Maskat; the 100-fathom curve is, on an 
average, from 10 to 15 miles from the shore, but it is closer in places. 
Toward the entrance to the Persian Gulf the depth decreases to 
70 and 50 fathoms, but near Musandam there is a small area with 
a depth of more than 100 fathoms. 

Within the Persian Gulf, the depth rarely exceeds 40 or 50 fath- 
oms, and it decreases to 30 and 20 fathoms toward the head ; on the 
pearl banks, which occupy about one-third of the area of the gulf, 
the depth is less than 20 fathoms. Across the head of the gulf, the 
20-f athom curve is about 50 miles distant from the entrances to the 
rivers. Within the 20-fathom curve, especially off the Arabian 
coast, the soundings are irregular, with shallow banks and shoals. 

Off the Persian coast and in the deep part of the gulf, the bottom 
is generally mud ; on the pearl banks, hard sand, coral, and rocks ; 
and off the Arabian coast, frequently white clay, especially to the 
northward of Bahrein. 



24 WINDS — SHAMAL. 

Off the Makran coast and westward of the great bank off the 
Indus (long. 65° 50') the bank of soundings extends from 25 to 5 
miles, when it generally falls abruptly. The soundings are fairly 
regular, the bottom being rock, sand, and mud near the land and 
mud or clay in depths over 12 fathoms; as a rule the increase in 
depth is gradual up to 20 fathoms, when it becomes very rapid. 

Winds — Shamal. — The prevailing wind in the Persian Gulf is 
the northwester, called by the natives shamal. The direction of this 
wind changes with the trend of the coast. A shamal may be expected 
at Jashk about three days after it sets in at Abu Shahr. 

On the Arabian coast its average direction is from north to north- 
northwest, and on the west coast of Oman west-northwest, shifting 
to southwest near the entrance to the gulf. 

On the Persian coast its direction is northwesterly southeastward 
to Ras Jabrin ; northwest to west-northwest, thence to Jezirat Sheikh 
Shuaib; westerly off Jezirat Kais; and west to southwest from 
Jezirat Farur to the entrance to the gulf. 

In the northern half of the Persian Gulf the shamal blows about 
nine months in the year and is sometimes very strong in April. It 
is almost incessant during June and part of July (called the barih or 
40-day s' shamal), seldom exceeding a moderate gale in force and 
at times quite light. Its general duration is three days, but it may 
last seven days. The worst shamals often last only one day, and 
sometimes only a few hours. 

During a shamal the air is generally very dry, with a cloudless 
but generally the air Is so loaded with dust from the Mesopotamian 
deserts that it is very thick. This makes navigation very dangerous, 
the white surf on the beach being often seen, while the land is 
obscured. In the Shatt al Arab it is often so thick that neither bank 
of the river is visible. Far off the land vessels' decks and rigging 
become coated with a fine impalpable dust. 

During a shamal the air is generally very dry, with a cloudless 
sky, but in the winter these winds are sometimes attended by rain 
squalls, and often with thunder and lightning. The wind veers a 
few points during the 24 hours, blowing more off the Persian coast 
at night and more from the sea by day. A shamal may set in at any 
hour of the day or night, and generally does so suddenly. 

In winter, during a kaus or southeasterly gale, be prepared for a 
sudden shift to the northwest, especially at night, as the shamal is 
then often very strong. 

The worst of the shamal is usually soon after the beginning, but 
the shamal of from two to three or five days' duration has been 
found, sometimes, to be strongest about the middle of its continuance. 
The shamal does not always extend over the whole gulf, and often 



GENERAL REMARKS. 25 

lulls for a short time about daylight. In summer, shamals rarely 
exceed the force of a moderate gale (7), but in winter they are often 
fresh gales (8) or at times hard gales (9), It is generally advisable 
for a steam vessel of small power to obtain anchorage, if possible, 
during the strength of a shamal, as little or no headway will be 
made against it; the Persian coast and islands offer many suitable 
places of shelter. 

A heavy swell from the northwest, especially in the southern part 
of the gulf, is often the precursor of a shamal, although such a swell 
sometimes occurs without any wind following it. 

Some of the severest winter shamals set in during fine weather, 
and give no warning except a heavy bank in the northwestern quar- 
ter an hour or two previously, which rolls down, and the air grad- 
ually becomes thick, though this sometimes occurs without any wind 
following. Such a warning should, however, not be neglected. 

The barometer, as a rule, does not give any warning of the ap 
proach of a shamal ; if it was low before, it begins to rise as so<5n as 
the shamal sets in, but generally not before, and continues high dur- 
ing the gale. It sometimes falls before a^ bad winter shamal, but 
rises again after the first burst of the gale. The barometer some- 
times is not affected by a heavy shamal, either before, during, or after 
it. The breeze is occasionally preceded by the absence of dew, or by 
the cessation of moisture in the air; either of which are tolerably 
sure signs. 

Eaus. — During the winter, southeasters, called by the natives 
kaus, or sharki, alternate with the shamals; they also follow to a 
certain extent the trend of the coast, but only have any great force 
from December to April. 

The kaus is generally accompanied by thick, gloomy weather, 
with hard squalls, often much rain, and sometimes thunder and 
lightning. It seldom lasts more than 3 days, and its strength is 
generally a moderate gale (7), but at times it is a fresh, or even hard 
gale (8 or 9) ; the strongest often last only one day. This wind is 
generally strongest on its last day. 

When the wind veers to the southward the kaus is over, and is 
often succeeded almost immediately by a shamal, or it may blow 
hard for a short time from south or southwest, and so die away, no 
shamal occurring for several days. Sometimes, however, after blow- 
ing hard from southwest the wind shifts suddenly to northwest, and 
a strong shamal follows. 

The atmosphere is moist and the barometer generally low. In 
winter, with a falling barometer and cloudy threatening weather, 
a kaus may be expected, but timely warning is not invariably given, 
though the barometer always falls during the gale, if not before. 

173G08'*~20 3 



26 NASHI — ^SUHAILI — ^SQUALLS. 

A vessel anchored for the kaus in an anchorage open to the shamal 
should weigh immediately the kaus is over, or she may have to ride 
out a shamal oi\ a lee shore. Easterly winds are of most frequent 
occurrence in the southern part of the gulf. 

Nashi. — In winter, especially in the southern part of the gulf, 
strong northeasterly winds, called nashi, are experienced; they are 
accompanied by dark cloudy weather, and generally rain. The na- 
tives make a distinction between this wind and the kaus. The air is 
sometimes thick before a nashi. caused by the dust blown oflf the . 
land. The wind often blows from three to five days, but frequently 
only one day; after the Brst day the air becomes. clearer, possibly 
owing to rain on the land. The nashi blows in gusts with frequent 
lulls, and, if lasting three days, is strongest on the third day. 

The barometer is not affected by a nashi, being generally high ; but 
if so, it falls a little when the wind is over. 

StLhaili. — The southwester, called by the natives suhaili, is much 
feared by them, as it blows into nearly all the sheltered anchorages 
on the Persian coast. It lasts generally only a few hours, and often 
follows the kaus, but sometimes occurs after fine weather; it is ac- 
companied by rain, and is preceded by masses of clouds rising from 
the south, with lightning. It occurs infrequently, and only in 
winter, but it blows all over the Persian Gulf. 

Squalls. — At the change of the seasons in autumn, very severe 
squalls may be expected, called "laheimar" by the Arabians. The 
air is often very clear about the time of these squalls, and it does not 
appear that they are from any special direction. According to the 
Arabians they are experienced between the 15th of October and the 
6th of November, during which time no native vessels put to sea 
until a squall is over. If they do not occur before the 5th of Novem- 
ber, the Arabians consider that there will be none until the ordinary 
bad winter weather sets in. An unusual degree of electrical action 
is noticed, and St. Elmo's lights have been observed on board ship 
at this season. 

In Basidu Road very violent squalls are experienced from the 
northward in May and from the southeastward in July, but these 
are not of frequent occurrence. Very heavy squalls from the north- 
ward are experienced in May near the head of the gulf. 

In winter, especially, tremendous gusts blow out of the Devils Gap, 
the great valley in the mountains south-southeastward of Maskat. 

Alternating winds. — A succession of squalls from opposite 
quarters, each lasting only a few minutes, and alternating thus sev- 
eral times, is occasionally experienced. 

Land and sea breezes. — These are uncertain. In fine weather 
very decided land breezes are experienced, but only close inshore. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 27 

At Abu Shalir, sea breezes are very regular in summer, setting in, 
when there is no shamal, at 9 h. a. m. ; the land breezes are very light 
and of short duration. 

At Basidu, land breezes are strong and last until 10 h. a. m. ; sea 
breezes are also regular, but do not set in so early as at Abu Shahr. 

On the Arabian coast, the land breezes are often strong in the 
morning, and come off occasionally in hot gusts. At Kuweit, the sea 
breezes are regular in fine weather. 

General remarks. — In winter the winds are often very local, a 
shamal blowing at one end of the gulf, while at the other end, or in 
the central part, the wind is from the opposite direction, or it is calm. 

At Abu Shahr, the wind often blows in the opposite direction to 
that in the Shatt al Arab. 

Gxilf of Oman. — The southwest monsoon is not felt inside Eas al 
Hadd. From about June to September light variable winds prevail 
westward of a line between Eas al Hadd and Cape Jashk, and south- 
easterly winds, force 2 to 3, eastward of this line; shamals rarely 
occur ; calms are frequent and of short duration. Occasionally very 
hot, dry northwesterly winds, lasting not more than a day, have been 
experienced in the gulf. The passage of a sailing vessel out of the 
gulf is very tedious. The sea is generally smooth, with a slight swell 
in the eastern part. 

During the northeast monsoon, shamals and nashis prevail, but 
calms are frequent and sometimes last for days. The general direc- 
tion of the shamal is northwest. The nashi blows very hard in the 
gulf, and is much dreaded by native craft, as the Batina coast is to 
leeward and affords no shelter. The suhaili occurs infrequently, 
but it is especially felt off Eas al Kuh. Seamen say that there is 
either too much wind or none at all in the gulfs, and this is nearly 
moderate, steady breezes being almost unknown. 

Makran coast.— The southwest monsoon commences in the Ara- 
bian Sea in May, and sets in at Karachi generally between the 6th of 
June and 10th of July, with a few days' or even a fortnight's hard 
blow from between southwest and west-southwest, cloudy weather 
and scud flying overhead. It is announced by a falling barometer, 
and is accompanied or preceded by a heavy swell from the same 
quarter. 

After the first blow, it moderates, when strong to light breezes 
prevail until the end of August or sometimes the middle of Sep- 
tember, the wind veering at night several points to the westward. 
The swell continues, and varies from a high to a long low swell, 
according to the weather. Soon after the middle of July there is a 
lull, clouds bank up with lightning in the east, and sometimes 
during a heavy squall, accompanied by torrents of rain, the wind 



28 LAND AND SEA BREEZES. 

shifts to the westward. The weather from May to September is 
very hazy, so that the land is often not seen until close to. 

At Gwadar, the wind is not so strong as at Karachi, and the swell 
is longer and more from the southward; westward of Gwadar the 
wind decreases, and at Cape Jashk is a light southerly to southeast- 
erly breeze, accompanied by a long ground swell causing surf on 
the shore. 

The monsoon rains do not appear to extend westward of Ormara. 

Land and sea breezes prevail on the coast in winter; the land 
breeze sets in at midnight, or some hours later, from between north- 
northeast and east-northeast, and veering gradually eastward, is 
followed by a calm before noon, or by a light southeasterly air 
which veers to southwest in the afternoon. The land breezes prevail 
from October to February, and are often fresh or strong in Novem- 
ber, December^ and January. After January they are weak and 
uncertain, and in April are sometimes felt as hot winds. The sea 
breezes are light from October to January, and increase in strength 
as the season advances, being strong in April and May; they .veer 
several points off the' land at night, and are light or fail in the 
morning. 

Northeasters. — During December and January strong north- 
easters are frequently experienced, accompanied by clouds of dust, 
and often by gloomy squally weather, \^ith ^rain about the end of the 
year. They last sometimes two or three days, in which case the wind 
generally lulls in the afternoon, freshening again at night. 

Shamals are experienced at all times of the year near Cape 
Jashk, and in winter sometimes along the whole coast. In Janu- 

r 

ary or February, especially, a very strong shamal often blows home 
to Karachi, and along the coast southward to Bombay; there is gen- 
erally only one such a shamal annually, and it lasts two or three days, 
raising a heavy sea. These winds are accompanied by a thick haze 
caused by fine dust, probably from the Mesopotamian plains. 

In winter, heavy squalls from northwest to northeast, with rain 
are experienced off the western part of the Makran coast. 

Remarks. — Off the Makran coast in April the absence of dew 
usually precedes a westerly wind, but it is also absent without any 
wind succeeding. A windy appearance of the sky frequently leads 
to nothing, and the strongest winds usually arise without any clouds 
or threatening signs. The boats easily rode out two bad shamals, 
and were never in difficulties. Any wind usually hauls two or three 
points to the northward during the evening and night. In moderate 
weather, the wind follows the sun with considerable regularity, a 
calm being almost invariable during the forenoon. 

Cyclones. — The cyclones of the Arabian Sea seldom reach the 
Makran coast; their effect is, however, felt in a heavy southerly 



^ GENERAL REMARKS. 29 

swell with falling barometer, cloudy unsettled weather, and, after 
the storm has passed, a strong breeze or moderate gale from the 
southwestward. The effect of bad weather to the southward is 
always felt in a similar manner, although it does not reach the coast. 

Climate — Persian Gulf. — ^The climate of the Persian Gulf is one 
of the most trying imaginable, though perhaps on the whole not un- 
healthy for Europeans. The intense heat of the summer is aggra- 
vated by the humidity of the atmosphere,^ and by the dust raised by 
every wind ; nor are there rains or clouds to temper the excessive heat. 

The Arabian coast is hotter and less healthy than the Persian, and 
the heat is greater at the southern end of the gulf than at the head. 

In winter, the winds are cold and cutting, but although the tem- 
perature is then more agreeable and apparently better suited to 
Europeans, experience shows it to be not the most healthy season. 

The following is a general summary : 

January and February, — Cold and boisterous. Gales prevail, with' 
rain and bad weather. Frequently the bad weather begins about the 
beginning, but occasionally not until near the end of January. The 
lowest temperature of the year occurs in the first half of February. 

March, — Generally fine and clear, with variable winds and pleasant 
temperature. The natives consider the bad weather over in the 
southern part of the gulf after the middle of the month. Intervals 
of variable winds and fin^ weather are frequent, though it is some- 
times unsettled. 

April, — ^Pleasant, getting hot toward the end. Generally fine, 
with moderate shamals occasionally. Sometimes an easterly gale, or 
strong shamals, or heavy squalls, in the northern part. Variable 
winds, however, prepail, sometimes with rain. There is seldom any 
bad weather after the middle of the month. 

May, — Getting hot, but generally fine ; moderate shamals frequent ; 
heavy squalls have been experienced, but are exceptional. 

June and July, — ^Until the middle of July the heat at the head of 
the gulf is moderated by the almost constant shamal, the air being 
generally laden with dust, but from that time the hesN; is most in- 
tense, and with a southerly wind, almost insupportable, from the 
increase of humidity. 

August, — Heat most intense, the black bulb thermometer rising on 
shore to 159° F. in the sun. In the shade, on board ship, the range 
is small; at Abu Shahr, from 90° to 93° at 4 h. a. m. to 96° or 
98° in the afternoon. At Basidu it is rather higher. In the Shatt al 
Arab the thermometer is stated by Lof tus to have risen to 124° in the 

*The packing of chronometer boxes requires frequent examination to see that it 
is free from damp and mildew; taned oakum has been used for this purpose with 
good effect. 






30 WINDS — MAKRAN COAST. 

m 

shade. The great heat at night renders the weather the more dis- 
tressing. 

Septerriber. — But little cooler than August; the nights, however, 
are less oppressive, particularly toward the end of the month. The 
heat is said to be necessary for the maturing of the date crop. 

Ootoher. — Though still hot, the weather is more bearable; toward 
the end, the squalls, which usually occur, reduce the temperature con- 
siderably. 

Novemher. — Generally fine; atmosphere often very clear; tempera- 
ture pleasant. 

December. — Often fine, cool, and pleasant before the bad weather, 
which seldom begins until the middle of the month, or. more fre- 
quently later. 

Makran coast. — ^The climate of the Makran coast is intermediate 
between those of the Persian Gulf and India, and it differs consid- 
erably in the eastern and western portions. Although northward 
of the limits of the monsoons of the Arabian Sea, it is usual to 
speak of the southwest monsoon on this coast, because its effects are 
felt in many ways, thus: The heavy monsoon swell rolls up from 
June to September, when humid cloudy weather prevails with occa- 
sional westerly winds, and rain in the eastern districts; the reduc- 
tion of the temperature in the eastern part, while in the western 
part, cut off from Arabia by its influence, the heat approaches that 
of the Persian Gulf. The weather, whicn as a whole, is singularly 
fine and'safe for navigation, may be summarized as follows : 

January. — Strong northeasters or land winds ; also squally, north- 
east to southeast winds, with some rain; sea breezes (if any) light 
Sometimes a strong shamal; atmosphere dry; winds cold and cut- 
ting; clouds of dust accompany and at times precede the strong 
winds ; weather fine, but sometimes gloomy and overcast. 

February. — Land breezes moderate, with light sea breezes, or 
moderate shamals; generally one strong shamal during the month. 
Sometimes squally with rain from the eastward, shifting to west- 
ward at Cape Jashk, otherwise fine dry weather.. 

March. — ^Land breezes failing; weather generally fine but getting 
humid; sea breezes light to moderate, southwest, veering to west- 
northwest or northwest at night ; also strong, or a shamal, with much 
dust. Occasional calms chiefly in the forenoon ; weather settled and 
fine. 

April. — Very fine but hazy ; air much warmer but very humid ; sea 
breezes northwest to southwest, occasionally fresh, and, towards the 
end of the month, strong. Sea smooth, sometimes hot winds off the 
land. 

May. — Calm in the morning, with strong sea breezes; hot, very 
humid, hazy, and with clouds passing rapidly to the eastward. Gen- 



GENERAL REMARI^S. 31 

erally fine, and water smooth except the swell due to the sea breezes, 
ileavy squalls from west-northwest, with rain, have occurred. Near 
Cape Jashk, light breezes from southeast to southwest, with an 
occasional shamal. 

June, — Similar to May, with probably a few days of light airs or 
hot scorching winds from the land, rendering the heat very oppres- 
sive, imtil about the middle or latter part of the month, when the 
monsoon, preceded by a falling barometer and threatening weather, 
usually sets in on the eastern part of the coast, as a strong west-south- 
westerly wind or moderate gale ; this may last irom a few days to a 
fortnight, and is preceded or accompanied by a heavy swell, out of 
proportion to the amount of wind. The weather then becomes cooler, 
the clouds and scud pass to the eastward, and the humidity continues. 
On the western part, light southeast and southerly winds prevail, 
varied by strong westerly breezes, with dust and a high temperature. 

July. — The first burst of the southwest monsoon is often followed 
by less boisterous winds; when the monsoon does not set in until 
this month it is preceded by very hot unpleasant weather. Soon 
after the middle of the month there is an interval of light winds, 
after which the rain of this season occurs; it generally begins between 
the 15th of July and 10th of August with a squall, thunder, and 
lightning, from the northeast, followed by a strong westerly wind. 
Lightning in the evening to the northeastward at this season is a good 
indication of rain. 

On the western part of the coast the heat is excessive in July, and 
so continues until the end of September; light southerly to south- 
easterly winds prevail, with an occasional fresh hot west-north- 
westerly wind. 

August. — ^Much cooler; air clearer and drier after the rain; mon- 
soon breeze and swell moderate or light, and the wind more westerly 
at night. Sometimes heavy weather and rain occur. Native craft 
go to sea again early in the month. On the western part of the coast 
the weather is the same as in July. 

September, — The southwest monsoon generally ends about the be- 
ginning of this month ; light winds, with a decreasing swell, but at 
times strong west-southwesterly winds, with a heavy swell, continue 
up to the middle or latter part. Light airs and calms are common. 
On the western part of the coast, the temperature continues very hot, 
with light variable winds and an occasional fresh shamal. In 1872 
there was an easterly gale, with rain, lasting a few hours; this is 
exceptional. 

October. — Fine, clear, and dry ; light sea breezes and calms ; land 
breezes generally very light, but occasionally fresh for a few hours. 
Sea smooth. 



32 RAINFALL. 

November. — As in October, but about the middle sometimes 
squally from the eastward, with unsettled weather and ground swell, 
probably due to bad weather to the southward. 

Decemher. — Fine, with moderate land and sea breezes. The land 
breezes are often strong towards the end of the month, when a mode- 
rate gale from northeast to southeast with rain is frequent. Shamals 
occur at times on the western part of' the coast. The weather is 
usually clear, but the land is sometimes obscured by dust. It is often 
exceptionally clear and very cold after rain. Sea generally smooth. 
In December and January, the bad weather of the Persian Gulf some- 
times reaches Cape Jashk, or still farther eastward. 

The sea. — ^The conditions during summer in the Persian Gulf are 
the more trying to those on board ship from the excessively high 
temperature of the sea, which has been known to reach 98°, and is 
seldom below 90° F. 

Makran coast. — ^The temperature varies, being much hotter in 
in summer at the western end than near Karachi; in winter, it is 
more uniform. The eastern part is cooled by the strong westerly 
breezes in May, and there is a marked decline in the temperature 
after the rain has fallen. At Cape Jashk, the mean temperature 
varies from 67° in January to 91° in July. 

There is much humidity between March and September, when the 
difference between the dry and wet bulb thermometers is very small, 
often nil. 

The sea. — ^The temperature of the sea on the Makran coast varies 
from 71° in February to 84** in May. 

Waterspouts at sea, and sandspouts on land, are frequent in 
the gulfs and along the Makran coast. 

Rainfall. — The rainfall is small and variable; at Abu Shahr the 
mean annual fall is 11.8 inches; falls of from 5 inches to 29 inches 
annually are said to have been registered. At Maskat the mean fall 
is 4.2 inches ; from 3 to 8 inches have been recorded, and on the 4th 
and 5th of June, 1890, during the cyclone mentioned on page 28, it 
rained continuously for 24 hours, during which time 11 J inches fell. 
With rare exceptions rain falls only in winter. On the shore of the 
southern bay of the Persian Gulf rain is said to fall very rarely. 

On the Makran coast the rainfall is uncertain, but generally small ; 
sometimes there is hardly apiy rainfall for two or three years, but 
every now and then a large fall occurs during the year; generally 
when that is so the rain- falls in such heavy downpour as to be 
hardly less destructive to cultivation than the long droughts; the 
rivers or water-courses at such times discharge an immense volume of 
water. 

From Karachi westward to Ormara rain falls generally in July or 
August, but little or none falls at this season on the western part of 



GENERAL REMARKS. 38 

the Makran coast. Eain also falls in winter along the whole coast, 
generally in December or January, and sometimes in February; 
this rainfall is more abundant on the western part of the coast than 
near Karachi. The average at Karachi, which is probably greater 
than on the coast, is 7.6 inches. 

Dew. — The dew is very heavy in the Persian Gulf, especially in 
summer, when the sails appear in the morning as if drenched by a 
heavy shower of rain. 

On the Makran coast dew is heavy from March to September, and 
occasionally during the winter. 

Fog. — Dense fog, wetting everything like rain, occurs at times 
near the shores of the gulfs, and always in the morning; it only lasts 
a few hours. 

Dense wet fog is sometimes experienced near the Makran coast 
and is most frequent in winter ; it occurs in the morning with a land 
wind, and always clears before noon. 

Barometer. — In the Persian Gulf in winter the average height of 
the barometer is about 30.10 inches, find the extreme range is about 
0.8 inch. 

In siunmer there is a remarkable annual depression of the barom- 
eter ; it falls decidedly about the beginning of May, and during the 
three following months stands with but little variation from 29.50 
to 29.60 inches, according to locality. 

The diurnal variation of the barometer is somewhat peculiar; 
there is only one maximum, at 10 h. a. m., and one minimum 4 h. 
p. m., from which latter time it rises gradually until the next 10 h. 
a. m. ; the depression which should occur at 4 h. a. m. being hardly 
perceptible. The diurnal variation is about one-tenth of an inch. 

The barometer is not a safe guide and as a rule gives no warning 
of bad weather in the Persian Gulf, the worst weather sometimes 
occurring without any change at all, or the change does not take 
place until the gale has set in. 

On the Makran coast the barometer is generally a good guide for 
the weather; its range, although small, is greater than in the Tropics, 
and it falls before bad weather. . The shamal and occasional squalls, 
however, often occur without barometric warning. 

The highest reading that has been observed is 30-40 inches in 
December, and the lowest 29-52 inches in June. 

Currents — ^Persian Gulf. — ^The greater part of the current sup- 
posed to exist in the Persian Gulf is probably due to the tidal cur- 
rents. Little is known about any current in the northern part of the 
gulf, but recent investigation shows that at times, especially in 
January, April, May, and June, there is considerable current in the 
southeastern part. Current setting from 10 to 20 miles a day in 



34 TID£S. 

January, and from 15 to 40 miles a day in April, have been experi- 
enced, and they must therefore be given consideration in navigation. 

The currents appear mostly to set into the gulf, and then rather 
along the Persian coast, turning off somewhat toward the Arabian 
coast from about Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib; there appears, however, 
to be no general system. 

• During a shamal or kaus the usual current is affected by a slight 
surface drift current, but it is said that on the fourth day of a sha- 
mal a current sets at the rate of 1 knot against the wind. This, how- 
ever, is doubtful. 

Gtilf of Oman, southwest shore. — ^During the southwest mon- 
soon there is generally a northwesterly current, which has rates of 
from 10 to 35 miles a day along this shore. From October to Feb- 
ruary, when shamals prevail in the gulf, the current usually sets 
southeastward; between Maskat and Kas al Hadd it attains veloci- 
ties of from 10 to 45 miles a day. 

Makran coast. — Here the currents depend on the prevailing 
winds, and though variable in^strength are least irregular during the 
southwest monsoon, when they generally set eastward along the coast 
at rates of from 10 to 30 miles a. day. During the northeast monsoon 
and in the periods between the monsoons the current is quite uncer- 
tain, though it sometimes sets westward at rates of from 10 to 35 
miles a day. 

Tides. — ^In the Persian Gulf the tides are complicated, owing to 
the contracted and winding entrance with its many islands and 
shoals, and not much is known about them. 

The diurnal inequalities of height and time are very marked ; in 
winter the night tide and in summer the day tide is the superior, 
while the second tide in either case is quite insignificant. The rise 
is affected by the winds, as is the general level of the sea, to the 
extent of a foot or more, the shamal lowering the general level of the 
gulf and the kaus raising it. 

The highest level of the water occurs about the August springs, 
which may be attributed to the heaping up of the water on the 
northern shore of the Arabian Sea by the southwest monsoon during 
June, July, and August. 

The tidal wave takes about one hour traveling from Maskat to the 
entrance to the Persian Gulf, and thence about 13 hours to its head, 
passing Bas Bakkin and Bas al Mutaf , on opposite sides of the gulf, 
at about the same time. Its progress in the deep water of the Gulf 
of Oman is much faster than in the shoaler water of the Persian 
Gulf. The wave takes about 6 hours going from the bar of the Shatt 
al Arab to Basra. It is high water, full and change, at Maskat at 
9 h. 32 m. ; at Jashk Bay 9 h. 30 m. ; at Bas Musandam about 10 h. • 



GENERAL REMAI^KS. 35 

at Basidu h. m. ; at Jezirat Kais h. 30 m. ; at Bahrein 6 h. 5 m. ; 
at Abu Shahr 7 h. 43 m. ; and at the bar of the Shatt al Arab 11 h. 
30 m. The rise at springs varies in places in the Persian Gulf from 
6 to 13 feet, and in the Gulf of Oman and on the coast of Makran 
from about 5 to 10 feet. 

Tidal currents — Gulf of Oman and SCakran coast. — In the 
(julf of Oman the general set of the current is to north-northwest 
from 4 hours before to 2 hours after high water at Maskat, with a 
velocity of ^ to 2 knots, and is strongest on the western side, as Ras 
Musandam is approached. From 4 hours after to 5 hours before high 
water the currents set south-southeast from 1 to If knots. 

On the Makran coast, from Karachi to Gwater Bay, the current 
sets eastward during the rising, and westward during the falling, 
tide, but westward of Gwatar Bay it sets westward during the rising, 
and eastward during the falling, tide. The currents appear to turn 
at about high water, and 6 hours after high water, on the shore; 
they are generally weak, but are said to attain a velocity of from 
IJ to 2 knots off Ras Maidani, and are much influenced by the 
soxithwest monsoon. 

The currents appear to be weak off Cape Jashk, but strengthen 
toward Ras al Kuh, off which the current sets north-northwestward 
during the rising, and south-southeastward during the falling, tide, 
at a rate of from 1 to 1| knots. 

Persian Gulf and approach. — The times of the turn of the 
currents in the Persian Gulf and its entrance are very variable, and 
generally the set which will be experienced in any locality can not be 
foreseen and allowed for. 

Northward of Ras al Kuh, the currents becomes very strong, and 
they attain their greatest velocity of about 4 knots, and probably 
more, at springs, at Ras Musandam. with eddies and races near that 
ras, and between it and Salama wa Binataha Islets. On the eastern 
shore of the entrance to the gulf, the velocity of the currents is less, 
and it is perhaps from 2 to 3 knots off Guru. 

The north and west going current in the entrance has been reported 
to run from 5 to 2 hours before, until from 1 to 4 hours after, high 
water, and the east and southgoing currents from 1 to 4 hours after 
high water until from 5 to 2 hours before the next high water ; the 
currents appear to be much influenced by the prevailing winds. 
Northward of Ras Musandam, the north-going current turns west- 
ward and southwestward, the northern portion passing on both sides 
of Larak, Hormuz, and Kishm islands, at a velocity of from 2 to 3 
knots, and the southern portion setting southwestward along the 
coast of Oman, at a velocity of from 1 to 2 knots; the east and 
south going current sets in the reverse directions. 



36 TIDAL CURRENTS. 

In the northern part of the gulf the currents turn much nearer 
the times of high water, and 6 hours after high water, than in the 
southern part. 

In the rivers, the velocity of the currents is usually about 3 or 4 
knots at springs, but when the snow melts in the mountains of 
Kurdistan, the outgoing current attains a velocity of 5 knots. The 
duration of the outgoing current is 8 hours, and that of the ingoing 
current 4 or 5 hours; the currents continue some time after high 
and low water. 

Between Kisham Island and Ras Musandam, from low water to 
1 hour before high water at Maskat, the current is slack, or has a 

slight set to the west-southwest. At high water it sets to the west- 
southwest, and continues in this direction until 5 hours after high 
water, with a velocity of J knot to 2 knots. 

Near Farur and Jezira Taub the current is slack, or sets to the 
eastward, when the tide is rising at Maskat ; it then turns, and sets 
about west and west-northwest, past the islands, for 4 to 5 
hours, continuing to run to the westward longest near Farur, the 
velocity being from ^ to 2 knots. 

Off Linga the current sets southwest from 2 hours to 6 hours after 
high water at Maskat, and northeast from 5 hours before to 1 hour 
after high water, at a velocity of J to f knot. 

Near Eas al Khaima the current sets to the northeast along the 
coast when the tide is rising at Maskat, and to the southwest when it 
is falling, with a velocity of J to J knot. 

In the passage northward of Hen jam the tidal current sets to the 
northwestward from 2 hours before to 2 hours after high water at 
Maskat, and to the southeastward from 4 hours after to 4 hours 
before high water. 

Waves. — The sea gets up quickly, and is short and hollow in the 
Persian Gulf. At tlie entrance, when the tidal current opposes 
strongly a heavy shamal, the sea is particularly distressing, breaking 
very heavily ; it is often out of all proportion to the amount of wind, 
but quickly subsides after a gale. During a heavy shamal, there is 
a very high sea off Maskat, and also on the Makran coast. 

Swell. — ^The swell of the southwest monsoon rolls around Ras al 
Hadd, and is felt off Maskat, and slightly, even near the entrance to 
the Persian Gulf. Sometimes there is a high swell in the entrance to 
the gulf for several hours, without any wind either preceding or 
following. Such a swell is generally, however, the forerunner of a 
gale. 

From June to September, a heavy swell, caused by the southwest 
monsoon in the Arabian Sea, rolls in on the Makran coast. The 
swell comes from west-southwest or southwest at Karachi, from 



GENERAL REMARKS. 37 

south-southwest at Gwadar, about south at Chahbar, and southeast 
at Cape Jashk. It decreases gradually from Gwadar to Cape Jashk, 
where it is a low ground swell. The swell is usually much heavier 
than that due to the amount of wind on the coast, but it varies much, 
and during a break in the monsoon is often light ; sometimes it dis- 
appears early in September, at other times it continues heavy during 
the greater part of that month, but quite ceases by the end. 

On the occurrence of a cyclone or storm in the Arabian Sea, con- 
siderable swell rolls up from the southward, or there is a heavy 
ground swell with surf on the coast. 

Filots for the Persian Gulf are now seldom employed generally, 
especially as the men offering their services usually possess local 
knowledge only, and it should be borne in mind that pilots taken on 
board for the Arab coast are only to be depended on for certain 
localities. 

For pilots for particular localities, such as the Shatt al Arab, see 
the places. 

Conununications — ^Roads. — There are no proper roads in the 
countries bordering the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, nor in 
Makran, and wheeled vehicles are almost unknown. Communication 
with the interior is entirely by camels, mules, and donkeys ; the roads 
are merely tracks made by passing caravans ; they often follow the 
beds of watercourses, and are hardly perceptible to a stranger. 

In Oman the interior is in an unsettled condition, and traveling 
without a large escort is dangerous. 

Steamships. — In normal times the British India Steam Navi- 
gation Co. provided a weekly fast mail service between Bombay 
and Basra, up and down the gulf, calling at Karachi, Maskat, Abu 
Shahr (Bushire), and Muhammera; and a weekly subsidiary mail 
service, calling at Karachi, Maskat, Bandar Abbas, Henjam, Linga, 
Bahrein, Abu Shahr (Bushire), Kuweit, and Muhammera weekly; 
and at Pasni, Gwadar, Chabar, Jaskh, and Dibai fortnightly, on 
the passage from Bombay; and at Muhammera, Abu Shahr (Bu- 
shire), Henjam, Bandar, Abbas, Maskat, and Karachi weekly; and 
at Kuweit, Bahrein, Dibai, Linga, Jashka, Chahbar, Gwadar, and 
Pasni fortnightly on the passage to Bombay. The fast mail ser- 
vice vessels stop for mails weekly at Fao. 

An English company and the Turkish Government run frequent 
steamers between Basra and Baghdad, and steamers run on the 
Karun River to Ahwaz and Shustar. 

Telegraph. — ^There are cables from Fao to Abu Shahr (Bushire), 
thence to Henjam, Kishm, and Bandar Abbas, and from Kishm to 
Jashk. There is also a direct cable from Abu Shahr to Jashlc. 
From Jashk there are cables to Maskat and Karachi. Any vessel 
hooking a cable with her anchor, or otherwise damaging it, should 



38 RADIO — Lloyd's signal stations. 

immediately communicate with the telegraph department, giving 
the details of the accident. 

There is a land line of telegraph along the Makran coast, and mes- 
sages are received at the stations Ormara, Gwadar, Chahbar, and 
Jashk. A light is shown at the telegraph stations when a vessel is 
expected, or an answering blue light burnt if signals are observed. 

The cables and land line are connected with the universal tele-' 
graph systems. 

Badio. — There is a radio station at Jashk. Radio stations are 
shown on H. O. Chart 2180. 

Lloyd's signal stations are established at Cape Jashk, Jezirat 
Henjam, and Abu Shahr (Bushire), and are controlled by the Indo- 
European Telegraph Co. Vessels can communicate with these sta- 
tions by the international code; no lookout, however, is kept, and 
vessels desiring to communicate must attract attention by means of 
a steam siren or otherwise. 

Native craft. — ^Part of the trade between the Persian Gulf and 
India, the Red Sea, and the East coast of Africa, is carried on in 
native vessels called bagalas. They are from 100 to 400 tons, are 
clumsily rigged with a huge mainmast and lateen sail and small 
lateen mizen ; they do not go to sea in the southwest monsoon. They 
sail well in moderate winds. 

The smaller vessels used in the pearl fishery and for the coasting 
trade, of from 10 to 120 tons, are called batils and bakaras; they 
are rigged similarly to the bagalas. 

Piracy on European vessels within the Persian Gulf or Gulf of 
Oman need not be apprehended. Piracies on native boats occasion- 
ally occur in the gulf and on the bar of and in the Shatt al Arabs 
British Indian sailing vessels which come from India for dates are 
particularly liable to attack during the date season. British naval 
vessels in the gulf are specially charged with the duty of preventing 
and repressing piracy generally, and one of them regularly patrols 
the pearl bank area during the pearling season. Southward of Ras 
al Hadd, a vessel grounding would certainly be plundered by the 
Bedawin. 

Obtaining information. — It is most difficult to get trustworthy 
information from the Arabians, and but little that they impart can 
be relied upon. 

Presents. — A vessel anchoring off an Arabian town is besieged for 
medical aid ; strong aperients, opium, mercury, eye medicines, caustic 
for sores, and lint are the articles generally asked for. The most 
acceptable presents for any services rendered are rifles and cartridges, 
lead, cutlery, small telescopes, cloth, looking glasses, colored silk 
handkerchiefs, and watches. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 89 

Lights and buoys. — The Indian Government has established 
lights at Chahbar, Jashk, Little Quoin Islet, Jezirat Henjam, Jezirat 
Tanb, Abu Shahr (Bushire), and Kuweit; light buoys at Bahrein, 
off Kishm Town, Abu Shahr, and the outer bar of the Khur al Kalka, 
the channel into the Shatt al Arab; and buoys at Behrein and 
Kuweit. There are also lights at Linga and Fao, a buoy at Bandar 
Abbas, and buoys in the Khur al Kafka. 

Beacons Ure rare and mostly insignificant. 

Coal can usually be obtained at Abu Shahr, Basra, and Muham- 
mera. See places. 

Docks.- — ^There are no docks, nor any accommodation for repair- 
ing ships, with the exception of a small mud dock for river steamers 
at Makil, where there is also some repairing plant for such vessels. 

ROUTES. 

Aden to Persian Gulf — Full-powered steamers. — Direct. Dis- 
tance to Maskat 1,200 miles and to Basra 1,970 miles. 

Steam vessels of small power. — ^From October to April steam 
along the Arabian coast. If the current is strong inshore, it may 
be less in strength from 60 to 80 miles off the land. 

From May to September keep along but not close to the Arabian 
coast, as the weather is hazy; after rounding Ras al Hadd, stand 
over to the northern shore of the Gulf of Oman and keep along that 
shore, or, for Maskat, keep along the Arabian coast. 

Persian Gulf to Aden — Fnll-powered steamers. — Direct. 

Steamers of small power. — From October to May, proceed 
direct. From June to September, during the southwest monsoon, 
stand southeastward from Ras al Hadd, passing well westward of the 
Laccadive Islands, until in about latitude 7° north, where the wina 
is usually light and the sea smooth. Then steam westward until in 
about longitude 53° east, when steer north-northwestward. Give 
Sokotra and Abd al Kuri an ample berth, by not going northward 
of the parallel of 10° north latitude until on the meridian of 53° east 
longitude, as the current generally sets strongly toward these groups. 
Round Ras Asir closely. 

Bombay to the Persian Gulf — Pull-powered steamers. — 
Direct. Distance to Maskat 850 miles, to Basra 1,620 miles. 

Steamers of small power. — In September and October and also 
in March and April, proceed direct, keeping along the north shore 
of the Gulf of Oinan, or direct to Maskat. 

From November to February, inclusive, proceed northwestward, 
passing not far from the Kathiawar coast, until in about 23° north 
latitude, whence proceed along the north shore of the Gulf of Oman, 
or direct to Maskat. 



40 ROUTES. 

From ports of India to the southward, steam northward along the 
coast till westward of Bombay, and thence as above. 

In May or early in June, steer westward in order to be able to pro- 
ceed to the Gulf of Oman with the first of the southwest monsoon. 

In June, July, and August, proceed to the southward, passing west- 
ward of the Laccadive Islands, until in about 9° north latitude ; ste«r 
westward between the parallels of 7° and 9° north latitude until in 
about longitude 65° to 63° east, and thence direct to Ras al Hadd. 
Or, pass eastward of the Laccadive Islands, through the Nine Degree 
Channel, and thence as above. 

Persian Gulf to Bombay — All steamers. — Direct. 

Cape of Qood Hope to the Persian Gulf — Steamers. — ^Along 
shore to Algoa Bay, through Mozambique Channel, and thence direct. 
Coal can be obtained at Zanzibar. Vessels of small power and unable 
to steam against the northeast monsoon (the usual force of which is 
about 4), pass near Mauritius, and northward along the west coast 
of India, when arriving in that monsoon. 

A vessel from the east coast of Africa should pass not less than 
90 miles eastward of Sokotra, in order to void the confused sea 
nearer that island. 

Persian Gulf to Cape of Good Hope — ^Full-powered steam- 
ers. — Direct, through Mozambique Channel. In the strength of the 
southwest monsoon, it might be advisable to make southing from 
Ras al Hadd to about latitude 5° north, and thence proceed through 
the Mozambique channel. 

Steamers of small power. — ^From October to May, proceed direct 
through the Mozambique Channel. From June to September, stand 
southeastward, and cross the Equator into the southeast trade ; pass 
southward of Mauritius, and 100 miles southward of Madagascar, 
and make the African coast about 200 miles southward of Port Natal. 

Persian Gulf. — Steamers in the Persian (Julf steer direct from 
point to point, but the following information may be useful. 

When navigating up or down the gulf keep along the Persian coast, 
which is generally high, with salient features, mostly steepto, and 
with but few outlying shoals. Except at the entrance, the Arabian 
coast is very low, and generally reefs extend long distances off it. 

The numerous islands and strong tidal streams near the entrance, 
and the frequency of bad weather, necessitate caution. Strong 
breezes and sudden shifts of wind set in with but little or no warning. 

During shamals, especially in summer, and while the nashi is blow- 
ing in the southern part of the gulf in winter, the very hazy state of 
the atmosphere so completely obscures the land that the surf on the 
beach may be the first intimation of its proximity. 

Passage up the Gulf.— When bound up the gulf, calling at 
Maskat, it is usual to make the Arabian coast, which in the fine season 



GENEEAL REMARKS. 41 

is generally visible from a great distance, especially at sunset. The 
high land between Eas Abu Daud and Sur is first seen, and the Devil's 
Gap is noticeable. 

During the southwest monsoon, pass some 3 miles off Kas al Hadd ; 
the high land will probably not be visible until off Sur or Kalhat, 
and, owing to the haze, may not be seen at all if far off-shore, except 
that it often shows about sunset. 

Maskat to the entrance. — ^From Maskat steer to pass a con- 
venient distance from Eas al Kuh and the Salama wa Binataha. 
With a shamal, to avoid the lee current and heavier swell on the 
Arabian coast, it is best to stand well over toward the Persian coast. 

The Persian coast is fairly steep-to and safe of approach eastward 
of Cape Jashk, but is low, and the hills a considerable distance 
inland; therefore it should be given a good berth at night. The 
coast continues low northward to Jezirat Hormuz, and the hills in 
the background render it difficult to judge the distance off-shore. 
The lead is but little guide. 

The tidal currents oq^ the Arabian coast northward of Jazirat 
Lima are very strong, especially northward of Jazirat Umm al 
Faiyarin, and the water is too deep for anchoring. 

The entrance to Jezirat Tanb. — From Eas al Kuh to Jezirat 
H^njam the tidal currents become strong across the entrance. On 
passing the Salama wa Binataha, guard against the northgoing 
current. 

The shamal blows here from west-southwest to southwest, and the 
lee shore must not be closely approached. There is sheltered an- 
chorage northward of Jezirat Hormuz, or Kishm town. 

The fiat off the southwestern end of Kishm Island requires caution 
when approaching it; discolored water marks its edge, and fishing 
boats often anchor h^re. 

Jezirat Tanb to Jezirat Kais. — Pass on either side of Coote 
Rock, Jezirat Tanb, and Jezirat Nabiyu Tanb. Thence pass near 
Jezirat Farur, which shows well at night unless the weather is hazy, 
and Jezirat Kais. 

In shamals there is less sea. near the Persian coast than at a dis- 
tance off it. 

Jezirat Kais to Ras al Mutaf. — Pass southward of Jezair 
Hindarabi and Sheikh Shuaib, and then southwestward of Eas al 
Mutaf: the mudcolored water on the shoal, of which the ras is the 
southwestern extremity, extends some miles outside it, and is a good 
indication of its vicinity by day. 

In thick weather, or at night, a depth of 15 fathoms leads about 
10 miles southwestward of Eas Mutaf, but caution is necessary, for 
if set to the northeastward, the course would lead from depths of 
30 to 40 fathoms, through 15 fathoms, directly on to the shoal. 

ITSeOS**— 20 4 



42 ROUTES^ 

From Jezirat Kais to Eas al Mutaf , the smoothest water is inside 
the islands, and this route can be taken in daylight. 

The channel between Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib and the mainland, 
where there is anchoring ground, is clear, but neither the sandy shoal 
off the low eastern point, nor the western end of the island, should 
be approached closely. 

Shelter from shamals can be obtained in Chiru Bay, oflf the eastern 
end of Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib, off Shiwu, and under Ras al Mutaf 
Shoal. 

The lead is no guide in passing Jezair Kais, Hindarabi and Sheikh 
Shuaib, deep water being close to them. 

Ras al Mutaf to Abu Shahr (Bushire) . — From about 10 miles 
southwestward of Mukhaila, an islet 11 miles northwestward of Ras 
al Mutaf, steer to pass about 6 miles outside Abu Shahr peninsula. 
This track leads along, and from 6 to 10 miles off the coast, in general 
depths of from 12 to 22 fathoms. The coast near Ras al Khan, 15 
miles north-northwestward of Mukhaila, is very low, but the moun- 
tains, about 4 miles inland, extending some 40 miles northward from 
about 9 miles northward of Ras al Khan, are conspicuous. 

If bound for Abu Shahr harbor, make Rishahr Point, off which 
the 10- fathom curve is 4 miles distant. Then cautiously stand in to 
6 fathoms, and run along shore in that depth until the lightbuoy at 
the outer anchorage is sighted. 

At night keep in 10 fathoms water, and make Abu Shahr lights. 

Abu Shahr (Bushire) to Shatt al Arab. — ^From off Abu Shahr, 
steer direct to the lightvessel and thence to the outer lightbuoy off 
the Shatt al Arab, which, if in position, can be easily made out in 
moderate weather ; but, if the weather be thick and the ship's position 
uncertain, endeavor to strike soundings on the Maidan Ali, and steer 
westward in 5 fathoms until the buoy is sighted. Take a departure 
from Kharag. 

Shatt al Arab down the gulf. — If when off the bar a kaus 
(southeaster) suddenly sets in, and it should be necessary to anchor, 
the Maidan Ali appears to afford the best anchorage, as it is said that 
on this bank the force of the sea is less than in the channels or farther 
seaward. 

Naband Bay affords shelter from a kaus, but, if followed by a 
shamal, a heavy sea would set in. Nakhilu Bay is the best anchorage 
in a kaus. 

During a shamal, the extreme haziness of the air renders the great- 
est caution necessary in making or passing any of the islands, the 
lead being no guide. Jezirat Farur is the easiest to see, it being dark 
colored, high, and steep-to, except a small ledge on its western side. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 43 

Shelter can be obtained during a kaus either in Charak or Mughu 
Bays, but it is necessary to anchor well in, where there is shelter in 
a shamal, or everything must be ready to weigh and quit. Between 
Linga and the Basidu Flat there is not much sea in easterly winds. 
There is good anchorage northwestward, of Jezirat Hormuz in a 
kaus. 

Salama wa Binataha to Maskat. — Steer to pass a moderate 
distance off Eas al Kuh, avoiding the Batina coast, as it is a lee shore 
in a nashi, and in summer a northwesterly current often sets along it. 
From oflf Eas al Kuh steer direct to Maskat ; or, in the summer, steer 
eastward of the direct course, until northward of that place. 

In the southwest monsoon, the wind at Eas al Hadd is often from 
south or south-southeast, with a heavy sea. 



CHAPTER IL 



GULF OF OMAN— ARABIAN COAST. 

RAS AL HADD TO RAS ASH SHATEIF, INCLUDING MASKAT. 

(Lat. 22° 32', Ix)ng. 59** 48', to Lat. 23° 38', Long. 58° 34'.) 

Bas al Hadd. — Ras al Junaiz, the easternmost point of Arabia, 
is a low cliff which continues about 4 miles north -northwestward, 
and thence the coast is low and sandy to Ras al Hadd, 3 miles farther 
in the same direction. Ras al Hadd (Lat. 22° 32', Long. 69° 48'), 
the southeastei'n extremity of the southwestern shore of the Gulf of 
Oman, is low, sandy, and not easily distinguished; the little town 
of Al Hadd, chiefly mat huts, with a few date trees, three round 
towers, and a population of about 700 of the Bani Ghazal tribe, lies 
1 mile southwestward of it. A fourth round tower stands detached 
on Ras Dhaletya on the shore of Khirr al Ha jar. The people arc 
civil, as are the inhabitants of all towns northward of this, and sub- 
ject to the Sultan of Maskat. 

Supplies. — A few goats, fish in abundance, and small quantities 
of fairly good water can be obtained here. 

Anchorage. — There is open anchorage in from 8 to 10 fathoms 
water, coral, with Al Hadd town bearing 270°, from ^ mile to f 
mile offshore; the water shoals rapidly from 10 to 5 fathoms; it 
is very clear and the bottom is visible. In the southwest monsoon 
there is better anchorage between the entrances to Khur al Ha jar 
and Khur Jarama. When anchored, anywhere between Ras al Hadd 
and Sur be prepared for a sudden shift of wind to the northward. 

Temperature. — ^The temperature at Ras al Hadd anchorage, 
varying between 83° by day and 74° at night, in September, is 
much less than that at Maskat. The air is also drier than south- 
ward of Ras al Hadd, as it loses some of its moisture in passing over 
the land. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Ras al Hadd, at 
9 h. 30 m. ; springs rise 9 feet. 

Currents. — The currents off Ras al Hadd are strong, variable, 
and much influenced by the prevailing winds. From April to Au- 
gust, inclusive, the current usually sets northward on the Arabian 
44 



KHUK AL HAJAR, 45 

coast, southward of Ras al Hadd, and northwestward along the 
south shore of the Gulf of Oman, at rates of from 10 to 45 miles a 
day. In September, the current continues to set northward from 10 
to 45 miles a day on the coast southward of Ras al Hadd, but it is 
variable on the south shore of the Gulf of Oman. In October the 
current is variable on the south shore of the Gulf of Oman, but 
generally sets southeastward from 10 to 20 miles a day, and it sets 
southward on the coast southward of Ras al Hadd. In November 
and December it sets southeastward on the south shore of the Gulf 
of Oman from the vicinity of the Diamaniyat islands to Ras al Hadd 
from 10 to 45 pailes a day, and southward to southwestward off the 
coast southward of Ras al Hadd from 10 to 30 miles a day. In Janu- 
ary it sets southeastward 15 to 30 miles a day on the south shore of 
the Gulf of Oman, but in February and March it is variable. 

Sometimes, generally towards the end of the southwest monsoon, 
while the current sets northward on the coast southward of Ras al 
Hadd, it sets southeastward on the coast from Ras Abu Daud (Lat. 
23° 19', Long. 58° 56') to Ras al Hadd, off which the two cur- 
rents appear to combine and turn northeastward at a rate of about 
2 miles an hour, increased by the east-going tidal current. 

Owing to this current, vessels lying to at night off Ras al Hadd 
have been out of sight of land at daylight. 

Soundings. — A bank with depths less than 100 fathpms extends 
about 2 to 4 miles eastward of the coast between Ras al Junaiz and 
Kas al Hadd, and here the 20-fathom curve is about 1 mile off- 
shore. This bank is famous for large fish. Deep water approaches 
the northern side of Ras al Hadd to about ^-mile. There is no known 
off lying shoal on the coast between Ras al Hadd and Ras ash Shajar, 
40 miles northwestward. 

The bank extends about 3 miles off the coast westward of Ras al 
Hadd, but it closes the shore to about 1 mile at Sur, and thence to 
Karyat as Saghira its width varies from 3 to less than a mile. 

In 1885, H. M. S. Ranger reported a sounding of 55 fathoms, sand 
and rock, approximately 18 miles, 125°, from Ras al Hadd, but the 
same vessel was unsuccessful when searching for this bank on a sub- 
sequent occasion, no bottom being obtainable at 80 fathoms. 

The coast from Ras al Hadd trends westward about 2 miles to 
Kas al Haiya, and is low. 

Khur al Hajar (lat. 22° 32', long. 59° 46') is a small inlet used 
by fishing boats ; its entrance between two low cliffs, Ras al Haiya on 
the east and Ras al Hamma on the west, being 350 yards wide. 
There are from 5 to 3^ fathoms in the entrance, but the inlet soon 
shallows to 1\ fathoms, and its inner and largest part dries. The 
entrance trends half a mile south-southeastward, and the inlet ex- 
tends 1 mile eastward, reaching close to the westward of the town 



46 GULF OF OMAN — ARABIAN COAST. 

of Al Hadd. There is anchorage for a small vessel near the entrance, 
in from 4 to 5 fathoms, but it affords no shelter from the northward. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, at Khur al Ha jar at 
9 h. 30 m. ; springs rise 10 feet. At the anchorage near the entrance 
the tidal current sets weakly westward during the flood tide; the 
current sets eastward, with a greatest velocity of about IJ knots, 
during the ebb tide. The times of the turn of the currents before and 
after high water are not known. 

The coast from Bas al Hamma trends westward -about 1 mile to 
Ras Bu Buraij, and is low cliffs. 

Anchorages. — In the southwest monsoon there is good anchorage 
between the entrances to Khur al Ha jar and Khur Jarama, in 12 
fathoms, about J mile offshore, and also off the entrance to Khur 
Jarama, about i mile from the shore, in 10 to 12 fathoms, mud and 
sand, with the low western point apparently half-way across the 
entrance channel, and Kas al Hadd tower bearing 112° ; but they are 
not safe in the northeast monsoon. These are cooler and more pleas- 
ant anchorages than Maskat in the hot season. 

Beacon.— A white conical stone beacon, 10 feet high, stands on 
Ras Bu Buraij. 

Khur Jarama ( Jaramah) . — The entrance to this inlet, westward 
of Bas Bu Buraij, is a mile long, 150 yards wide between cliffs, 60 
feet high, and tortuous; rocks have fallen from the cliff just south- 
ward of Ras Bu Buraij, and are covered at high water. The inlet is 
2J miles long northwest and southeast, with an average width of 
1 mile. 

Depths. — Between the entrance points there are from 4 to 6 
fathoms, mud, but J mile farther in, shoal ground, with IJ fathoms 
water, extends from the western shore, leaving on the eastern side 
a channel 60 yards wide from cliff to shoal, with a least depth of 3^ 
fathoms. Within this shoal the depths are from 4 to 9 fathoms, pass- 
ing eastward of the island at the inner end of the entrance channel, 
and there is an anchorage about 1 mile long northeast and south- 
west, and 400 yards broad, southward of the island, with from 3 to 4J 
fathoms water, inside which the whole of the inlet shoals to from 
2J to IJ fathoms, and less toward the head. In the channel westward 
of the island there is a depth of 2 fathoms. 

The southern and southwestern shores are low, with a mangrove 
swanfip, and an isolated black flat-topped hill, which is a good mark. 
Though the turnings in the entrance to this harbor are somewhat 
sharp, it is accessible to steamers of less than 15 feet draft, and 
affords excellent shelter. 

Khur Jarama— Directions. — On account of the tidal eddies in 
the bends it is advisable to enter at high water. The anchorage, in 
4 fathoms, inside the island is good, and well sheltered. 



SUE. 47 

Supplies. — ^A few sheep, bullocks, and fowls are obtainable. 

Tides. — :It is high water, full and change, at Khur Jarania at 
9 h. 30 m. ; springs rise 10 feet. The rate of the tidal current through 
the entrance channel is about 2 knots. 

Directions. — ^The small black flat-topped hill on the southwestern 
shore of the harbor, bearing ITG*^, leads to the entrance, which may 
be identified by the beacon on Eas Bu Buraij (lat. 22° 33', long. 
59° 44'). 

When entering give a sufficient berth to Ras Bu Buraij to avoid 
the rocks fallen from the cliflf, and then keep close to the eastern 
shore until past the shoal J mile within the entrance, remembering 
that the channel here is only 60 yards wide from cliff to shoal. Then 
keep in midchannel, pass northeastward of the island dividing the 
passage, and anchor inside it. Flaws of wind are prevalent. 

Khur Jarama is only used by native vessels as a harbor of refuge, 
as there is "no village on its shores, and water is not procurable. 
There is an abundance of fish in the harbor, and beaches on which 
the seine may be hauled. 

Sas Sherh (Sharh). — ^The coast from Khur Jarama to Bas 
Sherh, a slightly projecting point 5 miles to the westward, is cliffs ; 
from Ras Sherh to Sur, 6 miles further westward, it is a ridge of low 
broken hills with patches of cliff. 

Sur (Stir)' is two towns, together ^containing a population, of 
about 10,000, and standing on both sides of a khur, in which small 
craft lie. Fort Seneisala (Sanaisalah), a large square structure with 
towers, near the coast, about 2 miles northwestward of the khur, 
is visible from a distance of about 10 miles. This fort, and an- 
other standing higher, about 1^ miles west-southwestward, are sur- 
rounded by villages of considerable size. Jebel Khamis (Khamis), 
about 8 miles inland, and 2,700 feet high, bearing 212°, leads to the 
place. Just eastward of Sur, the bank of soundings is only 1 mile 
wide. 

Umm Kareimatein (Mukraimatain), the larger town, is on the 
western side of the khur, and inhabitated by the Bani Jannabah 
tribe ; in it is the residence of the Shaikh. Heija ( Aika) , the smaller 
town, is on the eastern side, and inhabited by the Bani Bu Ali; 
the two tribes are often at feud with each other. There is a fort, 
not visible from seaward, called Al Heis; it is chiefly for the pro- 
tection of the wells, and has a garrison of the Sultan of Maskat's 
soldiers; here there is also a customs station. The country inland is 
partly cultivated, and there are many date groves. There is also 
said to be a town about 2 miles inland southward of the khur, where 
there is a good bazaar. 

The khur is extensive, with a bar having 3 feet water at the 
entrance ; within the bar there is a narrow channel about 800 yards 



48 RAS AL HADD TO RAS ASH SHATIEF. 

long north and south, with 1^ to 2 fathoms water ; the khur appears 
to be shoal. The Shaikh levies a tax of $4 on every dhow passing 
over the bar^ and a tax also on each passenger. But little of the 
town of Sur is visible from seaward. 

Anchorage. — There is open anchorage off the town in from 8 to 
11 fathoms, sand bottom, with the eastern entrance point of the khur 
bearing about 178*^ 1,200 yards. The water at the anchorage is very 
clear, and the bottom is visible in 10 fathoms. There is said to be 
shoal water of less than 3 fathoms off Fort SjBneisala, and from 1^ 
to 2 miles west-northwestward of Sur anchorage. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Sur at 9 h. 30 m.; 
springs rise 6J feet. 

Trade. — A large trade is carried on between Sur and India, 
Zanzibar, and the Persian Gulf, in bagalas; it possesses also numerous 
fishing boats, which frequent the coast of Arabia. The exports are 
dried dates and salt fish, and the people manufacture a coarse cloth 
for turbans, etc. Many natives of Kutch (Banyans) are settled 
here, and the trade is very much in their hands. The Sur people are 
enterprising and are bold sailors. 

Supplies. — Cattle and vegetables might be obtained here, but any 
supply of water is doubtful. 

The coast from Sur trends northwestward 29 miles to Has ash 
Shajar (lat. 22° 56', long. 59° 13'), and is generally low cliffs; after 
the first 3 miles it rises to the precipitous Jebel Beni Jabir, of which 
Jebel Kalhat is the southeastern end. These mountains are of 
regular outline, and average 4,500 feet in height ; an inland range is 
higher, probably over 6,000 feet. Northwestward of Ras ash Shajar 
they recede from the coast and end at the Devils Gap. 

Kalhat^ 11 miles northwestward of Sur, is a small village. Kal- 
hat may easily be mistaken for Taiwa, as they are both at entrances 
to gorr^es. A peak of the shore range about 1 mile southeastward 
of Kalhat will, however, usually indicate its position. There is said 
to be anchorage for small craft quite close in sheltered from northerly 
winds by a small projecting point. A vessel of any size would have 
to anchor close to the shore in very deep water. There is good water 
in wells, and bullocks, sheep, poultry, and vegetables are procurable 
in small quantities at this and the following villages. 

At Haiwa (lat. 22° 46', long. 59° 18'), 6i miles northwestward 
of Kalhat, there is anchorage, but no inhabitants. Limestone of 
fine quality is shipped at this place for India. 

Taiwa (Tiwi), 3J miles northwestward of Haiwa, is a large 
village, with a male population of about 300, a date grove in a gorge, 
and a lagoon of fresh water, 400 yards from the sea. There are 
many fruit trees, and a few sheep and goats are procurable. No 
bottom was obtained at 100 fathoms off the village and J mile from 



RAS ASH SHAJAR. 49 

the shore. A naval vessel anchored here in 9 fathoms close to the 
beach and northward of a small spit. 

Shahab (Shab)^ 1^ miles northwestward of Taiwa, is a small 
village with a tower on a little hill at the entrance to a deep gorge 
(Wadi Shab) in the mountains. A fine stream of excellent water 
issues from the valley and forms a lagoon within 50 yards of the 
fiea, which is convenient for vessels watering. Anchorage can be 
obtained in from 20 to 30 fathoms, between 600 and 800 yards off- 
shore, but it should be quitted on the approach of a shamal. 

Makalla wabar, between Shahab and Ras ash Shajar, is an anchor- 
age where small craft obtain shelter from a shamal. Fins and Dagh- 
mar, nearer the ras, are small villages, each having an adult male 
population of about 200 ; like the other villages at the foot of these 
hills they have good water, fruit trees, etc. 

Ras ash Shajar^ 6J miles north-northwestward of Shahab, is 
low, sandy, and well defined only when close-to, but a single conspicu- 
ous tree standing ^ mile southward of the ras might indicate its 
position. About 3^ miles southward of Ras ash Shajar the moun- 
tains recede from the coast, which is low until about 3^ miles north- 
westward of the ras, where the mountains again approach the beach. 

Anchorage has been obtained in 5f fathoms, rock and sand, about 
800 yards from the shore, with Fins tower bearing 175° and Ras 
ash Shajar 308°. During a shamal native boats anchor very close-in 
southeastward of the ras. 

The coast from Ras ash Shajar trends northwestward 28 miles 
to Ras Abu Daud; it is low cliffs until close to Karyat as Saghira, 
when it becomes low and sandy, but it is rocky for 2 miles southward 
* of Ras Abu Daud. 

A shoal extends about 1 mile off the coast for 5 miles northwest- 
ward of Ras ash Shajar. 

Mountains — Devil's Gap (Wadi Hail al Ghaf). — Jebel Beni 
(Bani) Jabir recedes from the coast and terminates abruptly in a 
great bluff, on the southern side of the Devil's Gap (lat. 23° 5', long. 
58° 47'), 23 miles west-northwestward of Ras ash Shajar, and 12 
miles inland. Northward of this gap, and about 12 miles inland, 
is a range of mountains, 6,300 feet high, extending northwest and 
southeast about 12 miles, of even outline on the summit, with Jebel 
Karyat, a small peak, and ending both northward and southward in 
bluffs, that at the southern end of the range being very grand and 
falling in steps. The Devil's Gap is the great valley between these 
ranges; it trends south westward, and when bearing about 250° is 
quite open, and very remarkable ; but it is conspicuous when bearing 
about 216° and 285°. Sometimes when the mountain tops on both 
sides are covered with a streak of dark clouds, the sky is seen clear 



50 GULF OF OMAN — ARABIAN COAST. 

through underneath, which, in the evening, has a singular appear- 
ance. Very heavy squalls sometimes blow out of this valley in winter. 

Jebel Abu Daud (Dawud), 4,000 feet high, is a detached moun- 
tain of irregular outline, deeply furrowed, and of light color, rising 
abruptly immediately westward of Ras Abu Daud: From a distance, 
when bearing about 312^ it makes like an island, with a long slope 
on the inshore and steep to seaward, there being a wide valley be- 
tween it and the back range. It extends 8 miles along the coast. 

These mountains are the first land made on this coast, unless in 
hazy weather; when the sun is about setting their outline is often 
visible for a short time, perhaps only a few minutes. 

From Abu Daud to Maskat there are numerous hills near the sea, 
with ranges of mountains stretching inland. 

Karyat (Kuryat) , two small mat hut villages, lie about 6 miles 
apart, with a large date grove between them, on a sandy plain, inter- 
sected by watercourses, which, in rains, discharge the waters from the 
Devil's Gap. 

Karyat as Saghira (Saghirah) (the small) lies 8^ mil^ southeast- 
ward of Ras Abu Daud, at the southern end of the date grove, and 
li miles southward of a projecting low sandy point. A white fort 
on a small mound above the trees indicates the position of the village, 
and there is a low range of hills about 4 miles inland. 

Karyat al Kabira (Kabirah) (the large) is 3 miles southward of 
Ras Abu Daud; it is on the sandy foreshore, close to the hills, and 
backed by date groves. A small creek, just southward of the village, 
contained several dhows in 1909 ; the bar is awash' at low water ; a 
rocky islet, about 50 feet high, lies close off it. A watercourse also 
runs round the northern end of the grove, forming a small creek. A 
white square building stands a short distance southward of the vil- 
lage, but is almost hidden by date groves; a similar building, which is 
conspicuous, is situated in the village. 

These villages contain about 1,000 men of the Bani Sinan tribe. 
The Bani Jabir are the principal tribe between Karyat and Kalhat; 
northwestward of Karyat are the Bani Battash. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage off Karyat al Kabira in 12 
fathoms, sand, with the rocky islet 227°, and Ras Abu Daud 337°, 
about li miles from the shore, or, for steamers between Karyat al 
Kabira and Ras Abu Daud, in from 4^ to 6 fathoms, i mile off-shore. 

Supplies. — Cattle, fowls, fruit, vegetables, and water can be ob- 
tained here at a cheaper rate than at Maskat. 

Soundings. — The bank of soundings extends about 1 to 3 miles 
off Karyat as Saghira (lat. 23° 12', long. 58° 59') and Ras Abu 
Daud; then to Ras al Khairan, probably 7 or 8 miles, decreasing 
again to 2 and 3 miles from that point to Maskat. 



RAS AL KHAIRAK. 51 

The 20-f athom curve is nowhere more than 1| miles from the shore, 
while at Ras Abu Daud, Khairan, and Maskat it is close to the cliffs. 

Shoal. — A bank of foul ground extends about i mile off the coast 
for about 3 miles northwestward of the low point northward of 
Karyat at Saghira ; it has not been sounded. 

Has Abu Daud is steep and rocky, and a rocky islet, about 100 
feet high, lies 300 yards to the northward, the channel between hav- 
ing a depth of 3 fathoms. The ras is not easily made out unless close 
in, as it is broken up into several points. Small vessels could obtain 
shelter during a shamal in the little bay just southward of the ras, 
but a sailing vessel could not get out if a kaus came on. 

The coast for about 4 miles northwestward of Ras Abu Daud is 
cliffs, Jebel Abu Daud rising abruptly from them; then it becomes 
low and sandy as far as Sif a, 6J miles farther northwestward, the 
mountains turning inland and leaving a plain between them and the 
coast. 

Sif a is a square tower near the coast, on a mound about 60 feet 
high, with a date grove close to it. A range of rugged precipitous 
hills extends from Sif a to Ras al Hamar, about 6 miles west-north- 
westward of Maskat, the coast being almost entirely cliffs, with little 
sandy bays at intervals, and numerous inlets or coves. 

Bas al Khairan (Lat. 23° 32', Long. 58° 46'), 5 miles north- 
northwestward of Sif a, is a vertical cliff about 60 feet high, of a light 
color, as are also the hills within it. There are four little sandy bays 
southward of this point, of which the one close to it is about i a mile 
deep, with 3 fathoms water, but open to the northeast ; Ras Kizkizan 
is the rocky peninsula on its eastern side. The next bay is insignifi- 
cant; in the third, called Sif at ash Sheikh (Shaikh), is a grove of 
date trees ; the last is Khaisat as Sum. 

Bandar Khairan. — Immediately westward of Ras al Khairan are 
two islands, not easily distinguished owing to the similarity of their 
appearance to the mainland. On the southern side of the western 
island is Bandar -Khairan. 

The eastern island is ^ mile long, east and west, with a small rocky 
detached islet on its northeastern side ; the channel inside it, in which 
is a rock above water, is 60 yards wide, tortuous, and shallow. 

The western island is 1,800 yards long, east and west, 800 yards 
broad, 300 feet high, steep, and rocky; close to its eastern end is a 
small detached rock above water, between which and the eastern 
island is the eastern entrance channel, which is 600 yards wide, with 
16 fathoms in the outer part. The anchorage in the passage between 
the island and a projecting point of the coast to the southward is 
from 70 to 200 yards wide, with depths of from 3 J to 5 fathoms ; off 
the southwestern part of the island it is wider, but there is a rocky 



52 KAS AL HADD TO RAS ASH SHATEIF. 

islet in the middle, with 6 fathoms on its northern side, and from 3 
to 4 fathoms around. Southward of this islet is a narrow passage 
leading into a shallow bay extending 1 mile southward^ and ending 
in a swamp ; on its shores is a large grove of date trees and a small 
village. 

The western entrance is 600 yards long, north and south, about 150 
yards wide, and has depths of from 9 to 6 fathoms. This harbor 
is only frequented by fishing boats ; the winds are generally baffling, 
especially in the western entrance, and blow in violent gusts during 
shamals. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Bandar Khairan at 
9 h. m. ; springs rise 5 feet. 

The coast from Khairan trends westward 4 J miles to Yiti, and is 
rocky cliff. 

Yiti is a small sandy bay with a little fishing village and a few 
date trees in the valley. 

The coast from Yiti to Bandar Jissa, 2 miles northwestward, is 
rocky. 

Bandar Jissa ( Jissah) is a bay protected by a precipitous light- 
colored island, 600 yards long, east and west, 200 yards broad, and 
140 feet high, in its mouth. The bay is about 1,600 yards wide, and 
recedes the same distance, with entrances at each end of the island ; 
it has an indented outline, and there is an islet in its southwestern 
part. The eastern entrance is 300 yards wide, with a depth of 7 
fathoms; the western entrance is nearly blocked by a flat rock or 
islet which has 1^ fathoms on each side. 

Anchorage can be obtained in from 4 to 7 fathoms. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Bandar Jissa at 
9 h. 0. m. ; springs rise 5 feet. 

Village. — Westward of the islet in the bay is a large village with 
a population of. about 500, and a date grove. 

Supplies. — Poultry and eggs can be purchased at Bandar Jissa 
village, and good water obtained from wells about i mile distant 
from it. 

The coast from Bandar Jissa trends northwestward 4J miles to 
Maskat, and is a succession of rocky points and sandy bays, with 
several villages. Saddle Hill. 3J miles west-northwestward of 
Bandar Jissa, and IJ miles inland, is 1,340 feet high; it forms two 
sharp peaks' the summits of a very rugged dark range, which in 
line bear about 250* true. It is not very noticeable from- the north- 
ward, as the peaks then appear some distance apart. Al Bustan, the 
southernmost of the villages, has a data grove, and the inhabitants 
are agricultural. Kantab lies under Saddle Hill; it is a small fishing 
village not shown on the chart, and has near it, in the sandy bay, a 
pyramidal rock close to the shore. 



MASKAT ISLAND. 58 

Sudab (Sidab), a fishing village on the north shore of Bandar 
Sudab, a cove, 3^ miles northwestward of Bandar Jissa, which might 
afford shelter to small craft in a shamal, is separated from Maskat" 
by a short ridge; there is. a footpath between with a wall and gate 
in the pass. The coast on both sides of Sudab is cliffs, rising to 
I'ugged hills. 

Ras al Kanada (Lat. 23° 37', Lrong. 58° 37'), 1,200 yards north- 
eastward of Sudab, is a cliff about 250 feet high; a detached pillar 
rock, about 100 feet high, lies 400 yards northward of the ras. Two 
small rocks, 4 to 6 feet high, lie within 200 yards from the shore 
about 800 yards northward of Eas al Kanada. 

Moghab Bay (Mughab), about i mile northwestward of the 
detached pillar rock and close southward of Jalali Fort, is small, but 
affords good landing for boats, and there is sheltered anchorage for 
vessels of any size during a shamal off the bay and southward of 
Maskat Island. But the telegraph cable from Jashk is landed in 
the bay, and knowledge of its position and caution are necessary 
before anchoring, to avoid fouling it. 

Maskat Island (Al Jazira), 1,200 yards northward of Eas a] 
Kanada, is 1,400 yards long, north-northwest and south-southeast, 
300 yards broad, 350 feet high, and its coasts are very irregular, 
rocky, and precipitous. A pillar rock, 160 feet high, lies close off 
its southeastern point. * There is deep water close to the east coast, 
and depths of 30 fathoms from 200 to 400 yards off it. 

Eas Maskat (lat. 23° 38', long. 58° 36'), the northern point of 
the island, is a round sloping bluff, with cliffs to the south west ward.* 
A reef extends about 60 yards northward of the ras, and about 50 
yards farther northward, with depths of from 2 to 3 fathoms in 
the channel between, is Fisher's rock, 20 yards in extent and 10 feet 
high. There is a depth of 10 fathoms close northward of the rock. 

Sira (Castle), on a small point 300 yards southwestward of Eas 
Maskat, is a fort or battery near the sea, with a tower halfway up 
the hill. - 

Maskat Cove, the eastern of five coves Jying between Maskat 
island and Eas ash Shateif, IJ miles west-northwestward, extends 
southeastward about J -mile, with a least width of about J mile, and 
has depths of from 9 to 13 fathoms in the entrance, shoaling grad- 
ually to 6 fathoms eastward of Sira al Gharbi (Sirat al Gharbiyah), 
and thence to 2 fathoms about 200 yards from the white sandy beach 
at the head of the cove. 

Pinnacle Eock, close to Maskat Island, rather over 200 yards 
^uth-southeastward of Sira, is above water and white-topped. A 
rocky patch, with depths of from 3 to 2J fathoms, extends 25 yards 
wegt-northwestward from about 50 yards west-northwestward of 



54 GULF OF OMAN — ABABIAN COAST, 

Pinnacle Rock, the least water being on its outer end. This rock, 
which is visible from the surface, prevents a vessel's stem being 
secured to Pinnacle Rock, unless anchored with Pinnacle Rock, bear- 
ing eastward of 109°. 

The western shore of Maskat Cove rises to a detached precipitous 
ridge 435 feet high, the northern extremity of which is Ras Kalbu ; 
there is a prominent white tower near the ras. About 700 yards 
southeastward from Ras Kalbu, a spur of the main ridge extends 
about 200 yards eastward into the cove, and on its outer end is the 
Sira al Gharbi (A\est Castle) (lat. 23° 38', long. 58° 36'), a fort 
with two tiers of embrasures, and a round tower on its highest part. 
Makalla (Makallah) Bay, on the southern side of this spur, has 
depths of 3 fathoms and less ; the smaller native vessels anchor here, 
and on the shore at its head are coal sheds. The ridge slopes down 
at its southern end to a cliff about 150 feet high crowned by the 
large fort of Merani (Mirani), with a battery near the sea level. 

This fort, built by the Portuguese in 1588, is at the head of the 
cove, and close-to, on its southern side, is the landing place; boats 
can be conveniently hauled up and repaired here. 

The front of the town extends about 400 yards along the beach at 
the head of the cove eastward of Fort Merani, and between it and 
Maskat Island are two small detached hills ; the southwestern, ab'out 
150 feet high, is joined to the town by a low- sandy isthmus, and has 
on it the large Jalali fort, also built by the Portuguese, with two 
tiers of casemated embrasures. This and Merani are the two princi- 
pal forts, and command the town. The northeastern hill, about 100 
feet high, becomes an islet at high water; the narrow Duweira 
(Duwairah) passage, separating it from Maskat Island, is avail- 
able for small boats, though it is reported to be nearly dry at low 
water. 

Mooring buoys. — ^Two small mooring buoys for boats lie 200 
yards eastward of the northern extremity of Fort Merani, and a 
white mooring buoy, for the Sultan's yacht, lies 200 yards north- 
ward of the fort. 

Pier. — A pier exterids 300 feet eastward from the shore in the 
vicinity of the coal sheds in Makalla Bay, and has 4 feet water at its 
outer end. It is used for loading and unloading coal lighters, but is 
not available for landing as there is no way round into Maskat. 

Wreck. — The wreck of a small sailing vessel lies in 3 fathoms 
water, 196°, 150 yards from the southeastern extremity of Sira al 
Gharbi. 

Range lights. — Fixed white, established for entering Maskat 
Cove. 

The front light is shown from the British consulate flagstaff, at 
an elevation of 62 feet. 



MASKAT COVE — ANCHORAGE — TIDES. , 55 

The rear light is situated at a distance of about 450 yards 157^ 
from the front light at an elevation of 165 feet. 

They are unreliable. Fishers Kock well open of the northwest 
extremity of Maskat Island, or Pillar Rock well open of the south- 
western extremity of that island, leads westward of Pinnacle Rock. 

A flashing white light every 5 seconds is established on the east- 
ern side of Maskat Island on the point 534 yards 132° from Fishers 
Rock. 

Anchorage. — ^Anchor off the western shore, near Sira al Gharbi 
Point ; native vessels anchor closer in. 

A good berth for a large vessel is about 300 yards westward of 
Pinnacle Rock, with a hawser to that rock and her stern hauled 
toward it ; in this position a vessel will lie broadside on to the breeze. 

In the hot season small vessels anchor about 300 yards northwest- 
ward of Dtiweira Passage, and cant the stern toward the island by 
a hawser made fast to a chain secured around a rock for this pur- 
pose, which should be eased up during northerly winds. This is a 
cool berth. 

Maskat Cove is open to shamals, which, however, as a rule, blow 
from some 20° off the western shore, while the sea sets straight in ; a 
vessel making a stay should therefore always use a stem anchor to 
keep her head on to the swell. Nashis also send in a heavy sea, and 
there is little or no shelter from them. The bottom is sand and 
shells, butj with a long scope of cable, vessels seldom drag, and near 
the rocks there appears to be a rebound of the sea, which lessens the 
strain. Outside the cove, in depths over 20 fathoms, the bottom is 
clay or mud. 

A good line for approaching the anchorage westward of Pinnacle 
Rock is with the British consulate flagstaff in range with the eastern 
end of the wall eastward of Buma Sali tower bearing 158°. 

Within the 5-f athom curve is generally unavailable as anchorage, 
as the space is usually occupied by dhows and the Sultan's yacht. 

There is good anchorage, even during a heavy shamal, at 400 yards 
eastward of the coaling pier, over a sandy bottom. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, in Maskat Cove at 
9 h. 32 m. ; springs rise 9 feet, neaps 6 feet. 

Directions. — ^Approaching Maskat either from the eastward or 
westward, Saddle Hill is remarkable. In the background are the 
Karyat Range, and, to the westward, Jebel Tain and Jebel Kakhl, 
with lower ranges between them and the coast. These are visible 
in clear weather. 

Maskat (lat. 23° 37', long. 58° 36') has often been passed as the 
towns do not show up well under the dark hills, and are only visible 
when the coves are open. 



66 GULF OF OMAN — ARABIAN COAST. 

In the morning, Jalali Fort, on westerly bearings, with the sun 
shining on it, sometimes shows white against the dark hills behind. 

From the westward, Fahal Island is a good mark. 

In hazy weather, if unable to make the place out, steer for Saddle 
Hill, the most rugged part of the range. 

At night, from the eastward, give a wide berth to Fishers Rock 
and anchor in the mouth of the cove near Ras Ralbu. 

From the northward or westward, make Fahal Island, and steer 
direct to the mouth of the cove, anchoring as above directed. The 
shipping do not show well against the hills, especially at night, but 
when close, their hulls might be seen, especially from aloft. 

Caution. — The greatest care is necessary when making the cove at 
night. 

A British naval vessel entered the cove when a heavy swell was 
rolling in, but found no difficulty in picking up a berth. While 
swinging to her anchor the ship rolled heavily, but found a back- 
ward scend of the sea which greatly lessened the strain on the cable. 
She rode comfortably at anchor with 50 fathoms of chain out, 
although the wind and the sea continued fairly high. 

Maskat town presents a picturesque appearance from the sea, 
but its interior, for the most part, is mean and squalid. The front 
is built close to the beach at the head of the cove. The walls are on 
the western and southern sides, the eastern and part of the southern 
side being close to, and even against the face of the hills. The 
suburbs of mat huts occupy every available piece of level ground in 
the vicinity. The population is estimated at 10,000 people of mixed 
races, but no regular census has ever been taken. There is not pre- 
tence at sanitation. The sultan's palace is the largest building on 
the sea front; the mosques are small, and have neither domes nor 
minarets. The British consulate is a large house, with a flagstaff, at 
the eastern end of the town. There are several towers on the sur- 
rounding hills, and the Buma Sali Tower, i mile southward of the 
British consulate, on a ridge, the highest part of which is bW feet 
high, is very prominent. 

Maskat is a port of call for steamers, but the hills around prevent 
communication with the interior; Matra, 1^ miles to the westward 
supplies this want, and is the local center for the inland trade. 

Supplies. — Considerable supplies are obtainable from the coun- 
try, including firewood, sheep, cattle, vegetables, limes, oranges, 
grapes, plantains, and other fruits; fowls, flour, rice, dholl, soft 
bread, fish, and spirits are also procurable. These is no salt me^t nor 
biscuit. 

Coal. — There is no coal, patent fuel, nor oil fuel in the market. 

Water from wells in the suburbs is carried to the landing place 
by a small aqueduct which runs by the side of the watercourse, and 



MASKAT — HEALTH — COMMUNICATIONS. 5 7 

is taken off to vessels in the anchorage by native boats in 50 gallon 
casks. After a long drought it is scarce and bad; it is not at any 
time now used for drinking purposes in British naval vessels. 

Health. — ^Maskat is not unhealthy, although it is said to be one 
of the hottest towns in the world. The highest temperature recorded 
in 1912-13 was 114° F., and the lowest 64°. The high temperatures 
are due to the hot winds, which sometimes in summer, aYid generally 
for only a few hours at night, blow from the Arabian deserts and 
barren rocks round Maskat. For the greater part of the summer, 
owing to the high state of humidity of the atmosphere, in combina- 
tion with a high temperature, the climate is very trying. From 
November until the middle of March the weather is pleasant, but 
fails to be bracing, as the temperature seldom falls below 60°. The 
average rainfall is 4 inches, and it is due to this that Maskat may 
be considered to be a fairly healthy port, provided ordinary precau- 
tions are taken if using shore water to purify it by boiling or filtra- 
tion, and to protect oneself from mosquitoes, which, during winter, 
are numerous in the town and cause a considerable amount of malaria 
among the natives. There were no cases of cholera, smallpox, or 
plague during the year 1912-13, and only a few cases of dysentery 
and enteric fever among the native population. 

Hospital. — The hospital, which is in charge of an officer of the 
Indian Medical Service, is situated to the westward of the British 
Consulate (lat. 23° 37', Long. 58° 36'). 

Consuls. — There is a British political agent and consul at Maskat. 
There are also an American and a French consul. 

Communications. — In normal times the British India Steam 
Navigation Co. provide a fast mail service, and also a subsidiary 
mail service, weekly between Bombay anad Basra, and the vessels 
call at Maskat both ways. The vessels of the Arab Steamers (Ltd.) 
maintain an irregular service between Bombay and Basra, calling at 
Maskat. Vessels of the Bucknall Steamship Line and the West 
Hartlepool Steam Navigation Co. from London. 

Maskat (lat. 23° 37', long. 58° 36') is connected by telegraph 
cable with Jashk, and thus with all parts of the world. 

There are post and telegraph offices at Maskat, which have been 
established bv the Indian Government. 

Trade. — ^The exports consist chiefly of rifles and cartridges, dates, 
coarse cotton fabrics, mother of pearl, fruits, and dried fish. The 
imports, on which duty is levied without distinction, are rifles and 
cartridges, sugar, rice, cotton goods, wheat, coffee, silk, kerosene, 
twist, and yarn. 

Manufactures are few. Certain kinds of cloths used by the Arabs 
are woven, and arms, such as swords, etc., are made here. 

173608**— 20 — -5 



58 RAS AL HADD TO RAS ASH SHATEIF. 

Shipping. — Several large square-rigged ships belong to Maskat, 
besides a great many bagalas and other native craft. 

Currency. — The currency is the Maria Theresa dollar, and the 
debased copper coin minted in 1895 to the order, of His Highness the 
Sultan. Sovereigns and other British coins are also current in 
Maskat and Matra. In the interior these coins are exchanged at a 
discount. 

Trade accounts are kept in mohamadis and gaj, imaginary coins. 
There are two kinds of mohamadis, black and white, and 20^ black 
or 11^ white are equivalent to one dollar. The black is used in whole- 
sale trade accounts and the white for fruits, vegetables, etc. Twenty 
gaj equals 1 white mohamadi; llj white mohamadis equal one dol- 
lar ; 100 white mohammadis equal 1 tuman. 

Weights and measures. — These are of two different kinds, one 
for the Sultan's customers and the other for retail bazaar use. Those 
used by the Sultan's customers are: One kiyas equals 6 dollars or 
5.9375 ounces; 1 Maskat mann equals 144 dollars, or 24 kiyas, or 8 
pounds 14^ ounces; 10 Maskat manns equal 1 farasilah; 200 Maskat 
manns equal 1 bahar. 

There is another weight, called bahar, equals 400 Maskat manns, 
which is used exclusively for weighing salt. 

Bazaar weights are : One kiyas equals 5.71 dollars or 5.67 ounces ; 
24 kiyas, or 137 dollars, or 8 pounds 8 ounces, equal 1 Maskat mann. 

With the exception of rice, which is sold in bags, all cereals are 
sold by palli and farah (wooden bowls) : Forty pallis equal 1 farah; 
20 farahs equal 1 khandi. When measuring in palli the measure is 
heaped up. 

The Indian rupee is taken as 1 tola, and is used for weighing per- 
fumeries. The weight of a Maria Theresa dollar is called whoogiah, 
and is chiefly used in weighing amber: Six miskals equal 1 rupee 
weight; 8 miskals equal 1 dollar weight. 

The measures are:. One shibr equals 1 palm, or 4| inches; 2 shibr 

equal J thraah, or 9 inches; 1 thraah equals. 18 inches; 2 thraas equal 
1 yard; 4 thraahs equal 1 baah; 1 baah equals 1 fathom. In all 

transactions the thraah is used. 

Kalbu Cove (Kalbuh) extends about 60 yards southward, be- 
tween the promontory terminating northward in Ras Kalbu and the 
promontory which terminates in Ras al Baz (lat. 23° 38', long. 58° 
35'), about 800 yards to the westward. A rocky spit, awash at high 
water, extends about 120 yards into the cove from about 100 yards 
southward of Ras Kalbu. Ras al Baz is a small isolated hill about 
100 feet high, with a round tower on it ; reefs extend some 70 yards 
around in places. There are depths of from 8 to 4 fathoms in the 
outer part of the cove, but this part is not used for anchorage, as it 



AL MATEA, 59 

affords but little shelter; in the inner part there are depths of from 
4 to 1 fathom. 

A sandy isthmus, on which is the small Doha village, connects Ras 
al Baz to the higher part of the promontory to the southward. Kalbu 
town, at the head of the cove, nearly joins the suburbs of Maskat to 
the southeastward; the people are the Bani Marazit Arabs. 

Matra (Matrah) Bay. — Ras Kowasir, the western point of 
Matra Bay, 1,450 yards west-northwestward from Ras al Baz, is a 
precipitous point 150 feet high, with a rocky ledge, on which are some 
rocks 50 feet high, extending 300 yards eastward from it. There is 
also a small low islet 200 yards northeastward of the ras. Matra 
Bay lies between Ras al Baz and Ras Kowasir, and extends 1,400 
yards southwestward. Riyam Cove lies in its southeastern part, and 
there are several small bays and villages around the bay, the town of 
Al Matra being at its head. Riyam Village is inhabited by the Bani 
Hamadi Arabs. 

A detached hill about 100 feet high, on which stands Al Matra 
castle, separates Al Matra town from the large Mateira (Matairah) 
village, which is inhabited by fishermen. The remarkably sharp 
Matra peak, 1,010 feet high, the highest part of a range, lies 1,300 
yards southward of the castle. 

Bock. — ^A small rock, with IJ fathoms water, lies 380 yards, 
13° from the eastern tower of Al Matra castle. 

Anchorage. — Matra Bay affords good shelter in a shamal, but 
is open to the nashi. The larger native vessels always anchor here, 
but square-rigged vessels seldom do so. using Maskat Cove in pref- 
erence. The anchorage is close off the northwestern shore, between 
Ras Kowasir and Arbak South Fort, about 800 yards southwestward. 
The best landing in a nashi is on the rocks at the northwestern 
comer of the beach, westward of Arbak South Fort. 

There is a red mooring buoy for lighters in about 3^ fathoms, on 
the western side of the bay. 

Al Matra is under a wali or lieutenant governor. Its population 
is about 14,000, and most of the merchants of Maskat reside here. 
The town (lat. 23° 37', long. 58° 34'), is chiefly mean and squalid; 
the part inside the walls is well built, and the Khojahs have a sep- 
arate fortified quarter containing about 500 houses, into which only 
those of their own sect are admitted. 

Gommunication. — The only pass from Maskat into the interior 
by land is through Al Matra, which, wherever the hills are accessible, 
is fortified on the land side by a wall and towers; there are also 
many detached towers on the hills round the town. 

The route by land from Al Matra to Maskat is through Mateira, 
and thence either by a steep and rugged pass through Riyam or by a 



60 GULF OF OMAN — ARABIAN COAST. 

very rugged steep pass direct to Maskat, but neither of these oaths is 
practicable for laden animals. Everything is sent between these 
places by sea in large canoes, which ply regularly, and afford the 
general mode of transit. 

Shateif Cove. — Ras ash Shatei^ (Shataifi) lies about J mile 
north-northwestward of Ras Kowasir, and Shateif Cove extends a 
similar distance west-southwestward between. It is open to nashis. 
and is not used for anchorage. Shateif village, which is inhabited 
by fishermen, is insignificant. There is a footpath through the hills 
from Shateif to Arbak, a village on the north side of Al Matra. 
Ras ash Shateif is a vertical bluff, the northeastern end of a rid^je 
about 200. to 300 feet nigh ; it has deep water close-to. 



CHAPTER HI. 

GULF OF OMAN— ARABIAN COAST. 

RAS ASH SHATEIF TO SALAMA WA BINATASHA. 

(Lat. 23° 38', Long. 58° 34', to Lat. 26'' 30', Long. 5G*' 32'.) 

The coast from Ras ash Shateif trends westward, and is cliffy, 
about 1 mile to Ras Kint (Aiyint), a small projecting point, with 
Eint, a little village, westward of it. 

Little Dar Sait is a small shallow bay westward of Eint ; it is well 
sheltered by rocks, and small boats could safely anchor. There are 
a few huts on the shore, but there is no pass to the interior, and 
communication with Dar Sait is along the shore rocks. 

Dar Sait (Darsait) (Lat. 23° 38', Long. 58° 31'), the only 
village of any size between Ras ash Shateif and Ras Hamar, is 
situated on a sand and shingle beach, at the mouth of a deep wadi, 
about 2i miles w^tward of Ras ash Shateif. The village is in two 
parts of about 40 huts each ; a stone fort, 12 yards square, and about 
15 feet high, in the front of the western part, is the only stone build- 
ing; a smaller fort is hidden amongst the huts of the eastern part. 
There are two towers on the spurs of the hills, one on each side of 
the village; each is about 15 feet in diameter, the eastern is about 3(J 
feet high, and the western, which is in ruins, 50 feet high. The wadi 
is full of palms, and from its head a path leads through the hills to 
Al Matra. Water for drinking is carried round from Little Dar 
Sait. There appears to be a considerable fishing trade. 

Open anchorage can be obtained in about 6 fathoms, sand, J mile 
northward of the village, but rocks extend a considerable distance 
off-shore on both sides, and a group of rocks projects nearly 200 yards 
off the western end of the beach. The beach is fairly steep-to, and 
landing in ordinary weather is easy, but it would probably be im- 
practicable during either a shamad or nashi ; the best place appears to 
be the western end of the beach. 

Rock. — A rock with a depth of about 2 fathoms lies at about 600 
yards northeastward of the eastward point of Dar Sait anchorage. 

Close westward of Dar Sait is a remarkable red hill, about 400 
feet high, showing two paps with cliffs at the base. Thence a 
sandy beach extends about a mile northwestwatrd to Ras al Abyaz 
(Abyadh), a sloping point, and a little further westward is Ras al 
Hamar. 

61 



62 THE BATIXA (BATIXAH) COAST. 

Bas al Hamur is a red cliffy point about 150 fe^ lugli* 

Tahalf 2 miles northward of Sas al Hamar, is an island 700 yards 
long north and south, narrow, 280 feet high^ precipitous and steep-to, 
with depths of from 14 to 38 fathoms round. The island is of a 
light color and generally shows against the land. Landing can only 
be obtained on its southwestern point, the cliffs overhanging all 
round. The passage between the island and the mainland is clear 
and deep. 

The coast from Ras al Hamar trends southwestward and west- 
ward 20 miles to Sib, forming Kubbat al Hail, a large, sandy bay. 

MotLUtains. — ^The hills trend southwestward from Sas al Hamar, 
and increase in height until they culminate in Jebel Tain (Tayin), 
5,250 feet high, 21 miles from the ras. Their shape is not remark- 
able, but White Hill, about 8 miles southwestward of the ras and 4 
miles inland, is distinguishable by its color. 

Wadi Semail (Samail), a great valley, separates the ranges of 
Jebel Tain and Nakhl, the latter extending northeast and southwest 
on the western side. The Nakhl range has four principal peaks, the 
.highest being 7,740 feet high. Jebel Nakhl (lat. 23° 20', long. 57° 
53'), 7,000 feet high, appears like a pepperbox on the top of the 
mountain. It is visible from off Maskat, but further westward be- 
comes hidden behind other peaks until near Barka, 15 miles west- 
ward of Sib. 

Sounding^. — ^The 100- fathom curve is about 3 miles northeast- 
ward of Maskat Island and Fahal, and about 16 miles off Sib. The 
20-f athom curve runs from Ras ash Shateif nearly straight to Fahal, 
and thence continues about 3 miles offshore until near Sib, where 
the flat begins, near the edge of which are the Daimaniyat Islands. 
The bottom is mud and sand, but, in upward of 2 fathoms, chiefly 
mud. 

The Batina (Batinah.) coast begins at Khuwair, 1 mile south- 
westward of Ras al Hamar, where the cliffs end, and extends west- 
ward and northwestward 150 miles to the neighborhood of Khur 
Kalba. It is low and sandy, with sandhills and date groves in places, 
and many towns an(J villages. The country inland for an average 
distance of about 12 miles is generally level. 

This coast is clear of shoals, with the exception of those in the vicin- 
ity and southward of the Daimaniyat Islands, but has neither har- 
bors nor creeks that will admit anything but very small boats. It is 
quite open to both shamals and nashis ; for the latter it is a lee shore, 
consequently all trade with Maskat is carried on in boats which can 
be hauled up in bad weather. 

Supplies. — Cattle, poultry, fish, and vegetables can be obtained at 
all the towns. Water is plentiful, but should be taken off in the 



GULF OF OMAN — ARABIAN COAST. 63 

ship's boats ; it is obtained from wells, often sunk but a short distance 
from the beach. Firewood can be procured, but the supply is very 
limited. Very fine dates are exported. 

Eubbat al Hail — ^Villages. — Khuwair is a little creek where a 
large watercourse discharges ; there are a few huts here, and mangrove 
trees that are cut for firewood. 

Khalil is a small village, with fort and date grove, the first in the 
Batina district, about 11 miles westward of Khuwair, and 3 miles 
from the commencement of the sandy shore. 

Hail (Hail) (Hail al 'Umair) is a little village on the coast, 3| 
miles west-northwestward of Khalil; the date groves extend continu- 
ously from the village to 2 miles westward of Sib. 

Sib (Sib), 4 miles west-northwestward of Hail (Lat. 23° 41', 
Long. 58° 10'), is a scattered town, chiefly built of mat huts, with 
two small detached forts; several boats belong to it. There is a 
bazaar, extensive date plantings, and many gardens. Produce is 
sent Hence to Maskat. Sib appears to be more fertile than other 
places in the neighborhood, and the palm trees are better tended. It 
is frequented in summer by visitors from Maskat, who erect tem- 
porary houses, being cooler and heajthier than Maskat, and more 
open to all breezes. It is governed by a Wali. 

Anchorage may be obtained in 5 fathoms, at about J mile from 
the shore. 

Jebel Akhdhar. — From westward of Sib the great bluff of Jebel 
Akhdhar, 9,900 feet high, situated 43 miles southwestward of Suadi 
point, becomes visible ; it has two steps on the upper part, the north 
face appearing nearly precipitous and the top sloping gradually 
westward from the steps. There are lower ranges between it and 
the coast. 

The coasty low and sandy, projects a little westward of Sib, with 
date groves along it generally. 

Sas al Ghaf is a broad low point 5 miles westward of Sib. Here- 
abouts there is a space of 4 miles with sandhills a little inland, and 
no date trees near the coast. The ras is named from two large ghaf 
or acacia trees on the most projecting part. 

Shoal. — A sand bank, with 3 fathoms water, lies IJ miles north- 
ward of Bas al Ghaf; there is a depth of 4 fathoms in the passage 
between the bank and the land. 

Daimaniyat Islands^ called by Arab seamen Saba' jazair, lie 
nearly parallel with the coast, from 6^ to 8 miles offshore ; they are 
all quite barren and without water, and are frequented by fishermen 
from the mainland, who come over in small boats called badan, and 
catamarans made of date stalks, called shashah. 



L 



64 BARKA. 

Jazirat Kharaba (Kharabah), the eastern of these islands, situ- 
ated 8 miles north-northeastward of Ras al Ghaf . is an islet about J 
mile in extent and about 25 feet high, with black rocky points and 
white sand beaches between, which might show at night; a reef 
extends about a mile off its northern and eastern sides, and there are 
depths of 20 fathoms J mile off it. There are several detached rocks 
around the islet. 

The eastern islet of the middle group lies 3 miles west-northwest- 
ward of Jazirat Kharaba, and the group extends westward 3.7 miles. 
It is seven islets of different sizes in a line, with some detached rocks. 
The islets are from 30 to 40 feet high, with low cliffs of light brown 
color, difficult to see at night. The western and largest islet has 
two little hills with a valley between, and i^ 1,600 yards long. and 
i mile wide. They are said to be steep-to, with no outlying shoals. 
The soundings are no guide to approach them from inshore. 

The western group, consisting of Jazirat Jun and three islets or 
rocks, lies 3J miles west-southwestward from the middle group, the 
passage between being clear with about 19 fathoms water ; the group 
extends westward 1^ miles. Jazirat Jun (lat. 23° 49', long. 57° 59') 
is 107 feet high near the western end, 1,600 yards long east and west, 
very narrow, of light brown color, and not easily seen at night. 

There is tolerable anchorage on the southern side of Jazirat *Jun 
in 7 to 8 fathoms, sand, about J mile off a small sandy beach and 
sheltered from the northward, though much swell rolls round the 
island with strong winds. About ^ mile southward of Jazirat Jun 
is a 4J-fathom bank, with 8 fathoms between it and the island. 

A 2-fathom spit extends about 300 yards southeastward from the 
western islet or rock. 

Clive Rock lies about 1 mile 300° from Jazirat Jun; it is a de- 
tached patch about J mile in extent, with IJ fathoms water, coral 
rock, and 14 to 20 fathoms J mile around. The rock is visible from 
aloft when the sun is in a favorable position. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Jazirat Jun at 9 h. 
30 m. ; springs rise 10 feet. 

Soundings. — ^The 100-fathom curve is about 4 to 6 miles north- 
ward of the Daimaniyat Islands ; inside them the depths are fairly 
regular and less than 20 fathoms, except in the vicinity of the eastern 
group. In less than 20 fathoms the bottom is mud and sand; in 
deeper water, chiefly mud. There is a depth of 20 fathoms 1 J miles 
northward of Jazirat Jun. 

Barka (Barkah). — The fort of this town lies about 10 miles 
westward of Ras al Ghaf; in the middle is the shaikh's castle, a lofty 
and conspicuous Arab fortress. There are four large flanking towers 
at the angles and many unserviceable iron guns in front of the gate. 
The rest of the town, consisting chiefly of mat huts, extends 3 miles 



EAS ASH SHATEIF TO SALAMA WA BINATASHA. ' 65 

along the coast in the date .plantations, which line it nearly to Kas al 
Ghaf. 

The country near the town is well cultivated. Barka is under a 
Wall. Large quantities of dok, a shellfish resembling a cockle, are 
collected here, dried in the sun, and sent into the interior. There is 
a large bazaar and some Banyans. Supplies can be obtained. 

Anchorage. — There is open anchorage 1 mile from the shore in 5 
fathoms, sand, the depth decreasing regularly. The water is clear, 
and the bottom can be seen in 4 fathoms. Within 3 miles northeast- 
ward from the anchorage irregular soundings between 9 and 5 
fathoms have been obtained. 

Suadi Point, TJ miles northwestward of Barka Fort, is low and 
sandy with a sandhill; the date groves do not come within \\ miles 
southeastward of the point. 

Jazirat Suadi (Suwadi) , consisting of one island and six islets, 
lie within about 1 mile from Suadi Point, and extend If miles 
east-southeast and west-northwest. 

Jebel Add ('Add) (lat. 23° 43', long. 57° 48'), the island, is 1,200 
yards long east and west, 600 yards broad, and 280 feet high ; it is 
table- topped ; with a gap, and is cliffy to seaward. On its western 
side is a little sandy bay. The channel between it and Suadi point 
is 400 yards wide and dries 2 to 3 feet right across. The other islets, 
to the westward of Jebel Add, are precipitous, and from 50 to 150 
feet in height; Mukbara (Makbarah), the southern, is nearly \ mile 
long, and has a tower on its southeast end, build in the piratical 
times to protect the anchorage* There is also a conspicuous tower on 
the summit of the western island. 

Anchorage. — Between Mukbara and the shore is a boat anchorage 
about \ mile in extent, with a depth of 6 feet close to the island, 
where native vessels anchor partly sheltered from the prevailing 
winds. It is crowded with boats in the date season ; the entrance is 
close southwestward of the islet. 

A small vessel might anchor, sheltered from the shamal, close off 
the southeastern side of Jebel Add' in 4 fathoms, but she would be 
embayed if a nashi came on. There are depths of 4 and 5 fathoms 
close outside these islands. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Jazirat Suadi at 9 h. 
30 m. ; springs rise 10 feet. 

Water. — There is a well of good water on the beach about a mile 
westward of Jazirat Suadi. 

The coast from Suadi Point trends west-northwestward and 
northwestward 114 miles to Khur Kalba; it is uniformly low, 
approximately about 25 feet high, sandy, and generally clear of out- 
lying shoals, but is very little visited by Europeans. There are many 



I 



66 AS SUWAIK VILLAGE. 

towns and villages, each one having a fort, more or less in ruins, and 
the date plantations are almost continuous, close to the sea. 

A range of mountains, which appears to be continuous from Jebel 
Akhdhar to the entrance of the l:*ersian Gulf, is visible from seaward 
the whole distance; it gradually approaches the coast to the north- 
ward, leaving only a narrow plain within Khur Kalba. 

Soundings. — This coast has been very imperfectly surveyed. 
The 100- fathom curve is 7 miles northeastward of Jazirat Suadi, and 
19 miles off Khur Kalba ; the depths within this curve appear to be 
regular. 

Anchorage. — Vessels should not anchor in less than 5 fathoms 
off this coast, especially during the season for shamals; within 
6 fathoms, the bottom is very uneven and in places rocky. Landing 
is generally difficult. 

Masna (Masn'ah)^ 8 miles westward of Suadi Point, is a village 
of mud and mat huts, with a fort in the middle. Bu Abali, a village, 
is situated 2J miles to the eastward, and about 1 mile westward 
are six conspicuous round trees. , There is a dfepth of 3 fathoms 1 
mile offshore in this locality. Between Masna and As Suwaik are 
four villages. 

As Suwaik (lat. 23° 51', long. 57*^ 26'), a town 20 miles west- 
ward from Jazirat Suadi, is partly walled around, and in the middle 
is a large and conspicuous fort with three high towers ; it has also 
a bazaar, and there are ipany huts outside the walls. It is under 
the Wali of Barka, and has a garrison of the Sultan's troops. 

Supplies. — Goats, fowls, sweet potatoes, and onions are procur- 
able in small quantities at As Suwaik. 

Al Khadhra^ a village, extends some distance along the shore 
from 3 miles westward of As Suwaik. It has a fort, partly ruinous, 
at the eastern end. 

Al Khabura (Khaburah) town is situated 20 miles west-north- 
westward of As Suwaik ; there are four or five small villages on the 
coast between. There is a fort at Al Khabura. 

At 25 and 20 miles, respectively, southwestward of Al Khg^bura 
are two conspicuous mountains ; the more distant is about 3,000 feet 
high, bluff and quoin shaped, and the nearer is a double peak on 
the lower jagged range. 

Ras al Hayari, 6^ miles northwestward of Al Khabura, is a 
village with two mud forts ; the southern is square with one tower, 
the northern is square with three towers. There are many huts be- 
tween the coast and the date groves at the back. 

Dil (Dil) , 4 miles northwestward of Eas al Hayari, has two low 
forts, with huts between them and the coast; the northern one is in 
ruins. There is a clump of dark green trees to the southward. 



GULF OF OMAN— -ARABIAN COAST. "^^ 67 

Makheilif (Makhailif) (lat. 24° 07', long. 56° 56'), 2 miles 
northwestward of Dil, is a small village with a large high fort, which 
is the most conspicuous mark in this locality. 

Sahm (Saham), 4 miles northwestward of Makheilif, is a large 
village with a low square fort, but owing to the date trees behind it 
is difficult to recognize. The fort is most easily distinguished on a 
west-southwesterly bearing; it has two towers, but they rise only a 
little above the rest of the building; there are two high palms in 
front of it. About | mile southward of the fort is a tower, the top 
of which is broken ; it is noticeable from the southward but not from 
the northward. The huts of the village extend about 1 mile along 
the coast. 

Sohar (Soliar), 13 miles northwestward of Sahm, is a walled 
town, with a fort, which can be seen before the date trees become 
visible. There is a moat around the town and a large bazaar. ' Many 
mat huts are built along the beach in the date groves outside the 
walls. In the fort are several large round trees. The town, which 
is under a Wali, has a population of about 5,000; the shaikh lives 
in the fort. 

Sohar Peak, 12 miles southwestward of the town, is 1,550 feet high, 
conical, and of light brown color ; it rises from the plain in front of 
the back range of mountains and is a good mark. 

The date groves are quite continuous on the coast in this locality. 

Anchorage can be obtained in 5 fathoms, sand, 1 mile of the 

town. 

Al Faska (Fasikah) , about 7^ miles northwestward of Sohar, is 
a straggling village, with a fort on a slight rise at its northern end. 
In the rear of the middle of the village is a fort, with two conspicur 
ous date trees in front of it. There is an isolated bushy tree on the 
beach northward of the village. 

Majis (Majis) , the largest village between Sohar and Shinas, is 
situated northward of Al Faska, and it has a manufactory of the 
cotton canvas used by native craft. 

Harmul (lat. 24'' 30', long. 56° 37'), 4 miles northwestward of 
Al Faska, is a date-stalk village, with no buildings. Luwa (Liwa), 
2J miles inland from Harmul, is a large square fort, with a square 
tower in the middle ; the fort shows above the date trees from seaward. 

Shinas, 27 miles northwestward of Sohar, is a considerable town. 
The fort is a large one, and from the southeastward presents a 
long front ; it has three towers, that at the northern end being higher 
than the others and the highest anywhere in the vicinity. This town 
shows well against the trees behind, except from the northward, 
^•om which direction only the highest tower is visible. A khur 
extends along the whole front of the place; the entrance, about 1^ 



68 AL FIKTAIRA. 

miles northward of the town, may be known by a small sand hill on 
the beach and the break in the date trees. Generally there are" dhows 
in the creeks both northward and southward of the town. 

Anchorage. — ^There is anchorage in 5 fathoms a little northward 
of the town, off the entrance to the khur, which boats must enter to 
land. The water shoals gradually. Landing is difficult with on-shore 
winds owing to the surf. 

Mureir (Murair) , about 14 miles northwestward of Shinas, is a 
village with three large tow^fs, two at the northern and one at the 
southern end, the latter in ruins. A mile to the southward is a large 
fort with two ruined towers and several mat huts. The Batina coast 
ends about 1 mile northward of Mureir, and about 3 miles northward 
of the village a dark ridge of hills slopes down to the coast. 

There are. three small villages between Shinas and Mureir. 

Khur Ealba^ 5 miles northward of Mureir, is a village and fort 
with about 200 men; there is a creek available for boats at high 
water. 

Sohar Peak becomes triangular in appearance when bearing south- 
ward of 225°, and from off Khur Kalba, it looks like a light brown 
triangular island. 

The coast from Mureir to Dibba is called Ash Shameiliya 
(Shamailiyah) ; it is under the government of the Shaikh of 
Sharja, the Jowasim chief; from Khur Kalba it trends northward 
36 miles to Kas Dibba, where it turns westward about 5 miles to the 
town of Dibba. The coast is cliffs with sandy bays, in which are 
villages* and date groves, the coast plain becoming narrower to the 
northward ; 15 miles northward of Khur Kalba the hills come close 
^own to the sea. 

Soundings. — ^There are depths of about 30 fathoms from 2 to 4 
miles off this coast, whence it shoals regularly but quickly toward 
the land. From about 20 miles eastward of Khur Kalba the 100- 
fathom curve trends northeastward to Kas al Kuh on the Persian 
coast, the depths decreasing northward ; there is a depth of 50 fath- 
oms 9 miles off Khur Kalba, and probably about 5 miles off Ras 
Dibba. 

Ghalat Kalba (Qhallah or Kalba) (lat. 25° 4', long. 56° 20'), 
about 3 miles northward of Khur Kalba, is a large village with from 
200 to 300 men, and a dilapidated Arab fort, a large square castle 
like building with a square tower. 

Al Fujaira, 6 miles northward of Khur Kalba, and \\ miles 
inland, is a town with a population of about 500 men: it consists 
of a conspicuous square Arab fort, with towers, and surrounded by 
huts, standing amongst date trees. The landing place, called 
Gherefa, is marked by a conspicuous large white square house, in 
ruins. Supplies can be obtained and there is plenty of fresh water. 



GULF OF OMAN — ARABIAN COAST. 69 

The journey across the mountains from Al Fujaira to Sharja, on the 
west coast of Oman Peninsula, occupies 2^ days. 

Shoal. — A sounding of 2 fathoms has been found about 1^ miles 
eastward of the shore abreast Al Fujaira; inshore of the shoal the 
water deepened to 5 fathoms. 

Anchorage can be obtained in 5 fathoms water about f mile 
mile from the beach. 

Sakamkam^ about 3 miles northward of Al Fujaira, is a small 
village with about 50 men. The only nfark for this place from sea- 
ward is a round tower some distance inland. 

A little northward of Sakamkam is a steep rocky black point, be- 
tween which and Khur Fakan is a plain dotted over with black hil- 
locks varying in height, resembling gigantic mole hills. 

Khur Fakan (Fakkan) , 11 miles northward of Sakamkam, is a 
sandy bay, on the southern shore of which is a village with a large 
date grove. Immediately southward of the bay is a hilly projec- 
tion from 1,000 to 2,000 feet high, and there is a peaked island J 
mile long, northwest and southeast, 300 yards broad, and 240 feet 
high, off its northeastern point, the channel, 400 yards wide, inside 
it having 3J fathoms water. The entrance to the bay, between the 
peaked island and Ras Luliya (Luluiyah), the northern rocky point, 
is li miles wide. 

The depth in the bay decreases regularly from 9 fathoms in the 
entrance. The anchorage, in 6 fathoms, sand, ^ mile from the vil- 
lage, is open to the nashi. Eastward of the village, and on the north- 
em side of a cliffy point with two towers, a little cove recedes about 
300 yards; it has a sandy beach at the head and 3 fathoms in the 
entrance, where small boats anchor, quite sheltered. The chief of 
the place is a tributary of the Shaikh of Sharja. 

Supplies. — Excellent water can be procured with but little delay, 
but supplies, such as cattle, poultry^ vegetables, etc., are not readily 
procurable, as they have to be brought from the villages on the coast 
to the northward ; it is better, therefore, to anchor off these villages 
and obtain provisions direct. Fish (rock cod, etc.) is plentiful. 
Firewood can be obtained from the country with two or three days' 
notice. 

There are about 150 men here, and the natives in the locality have 
been reported as being friendly. 

The coast northward of Ras Luliya is low and sandy for about 4 
miles, with date groves, the mountains being but a short distance 
inland. Zubara is a small village If miles northward of the ras. 

Al Badi^ an islet about 200 feet high, lies close to the shore, 3 J 
miles northward of Ras Luliya; Al Badi village is on the coast a 
little northward of it. between Al Badi and Ras Dibba, 11 miles to 
the northward, ure Karam (Sharam), Zadna (Dhadnah), and Ruwul 



70 RUUS AL JEBEU 

Zadna (Eul Dhadnah) villages. The coast is rocky points and 
sandy bays, the mountains rising abruptly a short distance inland. 

Dohat Dibba (Dibah).— Ras Dibba (lat. 25° 37', long. 56° 22') 
is a projecting point of cliffs of moderate height, with an islet J 
mile northward of it, the channel between the islet and the shore hav- 
ing 2 fathoms water. There is a white patch on the cliflfs 1 mile 
to the westward. The bay is 5 miles wide, and open between east 
and north-northeast ; the depths decrease regularly from 15 fathoms 
in the entrance to the sandy beach. The town and fort. 5 miles west- 
ward of Ras Dibba, have about 2,000 men ; there are extensive date 
plantations in the valley southward of the town. 

Supplies. — Good water, vegetables, etc., and cattle can be obtained 
here. 

Ras Suwaty 4} miles north-northeastward of the town of Dibba, 
is the rocky northern point of Dobat Dibba. About 1 mile north- 
ward of Dibba is Al Karsha village with about 50 men. 

Buus al Jebel (Buus-al- Jibal) . — Northward of a line drawn 
west-northwestward across the land from Dohat Dibba to Ras al 
Khaima, in the Persian Gulf, is the great promontory of Runs al 
Jebel (tops of mountains, the northern portion of which is the 
Musandam Peninsula. The eastern and northern parts westward to 
Khasab are under the Maskat Government, and thence to Ras al 
Khaima it is under the chief of the latter place. 

The coast from Ras Suwat trends generally north-northeastward, 
39 miles, to Ras Kabr Hindi, the eastern point of Musandam Penin- 
sula; it is precipitous throughout, the cliffs generally overhanging 
near the sea, having been undercut. by the action of the water; there 
are small sandy bays at the mouths of the valleys, and the mountains 
rise abruptly from the coast. 

The promontory is indented by numerous deep-water inlets, some 
of considerable extent. 

The land is everywhere barren, except in a few little valleys where 
date-groves, etc., are. to be found. In some of the fissures of the hills 
there is a scanty vegetation, which serves as food for goats. 

The mountains, apparently bare rock, present a grand and wild 
appearance, and infested by wolves, leopards, hyienas, and foxes» 
The paths across them are generally tracks fit only for goats or Arabs. 

Inlets. — ^The inlets inclosed by the bare precipitous mountains 
have a most remarkable appearance. In them the winds are very 
baffling, and consequently, though any of them can be entered by a 
steam vessel, entering or leaving is difficult for a sailing vessel; in 
most, the great depth of water is a further difficulty, rendering it 
tedious to attempt warping. The- larger Arab vessels never visit 
them, nor any native vessel not propelled by oars; should a sailing 



RAS ASH SHATEIF TO SALAMA WA BINATASHA. 71 

vessel enter one, the best time to leave would be at night, taking 
advantage of the light land wind which then often blows. 

Inhabitants.— The inhabitants of the promontory are chiefly of 
the Shuhiyin tribe, speaking a very corrupt dialect of Arabic, and 
are herdsmen or fishermen. During the date harvest they are absent 
from their homes, employed either in Batina or Khasab. They are 
for the most part inoffensive and extremely poor, very ignorant and 
superstitious ; some of them seem scarcely to know the use of money. 
Dates and rice are the most acceptable presents. 

Moimtaiiis. — ^From the eastward the range of mountains has two 
principal peaks; Jebel Kawa, the southern, 5 miles west-northwest- 
ward of Bas Suwat, is 5,800 feet high, with a small notch in the 
top; Jebel al Harim (Shuam (Sha'am) peak) (lat. 25° 59', long. 
56° 16' ) , the northern, is 6,750 feet high, with a truncated or small 
table top, having a little notch in the southern part. 

Soundings. — ^There are no known shoals oflF this coast ; southward 
of Ras Bashin there is a depth of about 40 fathoms about a mile off 
shore, and from 60 to 65 fathoms, the deepest water in this part of 
the entrance to the gulf, 10 miles off. but there are 70 fathoms 2 to 
3 miles eastward of Jazirat Umm al Faiyarin. Northward of Ras 
Bashin there are depths of 70 fathoms close to the points, and of 80 
and even 100 fathoms just off Musandam Island; the water shoals 
to 50 and 40 fathoms half way across to the Persian coast. 

Ras HaflEa (Haflfah) (lat. 25° 44', long. 56° 19'), 1^ miles north- 
eastward of Ras Suwat, is the southern point of a narrow prom- 
ontory on the eastern side of Dohat Haffa ; the promontory is mod- 
erately high, and decreases in height towards the ras. 

Dohat Haffa, the cove running 2^ miles northward inside the 
small promontory just mentioned, varies from i to J mile in width, 
and has depths of from 7 to 8 fathoms. The cove, which is quite land- 
locked, is not noticeable from seaward. There are only a few fisher- 
men here. 

Khur Mala is situated 3^ miles northward of Ras Haffa ; the inter- 
mediate coast is cliffs, with depths of 20 fathoms at a distance of 400 
yards to 600 yards. The khur, which is narrow, recedes about 1,600 
yards ; its shores are • irregular, and the depth decreases from 8 
fathoms in the entrance. 

A cove, situated 3 J miles northward of Khur Mala, extends west- 
ward 1 mile; half way in it narrows to about 400 yards in width, 
but its inner part is i mile wide; there are 8 fathoms water in the 
entrance, and 3 fathoms in the inner part. There is a small village 
with a date grove on the southern side of the head. 

There are several other small indentations between Khur Mala 
and this. 



72 RAS LIMA, 

Dohat Sharja (Sharjah), northward of the cove just mentioned, 
and separated from it by a promontory f mile wide, extends IJ miles 
Avestward, with a width of about 1.200 yards; there are depths of 20 
fathoms in the entrance, and the water shoals gradually toward 
the sandy beach at the head ; it is open eastward. 

The coast from Dohat Sharja trends north-northeastward 3 miles 
to Ras Hamra, and then turns northwestward IJ miles on the south- 
ern side of Kubbat Akaba. It is precipitous, with Lima Peak, about 
2.000 feet high, IJ miles south westward of Ras Hamra; the peak, 
from the northward, is a fine cone. About 3 miles west-southwest- 
ward of it is a saddle mountain, somewhat higher, and also conspicu- 
ous from the northward. From the eastward these mountains do 
not sho^ against the higher land behind. 

Kubbat Akaba (Ghubbat Akabah) extends northwestward 
about 2 miles from its entrance between Ras Hamra and Ras Samut. 
2\ miles northeastward ; the depth decreases from 23 fathoms in the 
entrance to 10 fathoms near the shore. Akaba, on the shore of its 
northwestern corner, at the mouth of a valley, is a small village, with 
some 90 men, and there is a short way from it by land through the 
hills to Lima. Close oflP the village boats shelter from nashis, the 
worst winds on this coast. 

Ras Lima (Limah), IJ miles northeastward of Ras Samut, is 
the termination of a narrow, precipitous promontory. Jazirat Lima 
(lat. 25° 56', long. 56° 28'), 700 yards eastward of the Ras, is 600 
yards long east and west, about 400 yards broad, 285 feet high, and 
precipitous. There is a depth of 20 fathoms in the channel between 
it and the Ras, and a small detached rock near the island. The tidal 
currents are strong through the channel. There are 30 fathoms 
water close eastward of the island. 

Lima. — A sandy bar, 1 mile in extent, lies 1^ miles westward of 
Ras Lima, at the mouth of the valley in which is Lima village, with 
about 200 men. The village is on the southern side of the bay. and 
part of it extends up the hill, on the steps of the strata, one hut 
above the other; there is a date grove and some cultivation in the 
valley. A spit extends about 400 yards from the shore near the date 
grove northward of the village. 

Lima was visited by a naval vessel and the natives were found to 
be armed and hostile. 

The mountains in this locality rise suddenly to great heights. At 
the northern end of Lima sandy bay is a high precipitous hill, off 
which are four rocky islets from 10 to 30 feet high. 

Anchorage^ open eastward and northeastward, can be obtained 
oflp Lima in about 12 fathoms. A little bight used by the native 
boats, on the southern side of the bay, close to the cliffs, aflPords the 
best landing place in easterly winds. 



GULF OF OMAN — ^ARABIAN COAST. 73 

Supplies. — ^When the people are friendly, cattle, etc, are pro- 
curable here, but good water can not be obtained in any quantity 
except perhaps from a distance. Firewood can be got in a day or 
two. The people here say that they can cross over to Ras al Khaima 
in one day, and that there are ponds of fresh water in the mountains, 
distant half a day's journey. 

The coast from Lima trends northward 5 miles to Bas Samid, a 
high cliff, the southern entrance point of Dohat Kabal. Ras Marovi, 
off which are two small rocky islets, some 25 feet high, is midway 
between ; on its southern side is a bay nearly 1^ miles wide, with 
a patch of sandy beach. Between Ras Marovi and Ras Samid are 
several small points and bays; a rock, 25 feet high, lies If miles 
southward of Ras Samid and nearly i mile off-shore, with 22 
fathoms inside it. 

Duhat Kabal (lat. 26° 2', long. 56° 26') extends westward 2 
miles, with a general width of IJ miles, and then a narrow cove turns 
southward 1 mile, to a sandy beach at its head. The shores are very 
indented, with little beaches in the bays ; the points all cliffs. About 
1 mile southwestward of the cove the mountains rise like a wall, 
forming a tremendous bluff, over 4,000 feet high. The depth de- 
creases from 25 fathoms at the entrance to 13 fathoms at the bend, 
and thence to 4 fathoms, which is charted at the head;. but an anchor- 
age in 7 fathoms 300 yards from the head has been found arid that 
from 5 fathoms the water shoals suddenly to the beach. 

The cove teems with fish and is frequented by fishermen from 
Lima ; a few poor herdsmen live in huts scattered over the valley at 
the head. In the western branch of this valley or watercourse are 
the ruins of an extensive village, the walls of which were built of 
large slabs of stone, without mortar. There is a little born hill on the 
summit of the lofty cliffs at the northern entrance of the bay, and 
thence the cliffs run northeastward 3 miles in an unbroken line of 
irregular height, deeply furrowed, becoming lower to the northward 
and terminating in Ras Sarkan. :4 

Ras Sarkan^ a vertical cliff of considerable height, is the southern 
entrance point of Kubbat Gharzira. There is a depth of 40 fathoms 
within i mile of it. 

Kubbat Gbazira (Gbubbat Ghazirah or Malcolm Inlet) is 
2^ miles wide at its entrance, between Ras Sarkan and Ras Dilla, and 
extends 9 miles west-northwestward. Its shores are precipitous and 
high except where valleys terminate in a few little sandy bays, and 
are deeply indented. There are two principal inlets on the southern 
side, the outer IJ miles, the inner 2J miles deep, both running south- 
southwestward ; in the former is a village. Habalain village is 
situated in a small bight at the head of the kubbat. 

173608**— 20 ^ 



74 KUBBAT SHABUS. 

On the northern side of* the kubbat are two large inlets, each 
extending 3 miles northeastward, separated by a high and rugged 
peninsula. Mukaka (Mukakah) Village is on the shore of the west- 
ern inlet. The northern side of this inlet is the narrow ridge or 
isthmus connecting the middle of the northeastern coast of Runs al 
Jebel Peninsula to Musandam Peninsula. In places this isthmus is 
only about 600 yards wide, and on its northern side is Khur ash 
Shem, entered from the Persian Gulf. At the head of the outer or 
eastern inlet is Filam (Film) Village. 

Depths. — ^There are depths of from 36 to 25 fathoms in the main 
part of the kubbat, and from 25 to 12 fathoms in the inlets, with 20 
fathoms, except in places, close to the cliffs; the bottom is chiefly 
mud, but it is rocky in the entrance. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Kubbatt (ihazira at 
9 h. 30 m. ; springs rise 10 feet. 

Musandam Peninsula is most irregular in form, being a series 
of small, lofty peninsulas and headlands, inclosing numerous inlets 
of various sizes. Many of the inlets are good harbors, though the 
water is as a rule inconveniently deep, but, owing to the intense 
heat in summer, they can hardly bo used then even as temporary 
anchorages. An attempt to establish a telegraph station on this 
peninsula proved a failure through the unfitness of the climate for 
Europeans. Two, at least, of its peaks rise to a height of 3,000 feet, 
and others about 1,000 feet. From its junction with the peninsula 
of Runs al Jebel to Ras Sharita, its northern extremity, the distance 
is about 12J miles ; and the extreme width of the peninsula is about 
10^ miles. 

Has Dilla (lat. 26° 8', long. 56° 29'), the eastern extremity of 
the southeastern of the peninsulas, is a vertical cliff, from 200 to 300 
feet high, with a conical summit. The peninsida, which commences 
at Filam Village, is 5 miles long, and has a remarkable brown-colored 
peak, over 1,000 feet high, with a little round knob on the top at its 
widest p^rt. It separates Fubbats Ghazira and Shabus. The sound- 
ings off It are from 33 to 49 fathoms, and irregular. 

On the northwestern side of Ras Dilla is a bay about 1,400 yards 
in extent, with 15 fathoms water, open to the northeast. 

Kubbat Shabus (Ghubbat Sh&btis) .^-The coast from the bay 
just mentioned trends northward about 1 mile to a point between 
which and Ras Bashin, IJ miles to the northward, is the entrance 
to Kubbat Shabus. The southern shore of Kubbat Shabus trends 
westward about 1 mile and then turns northward 3 miles. The 
shores are high cliffs, with little sandy beaches in places. There are 
depths of from 33 fathoms in the middle to from 20 to 12 fathoms 
near the shores. Shabus village is in a little bay on the southwestern 



GULF OF OMAN — ^ARABIAN COAST. 75 

side. In the northern part are two villages. Jebel Sibi, about 1 
mile westward, of the head of the kubbat, is 3,000 feet high, and a 
remarkable cone with a flat, scalloped top. 

The peninsula, of which Eas Bashin is the southeastern extremity, 
is 4 miles long north and south, about IJ miles broad, and the isthmus 
between it and the land under Jebel Sibi is 1 mile broad. Kaisa Peak, 
in the northern part of the peninsula, is a conical hill over 1,000 feet 
high and of light color. Ras Bashin is about 100 feet high and of 
light red color; an islet lies about 1,600 yards northeastward of the 
ras, not far from which and near the shore the Arabs report a reef, 
called Abu al Mawar, with 1 fathom water. • Ras Kaisa, the north- 
eastern point, is about 100 feet high and of light red color ; an islet 
lies 300 yards off it. There are depths of 30 fathoms close off Ras 
Bashin and Ras Kaisa, and 70 fathoms about 1 mile off the latter. 

Jazirat Umm al Faiyarin (Fay&rln) (lat. 26° 11', long. 5(o^ 
33'), 4^ miles eastward of Ras Bashin, is about 800 yards long north 
and south, J mile broad, and 360 feet high. It is of light color; the 
west coast is precipitous, but possibly access could be obtained on the 
southeast coast. There are depths of from 55 to 60 fathoms near its 
eastern side, and from 38 to 42 fathoms between it and the shore. 

Tidal currents. — ^The tidal current from the vicinity of Jazirat 
Umm al Faiyarin sets northward along the coast to Musandam 
Island, and thence northwestward toward the Salama wa Binataha, 
and westward toward Ras Sharita, from about five to two hours be- 
fore until one to four hours after high water, and in the opposite di- 
rection from one to four hours after high water until from five to two 
hours before the next high water, but the times of the turn are very 
variable. 

The velocity of the currents is about 2 to 8 knots, but off Ras 
Musandam it attains about 4 knots, and probably more at springs. 

Caution. — The tidal currents being very strong near Jazirat ITmm 
al Faiyarin, and from its vicinity to Ras Musandam and the Salama 
wa Binataha, with eddies and races, especially near the ras, sailing 
vessels should avoid approaching this part of the entrance, especially 
as the wind is uncertain near the high land, often failing or shifting 
suddenly to the opposite quarter. 

Dohat Shisa (Shisah) extends westward 5 miles from its en- 
trance, between Ras Kaisa and Ras Kabr Hindi, 5 miles north- 
northeastward, with general depths of from 30 to 40 fathoms, and 
from 15 to 20 fathoms close to the cliffs. Its shores are precipitous 
and irregular, with some little sandy beaches in the coves. There are 
three islets halfway in on the northern side, the southern and largest 
of which, about J mile long and 100 feet high, is named Red Island 
from its color. Shisa, an old village of only a few huts, stands on 



76 BAS AL BAB. 

the western side of the southern part of the inlet. A new village, 
with probably 200 inhabitants, has sprung up about 1} miles farther 
northwestward. 

The southwestern shore of the inlet is separated from Khur ash 
Shem by a ridge, in one part only about f mile wide, and the western 
shore is separated from Khur Ghub AU by a similar ridge not much 
wider. 

Has Kabr Hindi (lat. 26° 19', long. 56° 31'), about 1,200 feet 
high, is precipitous, with three scallops on the top ; there are from 46 
to 53 fathoms i mile to 1 mile off it. This is the easternmost point of 
Musandam Peninsula, -and it is distant 31 miles from the nearest 
coast of the Biyaban Province of Persia. 

The coast from Kas Kabr Hindi turns westward 1 mile, and then 
trends northward 2 miles to Ras al Bab. 

Has al Bab, the northeastern point of Musandam Peninsula, is 
a vertical limestone cliff, about 200 feet high. The ras and all the 
islets off the northern part of Musandam Peninsula are undermined 
in places for yards, by the action of the sea and tides. 

Fak (Fakk) al Asad, a strait 600 yards wide, lies between Eas 
al Bab and Musandam Island to the northeastward ; it is quite clear, 
and has a depth of 24 fathoms. The strait is frequently used by 
steam vessels, but great attention must be paid to the helm, and the 
vessel must ke kept in as near mid-channel as possible. Owing to the 
strong tidal currents and baffling winds, it is not safe for sailing ves- 
sels; the Arabs only venture through in pulling boats. The north- 
west-going currents sets against the cliffs on the western side of 
the strait, and the southeast-going on the southwestern part of 
Musandam Island. 

Musandam Island is nearly 2 miles long north and south, 1^ 
miles broad at the southern end, 875 feet high, of triangular shape, 
and precipitous all round, except in three or four small coves on the 
eastern side, where are the only landing places. The highest part 
is near the south coast, and has three little peaks. There are some 
remains of buildings on the northern part, which were constructed 
of large stone blocks without mortar. There are generally a few 
herdsmen here, with flocks of goats; its coasts are frequented by 
fishermen from Kumzar. 

Bas Musandam, the northern point of the island, is a cliff about 
100 feet high. A sounding of 104 fathoms have been obtained about 
3 miles eastward of Kas Musandam, and this is the greatest known 
northward of Eas al Kuh. 

Eachal (Eachalu), i mile north-northeastward of Bas Musan- 
dam, is a rocky little pillar or islet, 100 feet high, with a clear pas- 
sage between it and the ras. A sounding of 99 fathoms, with no 
bottom, has been obtained about 1 mile northeastward of the islet. 



RAS ASH SHATEIF TO SALAMA WA BINATASHA. 77 

Salama wa Binatah (Salamah wa Binat ha)^ or the Quoins,, 
is a group of three islets, extending 2 miles northwest and southeast. 

Little Quoin, 4f miles northward of Kachal, is about 600 yards 
long north and south, 300 yards broad, quoin or wedge shaped, with 
the highest and vertical part to the southward ; the northern extremity 
is also a small bluff. It is accessible on the northern side only, off 
which a small spit extends north-northwestward. 

Little Quoin Islet Light, group flashing white, 196 feet above 
high water, visible 20 miles, 'is exhibited from a lighthouse on the 
summit of Little Quoin Islet. The light is obscured by Gap and 
Great Quoin Islands. For arcs of obscuration see Light List and 
chart. 

The lighthouse ifi a white framework tower 79 feet high. 

Gap Island, 1 mile north-northwestward of Little Quoin, is about 
about 600 yards long northwest and southeast, 300 yards broad, with 
a peak about 250 feet high near the middle and cliffs all round. A 
small rocky patch with less than 6 feet water lies 400 yards southward 
of the island. 

Great Quoin (Saiama) (Balamah) (lat. 26° 30', long. 56° 31'), 
f mile west-northwestward of Gap Island, is about 800 yar&s in 
extent, 540 feet high, and quoin or wedge-shaped, y^ith the vertical 
side to the southeastward. It is accessible on the northwestern side 
only; a small detached rock lies about 80 yards off its northern side. 

Depths. — ^There are from 45 to 50 fathoms close to the (xreat 
Quoin and from 50 to 76 fathoms southward of the Little Quoin, the 
depth increasing toward Musandam Island. 

Tidal currents. — The tidal currents set northwest and southeast 
about the Quoins at a rate of 3 knots or more- at springs. A sailing 
vessel should not pass southward of the islets, as the wind often fails 
in their vicinity, and the tidal current then renders a vessel unman- 
ageable. Near Kachal and Tawakkul Islet the currents are strongest, 
with broken water ; in calm weather, at springs, the noise of the races 
can be heard from some distance. 



CHAPTER IV. 

PERSIAN GULF— COAST OF OMAN. 

SALAMA WA BINATAHA TO ABU TBLABI. 

(Lat. 26° 30', long. 56° 32' to lat. 2f4'* 29', long. 54° 22'.) 

. The north and west coasts of Musandam Peninsula and the 
west coast of Runs al Jebel Promontory rise steeply to mountains 
southward to Shuam, where the mountains turn southward, and the 
coast, which trends southwestward, becomes low and characteristic 
of the whole southern shore of the Persian Gulf. The sea water is 
everywhere clear and transparent. 

Mountains, — From the northward, except when very close to 
the land, Jebel al Harim, with its small table top shows above the 
other mountains ; Fine Peak, about 18 miles northwestward of Jebel 
ay Harim, does not show well against the higher 'mountains behind, 
when bearing between about 140° and 170°. 

Tawakkul Islet, called by fishermen Suwaik (lat. 26° 24', long. 
56° 30'), IJ miles west-northwestward of Sas Musandam, is about i 
mile in extent, 460 feet high, and precipitous, with very deep water 
close tor It much resembles the Great Quoin (Salama) in apearance. 

Bak Suwaik, 1,500 yards westward of Tawiikkul, is a rocky patch 
50 yards in extent, with 1^ fathoms water and from 47 to 57 fathoms 
close around. Kachal Islet open northward of Tawakkul leads north- 
ward of the patch. Numerous small birds often hover over it. 

Jazirat Eun, 3J miles west-southwestward of Ras Musandam, is 
about 1 mile long east and west, ^ mile broad, 600 feet high, with a 
depression in the middle, forming a kind of saddle, and precipitous. 

The north coast of Musandam Peninsula is several projecting 
points with bays between, in all of which there is deep water. The 
largest bay is southeastward of Jazirat Kun, and the entrance, 1 
mile wide, is between two narrow projecting cliffy points; it is 
precipitious all around. 

The bay southward of Jazirat Kun has a few huts on a sandy 
beach at its head ; immediately southward of the head is Jebel Maili, 
a sharp peak, 1,894 feet high, which, on southerly bearings, slightly 
overhangs to the eastward. 

Eumzar. — West-southwestward of Jazirat Kun is a bay extend- 
ing southwestward about 1 mile, with a width of about 1,400 yards; 
it is open to the nashi, which is often strong in winter. The depth 
78* 



RAS SHARITA. 79 

decreases from 32 fathoms in the entrance to from 20 to 17 fathoms, 
sand, at- the anchorage at the head. 

. Kumzar, a town at the head of the bay, with a population of about 
500 men, is under the control of a wali appointed by the sultan of 
Maskat, and occupies a gloomy valley or gorge in the hills. The in- 
habitants are fishermen, and possess 50 to 60 boats of difierent sizes ; 
they take salt fish, shark fins, etc., to Kishm. About IJ miles south- 
westward of Kumzar is a roundtopped mountain, 2,000 feet high. 

Water can be obtained from a deep well some distance up the 
watercourse. 

Ras Mukhalif is the northern extremity of the projecting point on 
the west side of the bay just mentioned. 

Jazirat Abu Sir, northward of Ras Mukhalif, is 1,200 yards long, 
north and south, and J mile broad, with cliffs around; near its 
southern end is a peaked hill, about 400 feet high. Bab Mukhalif, 
between it and Ras Mukhalif, is J mile wide, with a high precipitous 
rock nearly in mid-channel, and a depth of 35 fathoms. The tidal 
currents through the strait are strong with eddies. 

Mushkan Bocks (lat. 26° 24', long. 56° 25'), about 1,400 yards 
north-northwestward of Jazirat Abu Sir, are a group of several 
detached white rocks close together, 15 feet high. The passage be- . 
tween Jazirat Abu Sir and the rocks is 1,200 yards wide, with depthf^; 
of from 20 to 25 fathoms, and there is a depth of about 70 fathoms a - 
mile northward of the rocks. 

The coast. — Between Ras Mukhalif and Ras Sharita, 2^ miles 
west-northwestward, are three coves, with deep water, open to the 
northward. In the eastern is a small nook at the head forming a 
boat harbor, with a few huts and a well of water ; the middle cove is 
named Dohat Khulte, and the western cove Dohat Ferrta. 

Ras Sharita is the northern extremity of a narrow promontory, 
1 mile long, the southern and highest part of which is a round hill, 
about 450 feet high ; the promontory is precipitous all around except 
that it is joined to the mainland by a short sandy isthmus, about 20 
feet high. Perforated Rock, 200 yards northward of the ras, is 
nearly 100 yards in extent, and about 40 feet high, with vertical sides, 
and a hole through it. There are over 70 fathoms within 1 mile 
northeastward of the rock, and 33 fathoms midway between it and 
Mushkan Rocks. 

Bock. — A rock on which the steamship Griqua struck in 1909 is 
reported to be 1 mile, 340°, from Perforated Rock. 

Jazirat al Ghanam^ westward of the coast southward of the 
promontory of Ras Sharita, is 2J miles long north and south, and 
f mile broad. It has cliffs nearly all around ; the northern point is 
about 250 feet high, but the land rises gradually to 550 feet near the 
southern end, where the cliffs are about 200 feet high. There are 



80 PERSIAN GULF — COAST OF OMAN. 

9 

depths of 45 to 38 f athbms i mile westward of it. The island is 
barren, without water or inhabitants, but there are a few goats be- 
longing to the Kumzar people. - 

Ehur Eawi (Euwai)^ the strait between Jazirat al Ghanam 
and the mainland, is 600 yards wide at either end, widening to J mile 
within, with depths of from 11 to 19 fathoms, sand and rock. Pier 
Point, a point of rock from 30 to 60 feet high, like a pier, projects 
eastward from the northern end of the island, and in the bay south- 
ward of the point, a reef extends about 200 yards from the shore. 

There are two small inlets on the eastern shore of the khur : Sidi 
Bay, about 800 yards within the northern entrance, and a cove about 
800 yards farther southward, on the northern side of East Middle 
Point (lat. 26° 21', long. 56° 22') ; both dry. 

There are no inhabitants on the shores of Khur Kawi ; the nearest 
place of any importance is Kumzar. 

Anchorage. — To enter the khur for shelter, etc., take the northern 
entrance, and, guarding against the tidal current in the approach, 
where it sets east-northeast and west-southwest, anchor as convenient 
in from 13 to 17 fathoms. On account of the eddies during the north- 
going current, and also of its rate, do not anchor within about | mile 
from the southern entrance; about i mile southward of Pier Point 
the eddies are strong ; the bottom is sand, gravel, and soft or broken 
coral. 

The anchorage is safe for steamers; it is not recommended as a 
place of shelter for sailing vessels, as there might be difficulty in get- 
ting to sea again; such should cross the gulf to Henjam, or Kishm 
anchorage; or, in a shamal, if possible, get into Khasab Bay. 

Tides and tidal currents. — ^It is high water, full and change, at 
Khur Kawi, at 10 h. 15 m.; springs rise 8 feet. The current sets 
northward from three hours before until three hours after high water 
at a velocity of about f knot, and southward from three hours after 
high water until three hours before the next high water at a velocity 
of from IJ to 2 knots. There are strong eddies during the north 
going current in the southern part of the khur. 

Temperature. — During summer the heat in Kliur Kawi is intense. 
For three days early in August, 1906, with a free circulation of air 
under double awnings on board of a naval vessel, the lowest tem- 
perature by night or day was 90', and the highest 99 \ The tem- 
perature of the sea at the same time was 90*. 

Bay. — Southward and southeastward of Jazirat al Ghanam is a 
bay 1 mile wide and extending 1 J miles eastward. Gharum or South- 
east Cove, in its northeastern corner, is about J mile deep at the 
mouth of a valley, with date plantations arid a few fishermen'? 
huts; there are some wells with good water here. South Cove, at 



KHUR ASH SHEM. 81 

the southeastern extremity, is a bight with Kabba (Kabbah), a little 
village, at its head. The few people of these villages are nearly all 
absent during summer. 

Ehur Ghub All (Ghubb ^Ali) .—The entrance to this khur is 
about If miles southwestward of the bay just mentioned, and the 
khur extends southeastward 3^ miles, with an average width of 
1,600 yards. The north entrance point is a cliflf about 300 feet high, 
and the northern side of the khur rises to a conical hill about 800 
feet high. The south entrance point is also a cliff about 300 feet 
high. There are 28 fathoms water in the entrance, 14 fathoms J 
mile from, and 6 fathoms near, the head of the cove. 

Ghub Ali is a small village on a sandy beach at the head, with a 
few date and other trees, and good water. 

The coast from Khur Ghub Ali trends southward 4 miles to the 
entrance to Khur ash Shem, and is the western side of Shem 
Peninsula about IJ miles from the southern extremity of which. 
.Jebel Shem, a remarkable peak, rises to a height of 3,000 feet, with 
a huge precipice on its southeastern side. The seaward face of the 
peninsula is cliffs and somewhat indented: on a sandy beach in the 
largest of the little bays, about 2^ miles southward of Khur Ghub 
Ali, is Hassa Village. 

Ehur ash Shem (Sham) is a winding inlet, 8 miles in length, 
with a width in places of less than i mile ; it is deeply indented, and 
contains several islands. Kas Shahath (lat. 26° 13', long. 56® 17'), 
the western entrance point, 4^ miles, 121° from Bas Sheikh Masud, 
is a cliff about 150 feet high ; 700 yards, 350° from it is a 4J-f athom 
patch. A small promontory, with Al Jibba Islet, 100 feet high, 
close off it, lies i mile south-southeastward of Has Shahath, and 
between a cove extends southward about 1 mile, with depths of from 
9 to 4 fathoms; at its head is Fanakha (Fanakhah), a little village, 
where there is good water. 

The entrance to, Khur ash Shem, southeastwjird of Al Jibba Tslet, 
has a least width of 800 yards, and from 14 to 20 fathoms water; 
from a little distance off it is scarcely noticeable. The khur winds 
round the southern part of Shem Peninsula, and passes close under 
the precipitous cliffs of Jebel Shem. Thence to its head, the eastern 
and southern shores of the khur are the isthmus connecting the 
promontory of Kuus al Jebel with Musandam Peninsula. 

On the northern side of the khur, 4 miles within the entrance, and 
just behind the extreme bluff of Jebel Shem, is Shem, a little village, 
with wells of brackish water. Bas al Hatam, a narrow point, about 
60 feet high, projects } mile from the northern side, 2 miles above 
Shem ; eastward* of it is Mada Village, with wells of good water. 



82 SALAMA WA BINATAHA TO ABU THABT. 

Sibi Island, 1 mile eastward of Pas al Hatam, is i mile long north 
and south ; there is no channel northward of it. 

Sibi village, the largest in the khur, is on a sandy beach at the head 
of a deep cove in the southeastern comer of the khur, with deep 
water oflf the entrance. It has a deep well of water, which is said to 
be brackish after a drought. It is close to the southwestern foot of 
Jebel Sibi, which is conspicuous, and from seaward appears to be at 
the head of Khur Ghub Ali when that khur is open ; it then shows a 
sugar-loaf top. 

There are two irregular bays in the northeastern part of the khur 
between Mada and Sibi. 

The shore between Sibi and Shem, a small island close to the 
southern shore, is from 200 to 500 feet high, with many little points 
and bights. Telegraph Islet, 600 yards southward of Shem, is 50 feet 
high ; on it are the ruins of the telegraph station, abandoned in 1869 
owing to the intense heat. 

A pinnacle rock (lat. 26° 11', long. 56° 21'), with 7i feet water, 
lies 200 yards northwestward of Telegraph Islet. 

Maklab Bay, southward of Telegraph Islet, is 1 mile in extent, 
with high steep hills on its southwestern side. Separated froriTthe 
western side of Maklab Bay by a high rocky point is a sandy bight 
in which is Kana Village. Half-way between this village and Al 
Jibba Islet is the entrance to a little landlocked cove, a convenient 
place for laying a vessel aground, with depths decreasing from 
10 fathoms. Nazifi, a small village, is on the southwestern side of 
its entrance. 

Anchorage. — The only shoal in Khur ash Shem is the 7i-foot 
rock near Telegraph Islet; a sailing vessel would have great diflS- 
culty in getting in or out, but steamers can proceed up the inlet, pass- 
ing northward of Shem Island and southward of Sibi. The best 
anchorage is southward of Telegraph Islet. 

Tides.— It is high water, full and change, in Khur ash Shem at 
10 h. 40 m.; springs rise 8^ feet. The tidal currents in the entrance 
are strong at springs. 

The coast between Has Shahath and the eastern entrance point 
of Khasab Bay, which is high and rocky, is indented with severJil 
little bights; in the largest is a small village with wells of good 
water. 

Khasab Bay (lat. 26° 12, long. 56° 15'), about 2i miles south- 
westward of Ras Shahath, is about J mile in extent. 

Depths. — In Khasab Bay approach there are 40 fathoms | mile 
westward of Ras Sheikh Masud, 26 fathoms 1 mile northward, and 
from 18 to 22 fathoms, sand and rock, eastward of it ; the depth de- 
creases quickly from less than 10 fathoms toward the shore. 



KHASAB TOWN. 83 

The depths in Khasab Bay are 8 fathoms in the entrance, and 2 
fathoms 600 yards from the beach, which dries off for nearly that 
distance, rendering landing unpleasant. The best landing is on the 
western end of the beach, and boats approaching it should keep close 
along the western shore. 

The anchorage is open to the northward, but northerly winds are 
strong only in winter, when they occur very rarely and are of short 
duration. In summer, anchor in 7 fathoms, but, in winter, in not 
less than 10 fathoms; the holding 'ground, fine sand, is good. 

Khasab town stands on a sandy beach at the head of Khasab 
Bay, and in a date grove, extending up the wide valley southward 
of the bay. At the back of the date grove, the valley is well culti- 
vated with corn, vegetables, etc. ; and the bare steep hills rising on 
either side are very picturesque. Little is seen from the sea, except 
two towers on the beach, and a fort near the middle of the grove, in 
which is the Shaikh's house. The Shaikh is a wali of the sultan of 
Maskat, who gets an annual revenue from the place. A, small square 
tower stands on the western rocky point of the bay. The adult male 
population of the valley is about 600. 

Supplies.— Wood, cattle, vegetables, etc., can be obtained; a cloth 
for wearing apparel, much used by the Arabs, is manufactured and 
exported. 

t Fresh water in good wells is plentiful, and is used to irrigate the 

plantations; the best well is close to the hills on the eastern side, 
ubout 400 yards from the beach. 

Eada Cove (Eidah) , about 1 mile westward of Khasab Bay, and 
separated from it by a steep ridge of hills, is narrow, and extends 
1 mile southward, with depths decreasing from 10 to 3 fathoms. 
Kada, a small village, with a large date grove, is on the shore at its 
head. Makhi, a large fishing village, with wells of fairly good water, 
is situated on the western side, near the entrance. 

Hana Cove (Hanah), about 1 mile northward of Makhi, is a 
small bight ; here are a few huts and a fine date grove ; also a well of 
good water about 300 yards from the beach, which is said not to fail 
nor to become brackish. The inhabitants are chieflv fishermen and 
haul their boats up in Aida Cove, a small bight about 1 mile south 
westward of Eas Sheikh Nasud, where also there is a well of excellent 
water. 

Haraf village, with about 100 men, is on the mountains above 
Hana. 

The coast from Hana trends northward 1^ miles to Has Sheikh 
Masud. 

Anchorage. — Good shelter can be obtained in a shamal, which 
here blows from west-southwest and southwest, with Ras Sheikh 
Masud bearing about 306° 1^ miles in from 19 to 22 fathoms water. 



84 SALAMA WA BINATAHA TO' ABU THABI. 

Bas Sheikh Masud (Shaikh Mas^ud) (lat. 26° 15', long. 56° 
13') is often called Ras ash Shaikh. The northern extremity of the 
ras is cliffs about 50 feet high, and from it the land rises gradually 
to Fine Peak, 4,470 feet high, 9^ miles to the southward, which ap- 
pears a regular cone from all directions; the long slope of the land 
is very noticeable from the westward. There are two little bights at 
the northern extremity of the ras, with white sandy beaches ; in the 
eastern bight, on the beach, is the tomb of the Shaikh after whom 
the point is named. 

A sailing vessel with a westerly wind should not round the ras 
closely or she may be becalmed under it. 

Tidal currents. — ^The tidal currents are weak eastward of the 
ras, but northwestward of a line between the northern end of Jazirat 
al Ghanam and the ras they set southwest and northeast at a velocity 
of from 1^ to 2 knots. 

The coast from Ras Sheikh Masud trends south-south west ward, 
and the cliffs increase in height and rjin in patches 3^ miles to Ras al 
Jadi, a bold cliff about 1,000 feet high and conspicuous on northeast- 
erly or southwesterly bearings. 

The coast southwestward of Ras Sheikh Masud is open to shamals, 
from which there is no shelter except eastward of Ras Sheikh Masud ; 
vessels at anchor off the coast should therefore weigh on the approach 
of one, and stand off on the port tack. 

Al Jiri, li miles southward of Ras al Jadi, is a small fishing vil- 
lage, standing under the hills on a beach which extends southward to 
Bakha. Jadi village, IJ miles south-south westward of Al Jiri, has 
some wells of good water near the beach. There are date trees be- 
tween Jadi and Bakha. 

Bakha village (Bakhah), IJ miles south-southwestward of 
Jadi village, lies on the south shore of a small bight, the western 
point of which slightly projects. The bight is open to the north- 
ward, and is shallow ; there is a depth of 10 fathoms about If miles 
northwestward of the bight, seaward of which the water appears to 
deepen suddenly to 26 and 28 fathoms, and to 40 fathoms 4 miles off-- 
shore. Bakha has three forts: One in ruins, a square fort on a 
hillock i mile eastward of the town, and one, with a higher tower at 
one of the angles, on the western point of the bight ; inland is a plain, 
with cultivation and date groves. The inhabitants are chiefly fish- 
ermen. 

The coast from Bakha trends south-southwestward 6^ miles to 
Ras ash Shuam; it is rocky, with little ^siand beaches, and deep water 
close to. Fine Peak is nearly 4 miles inland. Fudar, Ghamtha, and 
Tibba (Tibat) villages, which are inhabited by fishermen and have 
a few date trees, are on the beaches. 



SHTJAM. 85 

Bas ash Shuam rises regularly to a mountain, about 2,500 feet 
liigh, 2 miles inland, which is conspicuous on northeasterly or south- 
erly bearings ; there is a notch in the highest part of the mountain* 

Depth. — ^There is a depth of 31 fathoms about 4 miles, and of 25 
fathoms about 2 miles off Kas ash Shuam. 

The coast from Bas ash Shuam trends southward 2 miles to 
Shuam ; it is bordered to the distance of about i mile by a bank with 
from 2 to 3 fathoms water. 

Shuam (Sha'am) (lat. 26° 1', long. 56*^ 5') is the first town on 
the low sandy coast, there being a plain from 1 to 1^ miles wide be- 
tween it and the mountains, partly cultivated with date groves, vege- 
tables, etc., and with wells of good water; the inhabitants are culti- 
vators and fishermen. 

The coast from Shuam trends south-southwestward 8^ miles to 
a khur, on the shore of which is Eams; it is low, but "the land in 
the background is high. A bank with from 2 to 3 fathoms water 
ejctends from about 400 yards to 1 mile off it. 

There is a small tower on a hillock about 50 feet high 1 mile south- 
ward of Shuam ; it appears from the southward like a small peaked 
hill. \ 

About 4 miles southward of Shuam is a creek used by boats at high 
water. 

Depths. — ^The depths begin to decrease to the southwestward of 
Ras ash Shuam ; there are 10 fathoms ^ mile, and 20 fathoms 3 miles 
offshore near Shuam. The bottom is generally sand. 

Sams is a fort and small town in a date grove; its position is 
indicated from seaward by a tower, showing above the trees; it is 
built on the southern side of a khur, the entrance to which nearly 
dries. Zai, a small hill fort, about 2 miles east-northeastward from 
the town, does not show well against the hills; it is of dark color, 
with a square tower at each end. 

About 1^ miles southward of Kams is a small creek, communicat- 
ing with Khaima Khur. The date groves are a little distance from 
the shore, which is swampy, but they extend, far inland and con- 
tinue southward and along the eastern bank of Khaima Khur, 

Sas al Khaima (Khaimah) (lat. 25° 48', long. 55° 57') is a low 
sand spit, extending 3^ miles northeastward, on which. stands Khaima 
Town, the seat of the deputy governor of the district of the same 
name, who is subordinate to and responsible to the Shaikh of Sharja, 
the present head of the Jowasim tribe, to which both places appertain. 
The Shaikh has also authority in that part of the east coast of 
Oman called Ash Shameiliya. 

The town, which may contain a population from 4,000 to 5,000, 
is built chiefly of stone ; some square buildings higher than the rest 



86 PERSIAN GULF — COAST OF OMAN. 

are the Shaikh's residences; on one corner of the highest is a little 
dome about 60 feet high ; the flag of the Jowasim (red with a narrow 
white border) is flown from a high building to the northward. 

A white round tower stands at the northern end, and a fort with 
two square towers on the wall built across the peninsula at the south- 
ern end of the town, wh^re there is a large* and conspicuous tree. 
A detached tower stands 800 yards southwestward of the fort, and 
another 1 mile further southwestward, near the commencement of 
some red sandhills. There is also a circular white tower on the 
summit of the 80-foot hills, and about 2 miles southward of the fort. 

The plain here is only about 6 miles wide, and its width increases 
rapidly to the southward, as the coast turns southwestward, so that 
from the northward the town appears to be at the point where the 
mountains end. 

A range of reddish sandhills, about 130 feet high, begin a mile 
southwestward of Khaima and extend past Al Hamra; from the 
westward their northern end is a guide. 

Depths. — The cpast in the vicinity of Ras al Khaima is bordered 
by a bank, with less than 3 fathoms water, extending from 1^ to 
2 miles offshore, and the 5-fathom curve is about 2^ to 4 miles off- 
shore, but there are patches of 3 fathoms in places between the 3 
and 5 fathom curves. Caution is necessary in the approach on ac- 
count of these shoals. There is a depth of 13 fathoms about 8^ miles 
offshore. 

Shoal. — A sand knoU^ with less than 6 feet water, lies f mile 
offshore with the fort bearing 119°. 

Anchorage. — A good berth is in 5^ fathoms, with the fort bearing 
138° 3.3 miles. Small vessels anchor in 4^ fathoms, with the fort 
bearing 123° about 1.9 miles. The holding ground is good, and 
the natives say there is not so much sea in a shamal here as at other 
places in the locality. 

Khur. — ^The entrance to the khur or backwater is round the low 
sandy point of Ras al Khaima, 2J miles northeastward of the, town ; 
large unladen boats enter at high water; it runs down close to the 
back of the town, where the native boats lie; there is a depth of 
2 feet in the entrance, but inside 9 feet as far as the town. There 
are two low islets in the backwater opposite the town, on one of which 
is a small fishing village. 

A great many boats and bagalas belong to this port, and the people 
are civil to Europeans. The inhabitants send about 20 boats to the 
pearl fishery. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, 
at Ras al Khaima at 11 h. 45 m. ; springs rise 7 feet. The tidal cur- 
rents between Ras al Khaima and Jezirat Tanb set strongly north- 
eastward and southwestward. 



TIDAL CTTRRENTS. 87 

Near Ras al Khaima the current sets to the northeastward when 
the tide is flooding at Maskat and to the southwestward when it is 
ebbing. 

Supplies of cattle, vegetables, and fruit can be obtained at 
Khaima ; water uncertain. 

The coast from Ras al Khaima trends southwestward 120 miles to 
Abu Thabi (lat. 24° 29', long. 54° 42') and is low sand throughout. 
The mountains of the Runs al Jebel promontory are visible in clear 
weather until past Dibai; but this coast is remarkable for the high 
degree of refraction or mirage frequently experienced, especially in. 
the early morning, when the coast features become greatly distorted, 
villages sometimes appearing as clumps of rounded trees, and small 
uncharted hillocks or dunes as hills of considerable height. 

The towns are all very similar in appearance and are situated near 
the entrances to khurs or salt w^ater creeks, of which there are manv 
along the coast, often communicating with each other or forming 
large backwaters, in which the native vessels lie. Everything con- 
nected with these places seems to indicate a state of decay. 

The similarity of appearance makes it diflBcult to distinguish one 
town from another; on this account a somewhat' detailed description 
of any peculiarity in the appearance of each is given. 

Supplies. — Cattle, vegetables, etc., can be obtained everywhere; 
the beef is often very good, and much better than the mutton. Capi- 
tal- mullet are caugh£ in all the backwaters, and fish is generally 
plentiful. Water is scarce and indifferent, especially southward of 
Dibai ; it is generally obtained from shallow wells dug in the sand. 

Reefs. — The coast between Ras al Khaima (lat. 25° 48', long. 55° 
57') and Umm al Kaiwain, 24J miles southwestward, has not been 
thoroughly examined, but the 5-fathom curve is from about 2 to 5 
miles offshore, and in places within this line there are patches with 
2^ and 3 fathoms water. Between Umm al Kaiwain and Ras 
Hanyura, 71 miles farther southwestward, the coast is cleaner, but 
thence to Abu Thabi, a distance of 22 miles, it is fronted by reefs 
extending 5^ miles offshore. 

Anchorage off the coast is open between northeast, through north- 
west, to southwest, and the holding ground is often hard and bad. 
On the approach of a winter shamal, a vessel should weigh and 
stand off on the port tack, as that wind blows from about west-north- 
west, or even more westward. Anchor farther offshore in winter 
than in summer, and furl sails with reefs in. 

Tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, on the coast 
about 12 h., and the tidal currents, off the coast, are said to set south- 
westward from about four to three hours before until two to three 
hours after high water and northeastward from about two to three 



88 SALAMA WA BINATAHA TO ABU THABI. 

hours after high water until four to three hours before the next high 
water, at a rate of from 1 to 2 knots. 

The Great Pearl Bank includes the whole space on the Arabian 
side of the Persian Gulf southward and south westward of the 20- 
f athom curve, commencing northwestward of Sharja. 

The coast between Kas al Khaima and Jazirat al Hamra, 10 miles 
southwestward, is a slight and shallow bay. 

Jazirat al Hamra (lat. 25'' 43', long. 55° 48') is a fort and town 
on an island, between which and the mainland is a khur. The fort 
has several towers and there are a few round trees in it ; close-to is 
a high, square tower with two rows of windows, and there is a high, 
slender tower at the western end of the town. The inhabitants are 
of Al Zaab tribe, and the place is under the Shaikh of Sharja, the 
Jowasim chief. 

There are no date groves here, but there is one conspicuous palm 
near a tower at the eastern end of the town. The range of reddish 
sand hills terminates about 3 miles southward of this place. There 
are 10 fathoms water 4 miles off the town and 3 fathoms i mile ; the 
bottom is generally sand. 

Ehur. — The entrance to the khur is round Eas Abu Ahmad, a 
low, sandy point f mile northeastward of the town ; thence the khur 
runs southwestward between the town and the strip of sand forming 
the beach and is shallow opposite the dwellings; it has depths of 2 
to 3 feet in the entrance and from 7 to 8 feet inside. 

The coast from Jazirat al Hamra trends southwestward 14 miles 
to Umm al Kaiwain Point. A reef, nearly dry in places, and said 
to be growing out, extends ^ mile to 1 mile off-shore from about 1 
mile southward of Al Hamra to Umm al Kaiwain Point; 5 miles 
northeastward of the point the 5-fathom curve is nearly 3 miles off- 
shore, with a depth of 2 fathoms a little inside it. The reef shows 
well by day. There are 10 fathoms from 2 to 4J miles seaward of 
the reef, the depth decreasing gradually to from 4 to 2 fathoms close 
to it. 

Ehur al Baiza (Baidah)^ the entrance to which is 7 miles south- 
westward of Jazirat al Hamra, communicates with Umm-al-Kaiwain 
Khur, but is only navigable by small boats. On the seaward side of 
the island, which is northwestward of and separated from the main- 
land by the khur, and 3J miles from Umm-al-Kaiwain Point, is a 
small fort with a double tower and a date grove westward of it. 

Umm-al-Kaiwain Point is low sand with a rocky beach, and 
about 1^ miles southward of it is a date grove. From the point the 
coast trends eastward nearly 1 mile to the khur, which turns south- 
ward and westward, forming the peninsula on which the town 
stands. A reef of sand and rocks extends northward from the west- 
ern side of the entrance of the khur. 



UMM-AL-KAIWAITT. 89 

Anchorage. — Anchor in 5 to 6 fathoms with the high flagstaff 
tower on the point about 164° (if it can be distinguished), but in 
winter farther out, in 8 fathoms. 

Depths. — ^There are 10 fathoms 4 miles northwestward of Umm- 
al-Kaiwain point, decreasing regularly to 5 fathoms 1 mile from 
the shore ; northward and northeastward of the point the 5-f athom 
curve is 2^ miles from the beach. The depth decreases quickly from 
5 to 3 and 2 fathoms in this locality. 

TTmin-al-Kaiwain (lat. 25° 35', long. 55° 35'), an independent 
thriving town, inhabited by Al Ali tribe, probably consisting of 800 
men, is tolerably clean and well built, and sends a large number of 
boats to the pearl fishery. A few Banyans are settled here, who 
carry on most of the trade. From about 10 miles off, its six or eight 
detached towers appear to stand in the sea ; one, with a flagstaff, is 
much higher and larger than the rest, and shows like a boat, when 
the others are below the horizon. This tower, which was partially 
destroyed by a bombardment of the place in 1914, has been repaired, 
and two others stand on the point, and form part of a wall built 
across the isthmus. The Sheik's fort is in the middle of the town. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage in 5 fathoms, with the large 
tower on the point bearing 197°, about 1 mile. Landing is bad, ex- 
cept in fine weather, except within the reef, which has a depth of 3 
feet over it in places. 

The entrance to the khur, 2 miles north-northeastward of the 
point, has 2 feet water, and a fringing reef on its eastern side. A 
tower about J mile eastward of the town stands on its western bank, 
and the entrance to the backwater is marked by a ruined mosque 
with a round kiln-shaped tower close to it. 

At the town, the khur is about 600 yards wide, and carries a depth 
of frona 6 to 8 fathoms; it here divides into several branches, the 
main one trending southward. There are 3 fathoms behind the 
town, where the boats lie. The khur is an extensive backwater, with 
several low islets. 

The coast from Umm-al-Kaiwain trends south-southwestward 7 
miles to Al Hamriya, and thence 6 miles to Al Ajman fort; the 
depth continues regular with rocky bottom; there are 5 to 6 fathoms 
about 1 mile offshore until about 2 miles from Al Ajman. Do not 
bring up near the shore, where there is a liability of losing the 
anchor. 

Al Hamriya (Hamriyah) is a small place, with a population of 
about 400, under a local Shaikh of the Na'im tribe, who looks for 
protection to whichever of his neighbors among the Trucial Shaikhs 
is most able and willing to afford it ; it sends 50 boats to the pearl 
fishery. It has a square fort on the shore, with five towers in a clus- 
ter, which can be seen from a distance of ?tbout U miles j ther^ ^r^ 

173608*'— 20 7 



90 PERSIAN GULF — COAST OF OMAN. 

also two detached towers farther southward near a small creek, and 
a large date grove near the northeastern end of the village. The 
people are very poor. 

Al Ajman Fort (^Ajman) is also under a Shaikh of the Na'im 
tribe. The fort is small and high ; one of the towers, from which the 
flag is flown, is much higher than the rest, and can be seen from a 
distance of about 12 miles. 

The water is bad, and obtained from wells a mile southwestward of 
the town. Al Ajman sends 60 boats to the pearl fishery. 

Depths. — A bank, with 2 to 3 fathoms water, extends IJ miles oflE 
Al Ajman, and there are depths of 5 fathoms 2f miles northwest- 
ward of the fort. A depth of 3^ fathoms has been obtained 2 miles, 
6° from the fort, and also less water than charted to the northwest of 
this position ; the soundings were irregular. The locality should not 
be approached to less than 10 fathoms, about 4 miles off shore at 
night. The bottom is rocky, and bad anchorage ground. 

The khur is the easiest of access of any on this coast, and is used 
by very large boats. The entrance is close to the northern end of the 
town, between two spits of sand extending J mile from the shore ; the 
bar, which is sand, has 2 feet water. Within the bar are two khurs, 
one trending southwestward to Al Ajman, and Zora khur, the other, 
northeastward. A channel, with from 6 to 9 feet water, extends ^ 
mile close along the northwestern shore of Zora khur, which then 
opens into drying lagoons. 

There are 2 fathoms water in the khur off the town ; the channel 
is near the town side, a bank extending halfway across from the 
northeastern law sandy entrance point.'' 

The coast from Al Ajman trends southwestward nearly 5 miles 
to Sharja; the 3-fathom curve is from J to 1 mile off it. 

Al Haira (Hairah) and Fasht are two small villages on the 
shore J mile apart, and 3 miles from Al Ajman; Al Haira, the north- 
em, has two detached towers, and Fasht a large fort and several 
towers. The khur here is very small. Between Al Ajman and the 
villages, in rear of the towers, is a clear uncultivated space about 2 
miles in extent. The villages are dependencies of and almost joined 
to Sharja, and together send about 30 boats to the pearl fishery. 

Sharja (Sharjah) (lat. 25° 22', long. 55° 24'), the most impor- 
tant town on this coast, has a population from 8,000 to 10,000, chiefly 
of Al Jowasim tribe, under the Shaikh of Sharja, the present head. 
The town extends about IJ miles along the eastern bank of a khur, 
and in it are several detached towers of unequal height ; the flag is 
flown from the northern tower of the fort. Northward of the flag- 
staff tower is the Shaikh's house, a large white two-storied building. 

Sharja has a large proportion of stone houses, and there is a high 
tower at the southern end of Liyah Village, which is situated on the 



-LIYAH VILLAGE. 91 

southern part of Liyah Point, a small projecting point westward of, 
and separated from Sharjp, by the khur, and there are also many 
square buildings between the town and that village, which from the 
sea appear to be part of Sharja, as do the villages northward of the 
town. At the southern end of Sharja, some white rocky rising 
ground, from 30 to 40 feet high, ends in a bluflF at its southern ex- 
tremity; this is somewhat conspicuous from the northward; a small 
dark rocky point between the fort and Liyah is in range with the 
bluff when bearing about 167°. Between' Sharja and Khan village, 
2 miles to the southward, there is a clear space of about 1 mile with- 
out any trees, which is noticeable. The beatih is of white sand, the 
rocky point and bluff being both dark. 

Sharja sends about 350 boats to the pearl fishery. Several bagalas 
belong to the port, and very fine boats, bakaras and batils, are built 
here. Many Banyans are settled in the place. 

Depths. — About 4 miles off the town there are depths of 10 
fathoms, which decrease fairly regularly to 5 fathoms 1 mile from 
Liyah Point. The 20-fathom curve is 25 miles from the shore. 

Anchorage. — For the sea breeze to be a leading wind for boats 
to and from Liyah Point, anchor with that point bearing from 180° 
to 160^, in summer in 5 fathoms, and in winter in 7 fathoms; the 
holding ground is bad, being rock covered with a little sand. 

Landing. — The best place for boats to land is at Liyah Point, and 
not at the khur, where there is generally a surf. A boat should 
pull around the point, and then bring it to bear about 340°; this 
place affords the only safe landing in even a moderate shamal. There 
are many ferryboats in the khur, which in landing here, has to be 
crossed to reach Sharja town. 

The khur is very small and shallow, its entrance being 1 mile 
northeastward of the flagstaff tower ; it trends south westward be- 
tween the town and a narrow strip of sand to seaward; winding 
round the little bluff before mentioned, it spreads out into a small 
backw^ater, and joins the khur from Khan Village. There is only 1 
foot water on the bar, but large unladen bagalas, &c., enter. 

Supplies. — ^Provisions can be obtained, but the price is rather 
high. All supplies have to be purchased in the bazaar. 

Liyah Village is a large suburb of Sharja, and is entirely mat 
huts ; the large tower at its southern end is J mile from the point. 

The coast from Liyah Point (lat. 25° 22', long. 55° 23') trends 
southwestward, 7J miles, to the western point of Dibai Khur. A 
little khur lies 2J miles southwestward of Liyah Point, with Khan 
Village on its northern, and Abu Hail Village on its southern side. 
They are dependencies of Sharja, and are noticeable from seaward. 
The country is low and, swampy for some miles inland. 



92 SALAMA WA BINATAHA TO ABU THABI. 

Ehan (Khan) is nearly all mat huts, and has five detached 
towers ; it has a population of about 1,000, and sends 25 boats to the 
pearl fishery. The khur divides into two branches; one turning 
northeastward joins Sharja backwater, the other trends southward 
behind Abu Hail Village (lat 25° 20', long. 55° 22'). 

Abu Hail (Hail) is also almost entirely mat huts, and has four 
towers, which are nearly in range when bearing 137° ; at its southern 
end i^ a wall built across from the sea to the backwater; it has a 
population of about 2,000, and sends 40 boats to the pearl fishery. 
The towers, as well as those of Khan, look high in proportion to the 
size of the houses, and are easily distinguished. There is a depth of 
5 fathoms 1 mile oflFshore at these villages, but the ground is bad for 
anchorage. 

There are date trees between this and Dibai, and the coast is white 
sand. Northward of Dibai there is a space clear of trees, with a large 
round tower having two small buildings at its base; on southerly and 
southeasterly bearings the tower is conspicuous, appearing like a 
lighthouse with its attached buildings. 

B»eef . — A flat stony reef, with 6 feet water, extends J mile off the 
coast for some distance northeastward of Dibai, and about 600 yards 
off the western point of Dibai Khur. 

Dibai (Dabai) is a town, with its suburb Dairah, with a popula- 
tion of about 6,000 of the Abu Felasa tribe, a branch of the Bani Yas ; 
it is under an independent chief; there are also a few Hindus here. 
The town is a little inland, and a date grove behind it extends a mile 
southward, and ends in a detached clump. The large suburb of 
Dairah, entirely mat huts, stands on the eastern entrance point of the 
khur northeastward of the town. The highest building in Dibai is 
the fort, a high square castle, with a tall round tower at its south- 
western corner, from which the flag is flown ; there are eight or nine 
smaller towers in the town and northward of Dairah. 

Dibai sends about 150 boats to the pearl fishery ; they are employed 
in other fisheries during winter. 

Anchor off Dibai in 5 fathoms, with the fort bearing 160° about 
1,800 yards from the shore, or in a small vessel in about 4 fathoms, 
with the fort bearing 156°, | mile from the shore, but the holding 
ground is bad. A British nayal vessel anchored here in March, 1911, 
when, with a westerly wind of force 4, the sea rose considerably in 
three hours, and the ship dragged both anchors, and had to weigh. 
The 5-fathom curve is about H miles offshore northward of Dibai, 
and i mile westward of it. Do not anchor in less than 4 fathoms; 
there is a good berth in 6 fathoms, about 1 mile off. The anchorage 
affords no shelter from a shamal. 

Dibai Khur. — The western low sandy entrance point (lat. 25° 16', 

long. 55° 18') of Dibai Khur is i mile northwest of the tow»} it has 



. 



RAS HANYtJBA. 98 

of late years somewhat extended, and projects slightly. The entrance 
has 2 feet water, with rocky bottom in places, and is much obstructed 
by the reef ; the channel winds southward close past the outer en- 
trance point; a spit extends oflF Dairah Point, which is 600 yards 
southward of the opposite side of the entrance. The khur then turns 
eastward between the town and Dairah Point, where it is 150 yards 
wide, with from 4 to 5 fathoms water. It extends several miles south- 
eastward, but, beyond the town, is only used by jRshermen. 
Communicatioii. — In normal times the vessels of the British 

« 

India Steam Navigation Co.'s subsidiary mail service call at Dibai 
fortnightly, on their passages to and from Bombay. 

The coast from Dibai trends south westward 70 miles to Abu. 
Thabi ; excepting a small village with date trees, about 4 miles south- 
westward of Dibai, it is quite barren, uninhabited, very low, and 
uniform in appearance, with tufts of coarse grass growing on the 
sand hillocks, intersected by creeks, and in places by extensive 
swamps ; there is no tree larger than a mangrove bush. 

Although there are no settled inhabitants, landing on the mainland 
between these towns, except with an armed party, is hazardous, as 
it is often visited by the Bedawin from the interior. 

Jebel Ali ('All), 17 miles southwestward of Dibai, and 3 miles 
inland, is a flat-topped hill 220 feet high, rising gradually from each 
end ; it is the only landmark on or near the coast. 

Kas Hasa, 30 miles southwestward from Dibai, is a little rocky 
point, projecting slightly from the coast, and only showing when 
close inshore as a small dark patch on the white sand. There are 
regular soundings of 3 fathoms, fine sand, 1,600 yards oif -shore, 
between Dibai and the ras, deepening gradually to seaward. Kas 
Kantut, a similar point, is about 5 miles farther southwestward. 

Ghanatha and Ghurabi, 3 and 5 miles, respectively, southwest- 
ward of Eas Kantut, are two khurs where mangroves are cut for 
firewood. Ghanatha (Al Ghanadhah) is marked by the mangrove 
bushes at the entrance ; it is the larger of the two, and is said to be 
easily entered by large boats. 

Between Ghurabi and Abu Thabi, there is a succession of khurs, 
mostly conmiunicating with each other, with merely a small strip 
of sand seaward of them. Some of these ihurs have deep water 
within, though their entrances are very shallow, and the whole form 
extensive swamps and backwaters extending many miles inland. 
They are visited by Arabs for firewood and for fishing purposes. 

Has Hanyura (lat. 24*^ 44', long. 54° 38') is the northern low 
sandy point of a shallow bay 3 miles wide,, into which many khurs 
open; Maraifjain is the southern low sandy point. These points 
can be seen from a distance of about 6 miles* A small cliff, with a 



94 PERSIAN GULF — COAST OF OMAN. 

slightly overhanging top, at the head of Hanyura Bay, and at the 
southern end of a little tableland 20 to 30 feet high, can be seen from 
a distance of about 7 miles, and is a mark for the bay. 

The coast from Ras Hanyura trends southwestward 24 miles to a 
point about 2^ miles southwestward of Abu Thabi fort, and is 
fronted by the Hadd al Thalei, an extensive reef which, commencing 
near Eas Hasa, extends IJ miles off Ras Hanyura. Its outer edge 
then trends west-south westward 8 miles, when it is probably 5 miles 
from the land, and then turns south-southwestward, joining the reef 
off Abu Thabi. There is a depth of from 5 to 6 fathoms close off the 
reef, and the lead is not a good guide when approaching it, as the 
depths are irregular. The natives say there is a boat channel inside 
the reef, which is used by them during shamals. 

Ras al Ghuraby 9^ miles southwestward of Ras Hanyura, is a 
rocky point with low sandhills; here the reef extends 3 miles off- 
shore. There is a kbur at this point, said to be extensive, with deep 
water inside and more water in the entrance than in any other on 
the coast. 

Sas Latfaiiy 3 miles northeastward ot Abu Thabi, is a low point 
on the northern side of the entrance to a khur which leads southward 
and joins the great backwater southward of Abu Thabi; bagalas 
belonging to Abu Thabi are hauled up in this khur. 

Abu Thabi (Abu Dhabi), standing at the western extremities .ol 
the country of Oman, is the principal town of the great Bani Yas 
tribe, and is under an independent Shaikh, who claims the sov- 
ereignty over the coast westward to Khur al Odaid. His authority 
is nominally recognized also by the Bedawin of these parts. The 
Bani Yas are a fine race of men, and the Shaikh is very friendly to 
the British. They wear their hair long over the shoulders, twisted 
up in plaits. Abu Thabi (lat. 24° 29', long. 54° 21) was formerly 
the chief seat of piracy in these waters. 

The fort is small, with six towers close together, on one of which 
is the flagstaff. A small tower stands on the beach, where there are 
also several conspicuous stone buildings, one of which is on the low 
northwestern sandy point of the town ; the rest of the town, extend- 
ing nearly 2 miles along the shore, is date mat huts. It has a popu- 
lation of about 20,000, with some Banyans amongst them, and it 
sends 600 boats to the pearl fishery. After the pearl season the fishing 
boats are to be found at every island, creek, etc., between Abu Thabi 
and Khur al Odaid. 

There are few stunted date trees, about 1 mile inland of the town. 

The coast is very low white sand, the only landmarks being the 
fort and Jebel Fataisa, a low hill on an island in the backwater, 6 
miles southward of the fort. This hill, from seaward, first appears 



ABU THABI — ^ANCHORAGB. 95 

of a dark color, but on approach the white sand of the lower part 
becomes visible. 

Beef. — A reef, 300 yards broad, extends 700 yards west-south- 
westward from about 300 yards northwestward of the northwestern 
sandy point of the town ; it has from 3 feet to 1 fathom water, and 
a bank, with from IJ to 3 fathoms water, extends IJ miles north- 
ward and northwestward. The channel between the reef and the 
shore has a least depth of 2 fathoms. 

Anchorage, — ^Large vessels anchor in from 4 to 5 fathoms water, 
with Abu Thabi fort bearing 122° distant about 2 to 2^ miles ; this 
position is open to seaward. Small vessels of 12 feet and less draft 
anchor in the channel between the reef and the shore, in about 2^ 
fathoms water, with the fort bearing 174°, J mile offshore; this 
anchorage is quite sheltered by the reef. 

The holding ground is bad, consisting of coral, bare in places, in 
others covered with soft sand. 

The inner anchorage is generally fully occupied by native craft. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Abu Thabi at about 
12 h., rise 6 to 8 feet. 

Directions. — ^For Abu Thabi from the northward make Sir Abu 
Nu Air ; bring and keep its peak bearing 356° and continue to steer 
176° after losing sight of the island. The soundings are irregular, 
varying from about 16 to 7 fathoms, and there are great overfalls; 
the tidal currents which set, probably about 1 knot, northeast and 
southwest, must be considered. . Keep a good lookout from aloft, 
as the fort is only visible from a distance of about 8 miles from deck, 
or when in 8 fathoms water, which depth is also found close to 
the reefs. The reefs northeastward of Abu Thabi must be especially 
guarded against. Having made Abu Thabi Fort, bring it to bear 
122°, and anchor as above directed. 

For the inner anchorage, to enter which the afternoon is the best 
time, approach with the fort (lat. 24° 29', long. 64° 22') bearing 
122°, and pass close southwestward of the reef, which shows well; 
then turn eastward and northward close round the reef, and anchor 
as above directed. 

In approaching Abu Thabi from the northeastward, give a wide 
berth to Hadd at Thalei. 

There is a passage northward from the inner anchorage, which 
appears to have a depth of 2 fathoms; it is available for a sailing 
vessel leaving the anchorage with a westerly wind, the vessel being 
conned from aloft by sight. The passage is used by native craft. 

Caution. — Attention must be paid to the lead when approaching 
the southern shore of the gulf, as the currents are strong and un- 
certain, the land very low with few or no distinctive features, and 
the survey is very incomplete. 



96 8ALAMA WA BINATAHA TO ABU THABL ^ 

Supplies.— Cattle might possibly be obtained at Abu Thabi. The 
water here is very brackish, all good water being brought from 
Dibai. 

Pilots. — The best pilots for the coast between Dibai and Al Bida 
can be obtained at Abu Thabi. 

The khur. — About 3 miles southwestward of Abu Thabi Fort is 
the mouth of a channel leading into a large backwater, 3J miles 
wide in the entrance, and extending possibly 20 miles inland. The 
greater part is shallow, but there are many deep channels and several 
islands; it has not been sounded. By its connection with Khur 
Laifan, to the northward, the land on which Abu Thabi town stands 
becomes an island ; there is, however, one place f ordable at low water. 

Sir Abu Nu Air Island, (Sir Bu Na'air), 45 miles, 351° from 
Abu Thabi, is about 2| miles long northwest and southeast, and 2 
miles broad ; it is hilly, chiefly small volcanic hills except the south- 
eastern extremity, which is a very low sandy point, ^ mile long. The 
highest point of the island is a table-topped peak, 240 feet high, near 
the southern end of the hills, and rather conspicuous, except from 
the northward. / 

The island is bordered by a reef extending from 400 to 600 yards. 
The southeastern point, being low, must be given a good berth at 
night. The soundings are not a good guide in approaching the island, 
there being from 10 to 15 fathoms close to the surrounding reef, and 
also the same depth several miles distant; about 35 miles northwest- 
ward of the island, and near the edge of the Pearl Bank, are great 
overfalls. 

The island (lat. 25° 14', long. 54° 13') belongs to the principality 
of Sharja, but is uninhabited. There are a few wild cats and a fair 
number of sea birds, as well as some curlew. It is barren, nothing 
except brushwood growing on it. There is brackish water in wells 
near the eastern side, and there is a deep well of good drinking 
water, with tracks leading to it from the southeast point, but it is too 
hard for washing purposes; iron ore and some sulphur are said to 
exist. 

During the pearl fishery the island is visited by fleets of boats, to 
open the oysters, etc. ; and in winter there are generally a few Sharja 
or Dibai fishing boats here; their crews, with their families, erect 
temporary huts and remain some months fishing, chiefly for sawfish 
and sharks. 

Anchorage. — ^There is anchorage on the eastern side of the island 
in 13 fathoms, about i mile offshore, with the peak bearing 275° 
and the southeastern point 202°, sheltered from the shamal, but 
open to the nashi. 



CHAPTER V. 

PERSIAN GULF, SOUTHERN PART. 

ABU THABI TO RAS RAKKIN. 

(Lat. 24" 29', long. 54" 22', to lat. 26" 11'. long. 51* 13'.) 

The southern shore of the Persian Gulf is low and sandy, or 
stony, with here and there rocky hills, or sand hills, of moderate 
height. It is entirely barren and desolate; water is only obtainable 
at a few places, and even then is of very indifferent quality. Ffom 
Abu Thabi to Al Wakra, 157 miles west-northwestward, and about 
60 miles southward of Eas Rakkin, there are neither villages, houses, 
nor permanent inhabitants. The shore is occasionally visited by the 
Bedawin of the Bani Yas, Bani Hajir, and Manasir Tribes, any of 
whom might attack a small unarmed party, but is seldom or never 
visited by Europeans, except from Ras Rakkin to Al Wakra, where 
a British nayal vessel occasionally calls ; even the Arabs rarely land 
here. 

Reefs. — Great reefs extend for some 45 miles offshore, sometimes 
with open water or channels inside them. The reefs generally have 
from 3 feet to 3 fathoms water, with stony or broken coral bottom; 
they show well except on cloudy days or when under the sun. The 
water is comparatively shoal everywhere, with great overfalls in 
places, so ^that when near or within the great reefs, it is not safe to 
be under way after dark, the eye being the only guide ; a good look- 
out from aloft is indispensable. The water is everywhere very clear. 

Great Pearl Bank. — ^The 20- fathom curve, within which nearly 
all the overfalls are found and which may be considered the edge of 
the Great Pearl Bank, trends from about 20 miles northward of Sir 
Abu Nu air to Halul Island (lat. 25° 40', long. 52° 25'), and thence 
northwestward to about 30 miles northeastward of Has Rakkin. To 
the southward of this curve are nearly all the numerous pearl banks 
loiown to the Arabs. On the Great Pearl Bank the depths average 
from 10 to 15 fathoms, but there are deep places with from 20 to 23 
fathoms, and many shoal knolls with from 3 to 9 fathoms, which 
latter are the Pearl Banks proper. 

Islands. — Many islands lie off the shore; some are high, and most 
of them have a projecting, low, sandy southeastern point. They are 

97 



98 RAS AL KAHAF. 

barren and without fresh water, though a little very brackish water 
may be found on one or two of them. Dalma excepted, none have 
permanent inhabitants, but they are frequented by the pearl boats 
during summer, and in winter by Abu Thabi fishermen, who bring 
their families and make a stay of from two to three months. They 
take turtle, which abound on the reefs, for the sake of their oil, 
and also catch and dry fish for food. 

Pilotage. — A vessel visiting the coast, or navigating within the 
reefs, should have an Abu. Thabi pilot on board. 

The coast from Abu Thabi to Jazirat Sir Beni Yas, about 93 miles 
to the westward, is seldom approached and is very little known. 
Reefs lie from 10 to 30 miles off it, with many low islands on th^, 
some of considerable size and overgrown with mangroves. There 
are numerous creeks and backwaters in the eastern part, and chan- 
nels through and between the reefs, which are only partially explored. 
The land is a stony desert, with small detached groups of volcanic 
hills and low cliffs on the coast. 

The coast from Abu Thabi trends southwestward 30 miles, with a 
reef extending 3 miles off Jazirat al Bahrani, and 8 miles near the 
entrance to Khur Kantur (lat. 24° 19', long. 53° 59'). The apparent 
coast line is a number of low islets, with creeks running in and 
meeting behind them, thus detaching them from the mainland proper, 
which is some considerable distance within, and has not been 
explored. 

Many of the islets and the mainland behind them are resorted to 
by the Arabs to cut mangroves for firewood, and the creeks are 
visited by fishermen. All the creeks are said to be shoal at the 
entrance, with deeper water inside. 

Tides. — The tides appear to be regular; the progress of the tidal 
wave is much retarded, in the shoal water, and is several hours later 
near Khur al Odaid than at Abu Thabi, but observations have not 
been made on the tidal hours. The rise at Sir Beni Yas is about 
8 feet. The currents are strong in places, round the points of 
islands, through narrow channels and between reefs. 

Jazirat al Bahrani, on the southwestern side of Abu Thabi 
backwater, is about 5 miles long northeast and southwest, and low 
sand, with some mangroves. 

Jebel Abu Kashasha is a small hill on the island next southwest- 
ward of Al Bahrani ; it is used as a landmark by the Arabs. 

Ras al Eahafy between Jebel Abu Kashasha and Jazirat Umm al 
Majarib, 7 miles southwestward, is a flat-topped rocky point, com- 
paratively high and probably a projection of the mainland. 

KliTir Kantur, 22 miles west-southwestward of Abu Thabi, is a 
channel through the reef, 1 mile wide at the entrance, extending 
southward 8 miles, where it bifurcates, one branch flowing eastward 



PEBSIAN GULF, SOUTHERN PART. 99 

behind Jazirat Kantur, the other westward behind Jazirat Salali. 
There are 2 fathoms water in the entrance, and 4 fathoms farther 
in. Following the eastern branch, beyond Jazirat Kantur, and 
separated from it by a small creek, is Jazirat Umm al Majarib; these 
two islands are several miles in extent, low, and with a growth of 
mangroves. 

Jazirat Salali, on the western side of Khur Kantur, is 7 miles 
long, east and west, and low, except a hill near its northeastern end. 
Boats use the channel westwfird of the island and get into Khur al 
Bazim at high water. 

Bazim Reef, commencing on the western side of Khur Kantur, 
extends 53 miles westward. The whole northern edge of the reef, 
on which is Halat Hail Islet, is only charted approximately, and 
the lead is no guide in approaching it, there being from 5 to 10 fath- 
oms close-to, and similar depths 15 miles from it. A chain of 
islands, called generally Bazim (Bazam) by the Arabs, though each 
island has its own particular name, stretches along its southern edge. 

Rak al Hajji.— Halat al Mubarraz, about 53 miles westward of 
Abu Thabi, and on the southern edge of Rak al Hajji, is a low 
narrow sand islet, without any vegetation, about ^ mile long, north 
and south, and 3 feet high. The space southward of Rak az Zakum, 
between Abu Thabi and Halat al Mubarraz, is imperfectly sounded ; 
there are great overfalls in places. Rak al Hajji has not been 
surveyed, but is probably about 9 miles long, east and west, and 7 
miles broad ; there are one or two sandbanks on it, which dry. Khur 
Bashubar, the channel between Rak al Hajji and the Bazim Reef, 
is about 1^ miles wide, with from 4 to 8 fathoms water; the tidal 
currents, setting east and west through it, are strong at springs. 

Halat Hail (Hail), an islet, lies near the northeastern extremity 
of the northern part of Bazim Reef, and 3J miles southeastward of 
Halat al Mubarraz, to which it is similar, but larger. There is a 
depth of 2i fathoms about 2 miles northeastward of the islet. 

Rak az Zakum (lat. 24° 48', long. 53° 46') is a large pearl bank, 
of which the shoalest part, 3 fathoms, is 38 miles 302° from Abu 
Thabi. Its extent is not accurately known, and the soundings around 
are but little guide to approach it. There is a clear channel about 
18 miles wide between it and Rak al Hajji to the southwestward. 

Bu Tini, the center of which is about 19 miles west-northwestward 
of Halat al Mubarraz, is a shoal about 9 miles in extent in all direc- 
tions; there are about six dry sand banks on the shoal, which in 
places is nearly dry for miles. On this and on many other shoals, 
the fishermen walk about knee deep in water, looking for pearl 
oysters far from their boats. 

Khur Halj is the clear channel between Bu Tini, on the north, 
and Rak al Hajji and Reideim, the northwestern portion of Bazim 



I 

100 KHUB Ali BAZIM. 

Beef, on the east and south; it appears to have a least width of 
about 5 miles, with depths of from 5 to 8 fathoms. 

Directions. — Khur Halj is navigable by day in clear weather. 
The dry banks on Bu Tini can be seen from aloft some distance from 
the shoal, and Bazim al Gharbi, the western island on Bazim Reef, 
is also visible from aloft when in mid-channel. 

To pass eastward through the khur, keep on the Bu Tini side, 
with the sand banks of that shoal in sight until past it, and keep a 
good lookout for the pale green watef of Kak al Hajji. To pass 
through Khur Bashubar, from Bu Tini Reef, steer, with caution, 
toward Rak al Hajji, and, having made it, run along its edge and 
pass J mile southward of Halat al Mubarraz. 

These passages should only be used with the sun astern of the ves- 
sel. 

Khur al Bazim (Bazam) is a large inlet or blind channel lying 
between the Bazim Reef and the mainland. It extends east-south- 
eastward about 50 miles, and its width, which is 6 miles at the en- 
trance, decreases to 1 mile at the head. The khur has been fairly 
surveyed, except the entrance, which is unsounded. 

A large vessel should not use Khur al Bazim for navigation, nor 
approach Sir Beni Yas from the eastward, though, with a good look- 
out, a vessel of light draft can enter the khur. 

The entrance (lat. 24° 22', long. 52° 58') is about 6 miles wide 
between the western part of Bazim Reef and the reef extending off 
Al Isha, but there are some outlying shoal patches. The depths in 
the khur decrease from 10 fathoms at the entrance toward the head, 
and are somewhat irregular. 

Bazim al Gharbi is a low island about 2 miles in extent, partly 
covered with mangroves; it is the western of the group on Bazim 
Reef, and about 3 miles from the western end of the reef ; Reideim, 
the northwestern portion of the reef, extending 7 miles northward 
from the islet, is probably detached. 

Wood. — Green mangrove wood for fuel might be obtained here, 
also on the otner islands of Bazim Reef, a vessel's crew cutting it. 
The islands are all without water. 

Al Isha, 10 miles westward of Bazim al Gharbi, is a low sand islet, 
lying on a reef which extends 8 miles northward from the islet; 
there are several dry sandbanks on the reef, of which Ras Burud is 
the northeastern point. 

Directions — Anchorage. — To enter Khur al Bazim from the 
northward, bring Zirkuh Peak, when distant over 5 miles, to bear 
24° ; keep it so astern, which leads westward of Bu Tini. When the 
sandbanks on Bu Tini, which should be seen, are all passed, steer 
about 176°, allowing for the tidal currents, and look out for shoal 
patches. Al Isha should be sighted, and when it bears about 270°, 



ABU THABI TO KAS RAKKIIT. 101 

steer about 102°, looking out for the southwestern point of Bazim 
Beef. When the southeastern point of Bazim al Gharbi bears about 
69°, steer for it, and anchor 1 mile offshore in 5 fathoms, clay, good 
holding ground, and completely sheltered by the reef. 

From this anchorage, two points of the mainland are visible ; Eas 
as Sawami, 8 miles south-southeastward, is a light colored cliff, 
apparently about 50 feet high; Has Jaliya, 10 miles southwestward, 
is of somewhat similar appearance, and is so named from its having 
an imagined resemblance to a fort. A reef extends about 6 miles off 
the shore between these points. The mainland coast from Kas Jaliya 
continues westward 22 miles to a point near which is Jebel Thanni. 

In the proceeding eastward up the khur from Bazim al Gharbi, 
the soundings appear more regular, and the islands on Bazim 
Keef are left from 1 to 2 miles to the northward, being guided by the 
eye in approaching the reef. Al Fiha, the third island, is 6 miles 
long east and west; the fourth island, which is rocky, is passed 
close to. 

Al Junaina, the next, situated on the reef 1^ miles from the khur, 
is also rocky, and has several detached rocks near it; Jazirat Abil 
Abyaz (Abul Abyadh), the eastern and largest of these islands, is 
about 16 miles long, east and west, and has low sandhills on its 
western part. 

SirBeni (Bani) Yas<Yas Island) (lat. 24° 19', long. 52° 37'), 
13 miles westward of Al Isha, is an island about 6 miles long north 
and south, and 4 miles broad ; it rises in the middle to volcanic ^ills, 
and the two highest peaks are 430 feet high and close together. The 
coast of the island is low, except near a small hill, about 70 feet high, 
on the eastern side. 

Bad water can be obtained by digging on the northeastern side, 
near a ruined village close to the shore. 

Meriton Bay is a landlocked harbor in the southeastern part of 
Sir Beni Yas ; it is ^ ijnile in extent, with 4 fathoms water in its en- 
trance, and 6 fathoms, mud, inside ; the entrance is 400 yards wide. 

Bashid (lat. 24° 25', long. 52° 40'), 4 miles north-northeastward 
of Sir Beni Yas, with a channel 1^ miles wide, having from 18 to 7 
fathoms water, between, is an island f mile long northwest and 
southeast, low, flat, and rocky. From Al Isha to Rashid the shoals, 
if not continuous, have no navigable passage through them. 

There are great overfalls northward and northwestward of Eashid. 

Chaniiels through the reefs — Directions. — For Meriton Bay, 
trom the northward, after sighting Sir Beni Yas Island, bring it 
to bear 180° and steer for it until Eashid is seen, and pass within 1 
mile westward of that island to avoid the reef extending off the 
northern part of Sir Beni Yas. Then steer southeastward and south- 
T^ard round the r^fs northward md north^^stw^rd of Sir Beni Yas, 



102 ZIRKUH. 

The reefs on both sides of the channel between Bashid and Sir 
Beni Yas show well. 

With the peak of Sir Beni Yas bearing 270°, there is a detached 
patch 1 mile from the beach ; and 3^ miles off, with the highest peak 
nearly in range with the small hill neat the east coast, there is a low, 
white, sandy islet only a few feet high. 

Pass eastward of the detached patch just mentioned, and haul in 
for the sandy southeastern point of the island, when Meriton Bay 
will be seen over the low spit on its eastern side, and anchor in 
7 fathoms, clay J miles offshore, with the small hill on the eastern 
point of the island in range with the low southeastern point of the 
bay, sheltered from all winds. 

Avoid the reef which extends about 1,600 yards eastward and 
southward of the southern extremity of the island. 

To enter the harbor, which is not recommended for sailing vessels, 
as the tidal currents are strong, keep in the deep water close round 
the end of the sandy spit on the eastern side of the bay. 

The channel between Rashid and Sir Beni Yas is the best passage 
in, that southward of Sir Beni Yas being less than 1 mile wide 
between the reef off the southern extremity of the island and that 
extending 2 miles from the mainland to the southward. This latter 
passage has 3 fathoms least water, and the tidal currents through 
are strong, with eddies. 

The point of the mainland, 3^ miles southward of Sir Beni Yas, is 
low, with a reef extending off 2 to 3 miles. Jebel Thanni (Dhanni), 
2 miles southwestward of it, is hilly and 350 feet high. 

About 3^ miles southeastward of Meriton Bay is a little sandy 
islet, 3 feet high, and surrounded by deep water; 6 miles farther 
southeastward is Jazirat al Hamar, two low islets covered with 
stunted grass, on the shore reef, at the head of a deep bight in the 
reef ; they are about 2 miles off the mainland, which is low, barren, 
stony hills. 

The shore reef projects 5 miles northwestward from these islets 
and is steep-to, with from 14 to 18 fathoms near it, and its south- 
western side can be approached to a distance of J mile. 

There is a passage from Sir Beni Yas leading southward of Al 
Isha into Khur al Bazim, but it requires great care in its navigation ; 
it should not be attempted by large vessels and is not recommended 
for any. 

Zirkuh (Zirko), 12 miles northward of Bu Tini, is an island 2^ 
miles long north and south, 1^ miles broad, and has a rather re- 
markable peak 540 feet high (lat. 24° 53', long. 53° 5') ; it has no 
water nor any vegetation, except stunted grass and brushwood. A 
flat reef extends a short distance off nearly all round ; on the eastern 
side f mile. 



ABU THABI TO BAS BAKKIK. 103 

There is anchorage in 4^ fathoms, with the south point of the 
island bearing between 248° and 270°, and from i to J mile off-shore, 
sheltered from the shamal, but some swell rolls round the island. 

Caution. — The soundings are little or no guide when approaching 
the islands and reefs in this part of the gulf. A 3-fathom shoal 
lies 1 mile northward from the island, and a 2J-fathom shoal IJ 
miles southward from the island. 

The tidal currents are strong at springs between this latter shoal 
and Zirkuh, causing ripplings like breakers, extending north and 
south. 

Das (Das) 9 18 miles northwestward of Zirkuh, is an island IJ 
miles long north and south, 1,400 yards broad, with hills about 260 
feet high of even outline in the northern half, the southern part 
being low. There is very little fringing reef, but within 3 miles 
southeastward and southwestward from the island there are patches 
of 4 fathoms and less. There is no fresh water in the island. 

Anchorage can be obtained about J mile eastward of the south- 
eastern low sandy point, in from 5 to 8 fathoms, but much swell 
i would probably be felt in a shamal, the island affording but little 

shelter. The best landing is on the western side of the southeastern 
point. 

Caution. — Particular caution is required in the gulf southward 
~- and westward of Das, where safety depends chiefly upon a vigilant 
lookout. A vessel of more than 10 feet draft should not be under ' 
way after dark anywhere in this area. 

Jazirat Karnein (Earnain)^ 12 miles southward of Das, is 
1^ miles long northwest and southeast, and ^ mile broad. It has three 
remarkable detached dark peaks on its northern end, the highest of 
which is 190 feet high ; the southern part of the island is low. There 
is deep water generally around the island, but only 4 fathoms for 
nearly 1 mile from its southeast point. No fresh water can be ob- 
tained. 

Arzana ( Arzanah) , 25 miles northward of Sir Beni Yas, is an 
island 1.7 miles long north and south, and 1 mile broad; it is hilly 
toward the northern end, its highest hill being 200 feet high, and 
the southern part is a plain. There is no water on the island. The 
fringing reef round the island is nowhere more than 600 yards 
broad. 

Anchorage can be obtained about i mile from the island in 4 to 5 
fathoms water, with the south point bearing about 270°. 

Pearl Banks. — ^The following pearl banks are in the vicinity of 
Arzana: An extensive bank, with 3 and 4 fathoms water, 8 miles 
north-northwestward ; a 3-fathom bank 2 miles northeastward, which 
terminates 7 miles to the northward in 5 fathoms, and continues, with 
1 fathom, 3 miles southward; a bank with 5 fathoms, or perhaps 



104' DALMA ISLAND. 

X 

less^ 11 miles southeastward; and a small bank, with 4^ fathoms 
water, 2J miles southward of the island. 

Diyina (Dalyinah), 12 miles northwestward of Arzana, is an 
island JJ, miles long northwest and southeast, 600 yards broad, flat 
and sandy, with scanty grass; the highest part is ^, black detached 
rock at the northern end, about 9 feet high. The island is bordered 
by a reef 700 yards wide, except the southern end, where there are 
20 fathoms close to the western side. 

Several pearl banks, with 4 and 5 fathoms water, lie from 4 to 
17 miles northward of the island, and a cora.1 reef has been observed 
about 7 miles to the northward ; it appeared ta extend 3 miles north 
and south, and to be nearly awash. 

Anchorage can be obtained in 8 fathoms, from 600 yards to ^ mile 
off the south point, and it is more sheltered from a shamal than might 
be expected from the small size of the island. 

Shirau (Shura^awah) (lat. 25*^ 2% long. 52° 14'), 9 miles west- 
northwestward from Diyina, is small, and has little or no fringing 
reef; it has five or six little hummocks, about 40 feet high, which 
are nearly in range on easterly or westerly bearings ; the middle part 
of the island is low. Shoal water extends at least ^ mile southeast- 
ward from the island. There is a good sandy beach for turtles. 
One mile to the northward is a detached small rocky pinnacle about 
8 feet high, with 8 fathoms between it and the island. 

In approaching Shirau from the northward, the island bearing 
between 180° and 190° appears to lead in depths of not less than 
6 fathoms, but reefs may exist. 

The bottom is very irregular between Diyina and Shirau (lat. 25° 
2', long. 52° 14'), and several reefs have been observed; the approach 
from the southward is also uneven. 

Fair anchorage can be obtained in a shamal, 600 yards off the 
beach in the middle of the south side of the island, in 5 to 6 fathoms, 
sand : a vessel about 200 feet in length swinging inshore would have 
4 fathoms water ; there is no shelter farther out. 

Patch. — A 1-fathom patch on a large pearl bank lies 6 miles 
northwestward of Shirau. 

Dalma Island (Dalmah) , 16J miles northwestward of Sir Beni 
Yas, is about 5 miles long north and south and 2^ miles broad ; it is 
generally hilly, but the southern part is a very low narrow plain 1 J 
miles long and terminating in a point. The hills from a distance 
appear like one long table hill, witji a small barn-shaped peak near 
the northern end ; this peak is 244 feet high. A fringing reef, i mile 
wide, extends, around the island, except at the south point; a patch of 
Si fathoms, sand, lies about 1 mile offshore eastward of the village. 
Thei'e is a little village and tower on the western side of the plain, 
with »t>put 1§ families, plenty of brackish water in wells, aud many 



PERSIAN GULF, SOUTHERN PART. 105 

goats; the village can be seen over the plain. The island is much 
visited by the pearl boats on account of the water, and during the 
season there is a large temporary population who establish a kind of 
bazaar and supply necessaries. 

The soundings are irregular in the vicinity. 

Anchorage can be obtained in 6 J fathoms about 800 yards south- 
eastward of the low sandy plain, with the southern house of the 
village 289°, and the eastern extremity of the island 11°, and good 
shelter in a shamal. At 200 yards inshore of this position the water 
shoals rapidly from 5J to 3J fathoms. From the eastward approach 
the anchorage t^ith the village bearing northward of 282°. Native 
boats lie on the western side, off the village, close to the reef, where 
they are sheltered from shamals by the southwestern point of the 
island, and are also sheltered from nashis. A patch of discolored 
water, apparently with a depth of 2 fathoms, has been reported at 
4J miles northeastward of the south extreme of Dalma Island. 

Supplies. — A few chicken^and eggs are obtainable at high prices. 

Halat Masuma^ 2J miles southward from the south point of 
Dalma, is. a small sandy islet 2 feet high; it is situated on a shoal 
extending 1 mile around and 1^ miles south-southwestward, which 
has 8 fathoms water close-to. There is a narrow 3-f athom passage 
between the shoal and Dalma, through which the tidal currents, set- 
ting east and west, are strong. A rocky 3-f athom patch, surrounded 
by from 12 to 17 fathoms water, lies 6 miles southwestward from the 
islet. 

The coast from Sir Beni Yas to Al Wakra, off which there are 
many smrll low islands, is most difficult and dangerous to approach, 
for the sea is much encumbered with shoals, which have been im- 
perfectly surveyed and but roughly delineated. Navigation is also 
dangerous outside the reefs, westward of a line drawn from Dalma to 
Shirau, where the irregular nature of the bottom causes overfalls in 
all directions. 

This locality should, therefore, be avoided ; even the Arabs do not 
visit it in ^ny craft larger than their pearl boats. 

Zabut (lat 24° 7', long. 52° 27'), 12 miles southwestward from 
the southern extremity of Sir Beni Yas, and close off a point of the 
mainland is an island about 1 mile long northwest and southeast, 
i mile broad and probably about 120 feet high, with white cliffs. 

A shoal extends about 8 miles northward and northeastward from 
the island ; westward and northwestward of the island are two shoa) 
patches and a large unsounded area, so it is not desirable to approach 
it nearer than from 10 to 8 miles. 

Jebel Baraka (Barakah.)^ a short distance inland from a low 
cliff on the mainland coast about 8 miles southwestward of Zabut, is 
some 250 feet high; Jebel al Wataid (Jebel Wutaid), 2 miles inland 

173608°— 20 8 



106 BAS AS SILLA. 

about 7 miles further southwestward, is smaller. The low ranges of 
dark hills extending along the coast from Khur al Bazim terminate 
here, and a very low coast, called Subakha (Sabakhah matti) or the 
salt ground, begins and continues westward 25 miles. It is most deso- 
late, partly swampy, and is the southernmost part of the Persian 
gulf. The coast is difficult to approach or even to sight, the foul 
ground extending from 4 to 6 miles off it. Ras Assak Is a small 
point northwestward of Jebel al Wataid. 

The Arabs say this is the hottest part of the gulf. 

Yasat, 24 miles westward of Zabut, is a group of two level islands, 
about 15 feet high, with cliffs all round, and three islets to the south- 
ward ; the group extends 6 miles north and south. 

A small spit extends southeastward from the southern islet, and 
there is a shoal patch about 1 mile northwestward of it. 

There is a clear channel, 2^ miles wide, southward of this islet, 
with irregular depths varying between 4 and 20 fathoms. The low 
swampy coast of the mainland is 8 miles distant, from which a reef 
extends 4 miles, with a 3-f athom patch outside it ; the land is not in 
sight from close to the reef. 

A reef extends 6 miles northeastward from the group, and a chain 
of great reefs continues 60 miles northward from these islands, 
through which there is no known ship channel, except between Fasht 
al Odaid and Rak Kareinein. 

Westward and northwestward of the Yasat Islands, along the coast 
and inshore of the great outlying reefs to Khur al Odaid, the survey 
is more complete ; but probably many undiscovered rocks and patches 
exist. 

Anchorage can be obtained with the southern Yasat Islet bearing 
between 68° and 90°, distant \ mile. 

Maliamaliya (lat. 24° 7', long. 51° 55'), about 6 miles west- 
southwestward of the southern Yasat Islet, is an islet of light color, 
from 15 to 20 feet high, flat-topped, with a notch in it, and cliffs all 
round. There is a small detached patch, with one fathom water, 1 
mile o the southeastward. 

Umni al Hatab, 8 miles west-northwestward of the southern 
Yasat Islet, is a low sand island about i mile in extent, with tufts of 
coarse grass. It is situated on a rocky reef, with several rocks above 
water off the northern end ; the reef extends \ mile from the eastern 
and western sides, but the southern side is clear. 

Ras as Silla (.Sila) is a slightly projecting point where the coast 
turns northward, at the western end of the low Subakha coast. Foul 
ground extends eastward and east-northeastward at least 2J miles 
from the ras. The land from the ras rises gradually northward to a 
level sunmiit about 100 feet high, and terminates on the coast in a 



ABU THABI TO RAS RAKKIN. 107 

series of little terraces or steps. It is of light color, and sometimes 
has a sparkling appearance in the sun, from the fragments of crystals 
on its surface. 

A little northward of Ras as Silla are some wells near the shore, 
but the water is brackish. 

Eassar al Baya is above water on the coast reef, about 4 miles 
northward of Ras as Silla. The coast trends northward 13 miles 
from Ras as Silla, and then turns northwestward 2^ miles to Ras 
Masheirib, the reef extending from i to f miles off-shore. 

There is a succession of small, low, cliffy points and bays from Ras 
as Silla northward to a conspicuous little table hill, 75 feet high, at 
the point where the coast turns northwestward ; from this point the 
coast is a range of low, white cliffs for 1 mile, when it falls toward 
Ras Masheirib, which is very low, rocky, and shelving. 

Naita^ about 2 miles northeastward of the table hill just men- 
tioned, is a low sand islet less than ^ mile long and very narrow, 
with stunted tufts of grass. There are a few gi'aves here, probably 
of fishermen. Several detached rocks lie off its northern end. The 
islet is on the southwestern edge of a great reef, which appears to 
join that extending northward from the Yasat Islands. A spit ex- 
tends 1 mile southeastward from the islet, between which and the 
reef off the mainland is the southern entrance to Naita Strait. 

The soundings in the bay, southward of Naita and westward of 
Yasat, are uneven, with overfalls of 3 or 4 fathoms. The bottom in 
the deeper parts is mud and on the shoaler spots rock or sand. 

Naita Strait (lat. 24° 17', long. 51° 47') is 3^ miles long north- 
west and southeast, and about 1,200 yards wide, with a least depth 
of about 4 fathoms. It is the only known najv^igable channel leading 
northward. Keep on the Naita side of the strait, and when passing 
Naita look out for the spit extending nearly halfway across from the 
mainland; after passing that islet the strait widens. Foul ground 
extends 1 mile northwestward from Ras Masheirib. There is foul 
ground also for 3 miles northwestward of Naita Island, including an 
isolated patch at that distance. The tidal currents are strong in the 
strait, setting northwestward during the flood and southeastward 
during the ebb tide, approximately; the times of the turn of the 
streams are not known. 

Dohat an Nakhla (Nakhalah) extends southward about 5 
miles between Ras Masheirib and Al Fazaya, with the point to the 
southward ; its width is ^ mile between the reefs extending from each 
side, and it has depths of from 3 to 5 fathoms; one or two shoal 
patches in the entrance render it unsuitable for shipping. 

Al Fazaya, 5 miles westward of Ras Masheirib, and northward of 
a long point, separating Dohat an Nakhla from Dohat al Kawaisat, 



108 RAS AL HAZRA. 

« 

to which it appears to be connected by shoal water, is an island 2| 
miles long north and south, | mile broad, about 50 feet high, with 
a level summit and low cliffs around. It is of light color similar 
to the coast. 

Dohat al Eawaisat^ on the western side of Al Fazaya, extends 
southward 7 miles, and is 1^ miles wide inside, where there is a depth 
of 6 fathoms. The narrowest part of the entrance is said to be 
40 yards wide between the small projecting reefs and to have 3 
fathoms water. . 

There are several rocky islets on the reef, which extends about half 
a mile off the coast between the entrance to Dohat al Kawaisat and 
Ras al Hazra. 

Ras al Hazra^ 10 miles west-northwestward of Ras Masheirib, is 
very low, rocky, and shelving; the coast from the ras trends west- 
south westward 15 miles to Khur ad Duan (adh Dhuwaihin), and 
then turns north-northeastward 20 miles to Ras Bu Kamheiz. There 
is no information about the bay extending southwestward between 
Ras al Hazra and Ras Bu Kamheiz subsequent to the survey of 
1823 ; it contains many shoal patches ; the depth nowhere exceeds 10 
fathoms, and is generally less, with mud bottom. The shores are low 
white' hills, except in the vicinity of Khur ad Duari at the head. 

Faireijat^ the southern of which lies 6 miles, 86*^, from Ras al 
Hazra, are two islets 2 miles apart north-northwest and south-south- 
est, about 20 feet high, table-topped, and of light color. A reef ex- 
tends about 2 miles southward from the northern islet. 

Ghara^ about 2 miles northwestward of Ras al Hazra, is a group, 
3 miles in extent, of one rocky island, about 1 mile across, and numer- 
ous smaller ones ; they -are low and flat-topped. There is an exten- 
sive patch of foul ground 3 miles northward of the group, and shoals, 
with 2 fathoms and 1 fathom water, extend about 5 miles northward 
from 3 miles north-northeastward of Ras al Hazra. 

Ras Bu Kamheiz (lat. 24° 34', long. 51° 31') is the eastern low 
rocky point of the promontory on the southern side of Khur al 
Odaid. Fasht Umm Janna extends 3 miles eastward and north- 
ward from it; the reef is 2 miles wide, and there is a small channel 
close round the point leading northwestward between the reef and 
the shore. ^ ■ 

Khur al Odaid (^Odaid). — A point of low cliff, 4 miles north- 
westward from Ras Bu Kamheiz, is the southern outer entrance 
point of Khur al Odaid. Jebel al Odaid are two hills; the north- 
eastern hill, immediately within the outer point, is 190 feet high, 
of light color, and has a table-top with several scallops ; the other, 1 J 
miles farther southwestward, is 300 feet high. A reef extends | mile 
northward and 1 mile eastward from this point. The southern inner 
low rocky entrance point of the khur is 2^ miles westward of the outer 



persia:n gulf, southern part. 109 

point, with a sandy beach between, on which are three wells of 
tolerable water and the ruins of a village. There are three rocks on 
the southern side of the channel, ^ mile eastward of the outer point. 

Three other little rocks lie on the edge of the reef J mile north- 
westward of the inner point, close northward of which is the narrow 
channel leading into the khur, with 1 fathom water. On the north- 
ern side of this channel is a detached shoal about 2 miles long east 
and west, with deep water between it and the northern shore, but no 
passage through into the khur. 

Khur al Odaid winds southwestward 5 miles, and then opens into 
a lagoon about 5 miles long north and south, and 3 miles wide ; the 
southern shore is a continuation of the rocky hills of Jebel al Odaid, 
while the northern shore and the shores of the lagoon are perfectly 
white, round shaped sandhills, from 50 to 80 feet high, without any 
vegetation. 

The average width of the khur is i mile, but the channel is con- 
tracted by banks and rocky islets to about J mile; the depths are 
from 2 to 4 fathoms. The lagoon is shallow within the entrance and 
at the southern end, but has 6 and 7 fathoms in the northern part. 
The water in the inlet and lagoon is of a blue color and very clear. 
Khur al Odaid is frequented in winter by Abu Thabi fishermen, who 
remain some months. Very fine mullet are caught here. 

Aiichorage.-^The anchorage at the entrance is 400 yards offshore, 
in from 6^ to 10 fathoms, sand and shells, close to the northern outer 
entrance point; it is just inside a slightly projecting sandy point with 
no reef off it, with the outer hill of Jebel al Odaid bearing 170° and 
northward of the detached shoal above mentioned. It is difficult to 
estimate distance from the white sandhills, which appear farther off 
than they really are. The anchorage is sheltered in a shamal, and in 
a nashi there is not very much sea, owing to the great reefs to sea- 
ward. 

Directions. — From the southward steer 0° from Ras al Hazra, 
passing between the 2-fathom shoal lying 3 miles north-northeast- 
ward of the ras and the patches 1 mile northeastward of the Ghara 
group. Keep eastward of the foul ground and the 3-fathom patch 
northward of this group, and westward of the 1-fjathom shoal, the 
western extremity of which lies 12°, 5} miles from Ras al Hazra. 
Undiscovered shoals may exist, a good lookout is therefore essential. 

Jebel al Odaid northeastern hill bearing 260**, leads northward of 
Fasht Umm Janna, which shows well and is steep-to ; in approaching 
the anchorage, keep rather toward the northern shore to avoid the 
outer end of the detached shoal. 

Kafai (lat. 24° 35', long. 51° 44'), 12 miles eastward of Ras Bu 
Kamheiz, is an island about 3 miles long north-northwest and south- 
southeast, 2 miles broad, and low, with tufts of grass. A shoal ex- 



110 THE NAJHAN COAST. 

tends 2J miles southward from the island, and a shoal, which has 
not been explored and may be connected with the island, lies 4J 
miles north-northwestward of it. Miyamat Entin, 3 miles south- 
ward of Kafai, are three very low islands, together extending about 
3 miles north and south, on a great reef which stretches southward 
to Fareijat Islets. 

For more than 15 miles eastward of Miyamat Entin the sea is 
reported to be encumbered with ghoals, with no passage between 
them, but it has not been examined. 

The Najhan coast (Nakiyan), from the northern entrance 
point of Khur al Odaid, trends north-northeastward 18 miles, and 
is high white sandhills. Ras al AUach is 4 miles farther northward. 

Between Khur al Odaid and Fasht al Arrif, which extends south- 
eastward from Ras al AUack, the offing is much encumbered with 
patches, but near the coast there is more open water. There is a 
small 1-fathom patch in the fairway 5 miles north-northeastward 
of Jebel al Odaid, 2 miles east-northeastward of this patch is a 
«^>-fathom shoal, and 8J miles north-northeastward of the small patch 
is a 1-fathom patch with 3 fathoms over 1 mile eastward of it. 
There are doubtless more patches undiscovered,, but a good lookout 
enables a vessel to avoid them, no attempt being made to navigate 
with the sun ahead. 

Las Hat; 12 miles northeastward of Jebel al Odaid, is a group of 
two small rocky flat-topped islets, 1 mile apart, with light-colored 
cliffs about 15 feet high, and several detached rocks. 

A shoal ridge, 2J miles south-southwestward of Las Hat Islets, 
extends southward 2 miles, and has 1 fathom water in places. 
About 3 miles northeastward of the group is a bank of white sand 
(lat. 24° 47', long. 51° 39'), which barely covers, and from it banks 
extend 2^ miles northwestward. 

Machasib; 14 miles east-southeastward from Las Hat, is a little 
flat rocky islet about 7 feet high, surrounded by a reef extending 
1^ miles. There is a channel, about 1 mile wide, with 4 and 5 fath- 
oms water, between the reef off the islet and a large shoal, the limits 
of which have not been determined, to the southeastward.. The 
channel, between it and Fasht al Odaid, is about 3 miles wide, with 
overfalls. 

Halat Dalma, llj miles, 54°, from Machasib, is a small sand 
bank nearly covered at high water. It lies on and about 2 miles 
from the western side of an extensive reef, the limits of which have 
not been determined, the southeastern side remaining nearly unex- 
plored. There is no safe channel through or about this reef. 

Fasht al Odaid, the western edge of which is about 8 miles east- 
northeastward of Las Hat, is 10 miles long north and south, 6 miles 
wide, and places of white sand appear to dry. 



ABU THABI TO RAS RAKKIN. Ill 

t'asht al Arrif extends 7 miles southeastward from Ras al Allach 
in a long narrow spit (lat. 24° 54', long. 51° 42'). The land is 
rarely visible from off its extremity, but the reef shows well by day ; 
the apparent end of the reef should be given a berth of about 1 mile, 
as there is a depth of 4 fathoms 1,200 yards off it. The tidal cur- 
rents set strongly over the reef and must be guarded against. The 
channel between it and Fasht al Odaid is 3^ miles wide, and is the 
best by which to approach Khur al Odaid. The outer extremity of 
the fasht bears 25° 10 miles from Las Hat. 

Jazirat MisMryat is a little low islet on the Fasht al Arrif, 5 
miles west-northwestward of the outer extremity of the reef, and 
eastward of the northern part of the Najhan sand hills; there is a 
channel IJ miles wide between the hills and the islet, leading into an 
extensive backwater, which has not been examined,. Ras al Allach, 3 
miles northward of the islet, is the northern entrance point of the 
backwater. 

The coast from Ras al Allach trends northward 17 miles to the 
entrance to Al Bida Harbor ; it is low sand or stony desert to Jebel 
Wakra, a distance of 10 miles, the coast reef extending off ^rom 1^ 
to 2 miles. 

XTmin al Hul (Htil), 6 miles northward of Ras al Allach, is a 
small low point, projecting but slightly. The width of the channel 
between the coast here and the outlying reefs has not been determined, 
but may be from 6 to 7 miles. The soundings are fairly regular in 
the channel, from 6 to 14 fathoms, but several ridges of coral and 
rock lie from 4 to 6 miles eastward of Al Wakra ; they run north and 
south, are some 40 yards wide, and have 5 fathoms or less water, with 
from 14 to 17 fathoms between them ; other shoals may exist. 

Rak Eareinein, the outlying shoals, extend from close northward 
of Fasht al Odiad, 20 miles northward, with a breadth of from 10 to 
15 miles, and are shoal patches, with deep water between. The shoals 
dry in places, and there is not any known channel through them. 

There is a narrow channel between Fasht al Odaid and Rak 
Kareinein, in which depths of from 7 to 9 fathoms were obtained. 
A blind channel, about 2 miles northward of the eastern entrance to 
the real channel, leads about 2 miles westward into the reef and shoals 
abruptly. 

Caution. — As the locality of these shoals has not been surveyed, 
caution is necessary ; the shoals may extend farther northward than 
charted, or outlying patches may exist. It is recommended when 
navigating in these waters to have a steam launch or motor boat 
sounding ahead of the ship, as sighting the shoals, or the discolora- 
tion of the water over them, can not be entirely relied on. 

The coast from Jebel Wkkra to Ras Rakkin is low, except at Al 
Bida, where there is some slightly higher rockj'^ ground, and a few 



112 AL WAKRA. 

hillocks in other parts ; the land is chiefly a stony desert, the northern 
part being very low. The sea northward of the latitude of Al Bida ia 
clear of outlying detached shoals, but reefs continue along the coast 
and extend in places 10 miles from the beach, and the bottom may 
be seen before the land is sighted. Bar al Katr (Katar), the 
peninsula northward of Khur al Odaid, in inhabited by many dif- 
ferent tribes of Bedawin. of whom the Manasir bear a bad char- 
acter. 

The towns of Katr (Katar), chiefly Al Bida and Wakra, send 200 
boats to the pearl fishery. 

Tidal currents.— The tidal currents set southward along the 
coast approximately during the flood tide, and northward during 
the ebb tide, but the times of the turn of the currents are not 
known ; the currents appear to attain a velocity of about 1 knot. 

The current sets westward, approximately, during the flood tide, 
through and over the reefs southward of Al Bida, meeting the cur- 
rent, which sets westward along the shore from Abu Thabi, in the 
vicinity of. Khur al Odaid, and in opposite direction during the ebb 
tide. 

Al Wakra (Wakrah) (lat. 25° 11', long. 51° 36'), situated on 
the shore of a bay about f mile deep, is a large town, divided into 
two parts by an inlet, which is a boat harbor. A castle, with a 
high square tower and a smaller tower, about f mile inland from 
the southern part of the town, is conspicuous. In the northern 
part of the town is a large fort with three towers. 

The town has probably about 300 boats. Jebel Wakra. 1 mile to 
the southward, and close to the coast, is a level-topped rocky hill of 
brown color, 85 feet high. 

A rock, with less than 6 feet water, lies about 2 miles 108° from 
the town, and a patch with 1^ fathoms water lies 3 miles 66° from 
the town; the water generally near Al Wakra is considered to be 
somewhat shallower than shown on the chart. 

. A small vessel can anchor in 2| fathoms, sand and clay, with the 
highest tower in the fort, 299 **, and the tower of the castle 232% 
and large vessels eastward of the town, about 3 miles offshore, in 
7 fathoms. 

Landing. — The landing is protected from the north and east by 
a high sandbank. There is a coral reef off the town which boats must 
go around or cross at high water. 

Supplies are scarce. Fish can be obtained in small quantities; 
also water. 

The coast from Al Wakra trends northward 6 miles to Ras Abul 
Mushut, the southeastern point of Al Bida Harbor, which is low, 
rocky, and shows well against the sandy coast. A l^-fathom patch 



PERSIAN GULF, SOUTHERN PART. 113 

lies 4 miles 57° from Ras Abui Miishut, and shoal water probably 
continues from it to the 1 J- fathom patch 3 miles 66° from Al Wakra. 
The shore reef extends about i mile eastward from Ras Abul Mushut. 

From Ras Abul Mushut the coast trends westward for 5 miles, and 
there turns somewhat sharply to the northward, formin.g a reef- 
obstructed bay in which is Al Bida Harbor. 

Al Bida Harbor is in the southern part of the bay formed by the 
receding coast westward and northward of Ras Abul Mushut, where 
reefs nearly completely surround a clear area of shallow depths 
which has a length of about 4^ miles in an east-northexistward and 
west-southwestward direction by about 3| miles across in a north- 
east and southwest direction between Jezirat as Safla, on the north- 
em side of the harbor, and Ras Nessa Fort, on the southern shore 
of the bay, about the middle of the town of Al Bida. 

Depths. — The whole approach to the harbor is obstructed by 
reefs and shoal water of from 2J to 3 fathoms, which extend about 
6 miles offshore. The 5- fathom range is reported (1913) to be about 
12 miles east-northeastward of Jazirat as Safla. 

The greater part of the harbor has between 4 and 5 fathoms water, 
white mud or clay bottom, and the inner anchorage off the town has 
from 2 to 3 fathoms. The entrance is shallower, the depths just out- 
side varying between 2 fathoms on the northern side of the channel 
and 2^ fathoms on the southern side; in 1898 a sounding of IJ 
fathoms was found just outside the narrows. 

The draft of a vessel should not exceed 16 feet when entering the 
harbor at high water nor 10 feet at low water. 

Entrance. — ^The entrance, 2J miles northward of Ras Abul 
Mushut, is i mile across the points of the reefs which inclose the 
harbor, but it is not more than 600 yards wide between the 3-fathom 
curve. 

Breefs. — Reef projects in a northerly direction for over 2 miles 
from Kas Abul Mushut, and nearly meets the extremity of another 
reef coming from the opposite direction, that to the northward being 
covered by from 2 to 6 feet of water. 

Reefs. — Ras Bu Abut, 2J miles west-northwestward of Ras Abul 
Mushut is low ; between them a great reef projects 2 miles northward 
to the southern side of the entrance; it is chiefly rocky, with only a 
few feet of water. 

Jazirat as Safla (Safliyah Island) ^ 3 miles northward of Ras 
Bu Abut, is about 2 miles long east and west, very narrow, and curves 
with the northern side of the harbor; it is low, sand, and grassed. 
The northern reef projects southeastward 1^ miles from Jazirat as 
Safla ; it is chiefly sand, and outside the entrance trends northeast- 
ward and northward for some miles. 



114 JEZIRAT AL ALL 

Ras Nessa^ 3.6 miles westward of Ras Abul Mushut, and sepa- 
rated from it by Ras Bu Abut, is a salient point southeastward of the 
anchorage. It is surrounded by the town, and there is an incon- 
spicuous fort on it. Southeastward of Ras Nessa is the sheik's house, 
on the top of which is a flagstaff from which a flag is usually flown, 
but it is noticeable only when within 4 miles of the town. South- 
westward of Ras Nessa is a minaret and a large white house. 

Westward of the white house are two forts; the more important 
of the two appears buff colored, and has two square towers and one 
circular tower close together. 

Al Bida or Gutten Fort, in the center of which is a conspicuous 
circular tower, is 1 J miles westward of Ras Nessa ; it is elevated, and 
northward of it are the ruins of a castle recently destroyed. The 
high tower of Al Bida, which may sometimes be seen before the land 
is sighted, may from points of view appear amongst the towers of the 
fort to the eastward; between Al Bida Fort and the castle ruins is 
a buff-colored tower, which may be used as a range mark for entering 
the harbor. Northwestward of the castle ruins a village extends 
along the shore; 2^ miles northwestward of the tower is a buff- 
colored castle, to the northeastward of which is a conspicuous white 
castle. 

The castles and towers, owing to refraction, are visible at a distance 
of from 12 to 14 miles at sea. The small buff-colored castle 2.3 miles 
northwestward of Al Bida Fort, owing to its high elevation, can be 
seen sometimes before other objects in the harbor. 

Jezirat al All, a small islet, 8^ miles northward of Ras Abul 
Mushut, is a good mark for approaching Al Bida ; it is small and of 
a brown color, with a small peak, probably about 30 feet high, at 
its eastern end. In some lights it appears nearly white. 

Shoal. — About 9 miles 92° from the northern end of Jezirat al 
Ali there is a shoal depth of 3J fathoms. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, approximately, at Al 
Bida at 4 h. 30 m. ; spring rise about 6 feet. 

Directions. — From the northward, as the Katr (Katar) coast 
can not be approached near enough to be sighted southward of Ras 
Laffan, steer southward parallel with the coast, keeping in depths 
between 5 and 7 fathoms until eastward of Jazirat al Ali, when steer 
westward and make that island, bearing in mind the 3^- fathom patch 
9 miles eastward of it. Being clear of the patch and about 6 miles 
from the island, steer about 193° and pass northwestward of the 
1^-fathom patch, 4 miles 57° from Ras Abul Mushut, and when the 
round conspicuous tower at the northeast corner of Al Bida Fort 
bearing 249°, keep it so; this bearing leads between the shoals into 
the harbor. These directions are taken from the chart, and the 
greatest care is necessary in using them. 



PERSIAN GULF, SOUTHERN PART. 115 

From the northeastward or southeastward, bring Halul to bear 
65°; keep it so astern until lost sight of and then continue 245° 
direct for Al Bida. Approach the shoals cautiously, and pass north- 
ward of the l^rfathom patch 4 miles 57° from Kas Abul Mushut, 
observing that the round conspicuous tower at the northeast corner 
of Al Bida Fort bearing 251° appears to lead northward of it, and 
continue as before directed. -The broad flat outside the harbor, ex- 
tending 5 miles to seaward beyond the reefs, has, with the exception 
of the IJ-fathom patch mentioned, from 3 to 2J fathoms water, white 
sand bottom. There are depths of from 6 to 4 fathoms close to the 
outer edge of this flat., 

On account of the position of the sun the reefs are best seen for 
entering early in the forenoon, and for leaving late in the afternoon ; 
at other times they are very difficult to make out. 

A small vessel can enter at low water guided by the eye and lead ; 
the reefs are then more clearly seen. A vessel of moderate size could 
anchor to await the tide about 6 miles eastward of Jazirat al Ali. 

Approaching the entrance (lat. 25° 19', long. 51° 36') with the 
round conspicuous tower at the northeast corner of Al Bida bearing 
249° the channel will be plainly seen from aloft; the northern shoal 
will appear light green, the southern shoal with patches of dark 
color. The water deepens to 4 fathoms in the narrow part of the 
channel. 

If a vessel should get too far to the southward and Jebel Wakra. 
should be sighted, she would be in dangerous proximity to the north- 
ern side of Rak Kareinem. 

When the little peak of Jazirat al Ali bears about 350° just open 
eastward of Jazirat as Safla, steer 247° direct for Al Bida fort, 
which leads about 300 yards northward of the spit off Ras Nessa. 

Anchor about J mile off-shore with the southern extremity of the 
white castle round conspicuous tower at the northeast corner of Al 
Bida fort, bearing 276°, and Ras Nessa 138° in from 2J to 3 fathoms, 
outside the native vessels, and clear of the foul ground on the western 
side of the bay. 

There is often a land wind early in the morning, but it does not 
extend far from the coast. 

Eatar (Al Bida or Gutteh on Plan) is the name of the com- 
bined three towns in Al Bida Harbor, viz, Doha (Dohah), Al Bida, 
and Little Doha. Doha, the eastern town, ^ mile south westward of 
Ras Nessa, is partly walled, with several towers. The Shaikh's house 
is at a large round tower, with a flagstaff, on the beach about the 
middle of the town ; westward of this tower is a small bight, where 
boats are hauled up for repair. The reef dries J mile off. 

Little Doha, northwestward of and joining Doha, has a square fort 
on rising ground at its southwestern corner. Al Bida joins Little 



116 EAS MATBAKH. 

Doha, and the three places together extend 1 mile along the shore, 
Al Bida is situated on the side of the rising ground, and the Shaikh's 
flag is flown from the castle. Al Bida fort, which is situated on 
rising ground, has a large tower and is conspicuous. 

There is a tower near the wells 1^ miles southwestward of the town, 
and here there is a little cultivation; with this exception the whole 
country is desert. 

The Shaikh of Katar or Al Bida has authority over the other chiefs. 
The three places together may contain a population of about 5,000 
mixed tribes. They were formerly constantly at feud with the Beda- 
win, and it may not be safe to be outside the walls after dark. 

There are no large bagalas here, but many pearl boats, and the 
inhabitants are all employed in the pearl fishery. 

Supplies. — Fish, meat, etc., can be procured in the bazaar, but 
the natives are by no means friendly (1913), and the prices are high. 
Water is dear and indifferent ; the best is brought in skins from the 
de^rt, some distance from the town. Firewood is procured from the 
interior, and also, showing its scarcity, from Clarence Strait, some 
250 miles distant. 

The shore of the bay from Al Bida turns northward, and is 
fronted by an extensive reef running out nearly 1| miles, which 
nearly dries. Between this reef and Jazirat as Safla is a narrow 
channel leading into a basin westward of that island, with from 1^ 
to 3^ fathoms water. 

The bottom near the shore between Al Bida and Ras Rakkin is 
white sand or rock, and generally shows well in the clear water. 

Jazirat al Ali ('Aliyah Island) ^ 3^ miles northward of As 
Safla, is small and of a brown color, with a little peak, probably 
about 30 feet high, ^t its eastern end, which is a mark in entering Al 
Bida Harbor. 

Bas al Eateifan (Bas Eutaifan), 4 miles northwestward of 
Jazirat al Ali, slightly projects, and is probably some 50 feet high, 
rather higher than the adjacent coast. 

Shoal water, of less than 3 fathoms, with some dry places, extends 
from 4 to 10 miles off the coast between Ras al Kateifan and Ras an 
Nuf, 10 miles to the northward; it projects farthest in lat. 25° 32' N. 

Dohat Lusail (Lusail), between Ras al Kateifan and Ras an Nuf, 
slightly recedes ; it is shallow, but is frequented by pearl boats, which 
run in over the shoal for shelter in shamals. 

Bas an Nuf (Nof ) is a low rocky point. 

Bas Matbakh (al Matbakh) (lat. 25° 40', long. 51° 34') is 3 
miles north-northeastward from Ras an Nuf, and between is the 
entrance to Khur Shajij (Shakik) a creek and backwater, the en- 
trance to which has 1 fathom water. There is a small village with 
several towers here. The 3-f athom curve is 4 miles off Ras Matbakh, 



ABU THABI TO RAS RAKKIN. 117 

within which depth the ground is foul; there is a dry sand bank 3 
miles eastward from the point. 

Khur Dhakira (Dhakirah), 3^ miles northward of Ras Matbakh, is 
small and shoal. 

Shoals. — A series of shoal patches have been observed about 6 
miles off the coast, and extending about 8 miles northward of Ras 
Matbakh. The shoals had apparently about 4 feet water, and from 
16 to 20 feet inside ; they were plainly seen during daylight and the 
lead gave warning of approach. As the coast is very low, the dis- 
tance from it may have been overestimated. 

Less water was reported in 1910 within the 10-fathom curve to the 
northeastward of these shoals than is shown on the chart. 

Ras Laffan^ 14 miles northward of Ras Matbakh, is very low 
sand ; the coast reef extends about ^ mile off it. 

Al Howeila (Huwailah) , 6 miles west-northwestward of Ras 
Laffan, is a small town, with a square fort some 30 feet high. West- 
ward of the town is a small bay, in which the reef extends IJ miles 
offshore. The people were formerly pearl fishers, but in 1887 the 
place was found deserted. Ras al Maruna is the northern point of 
the bay, and close inshore to the southward pearl boats shelter dur- 
ing a shamal. 

Fuairit (Fuwairat) , 2 miles northwestward from Ras al Maruna, 
is a little walled town, with several towers, on the shore of a small 
khur ; there are some small white sandhills immediately to the north- 
ward. 

Ar Riyat, about 2 miles northward of Fuairit. and just northward 
of the sand hills, is a small village with several towers ; Al Ghareya, 
about 2 miles farther northward,, is a little village, also with towers, 
established by people from Al Wakra. 

Ras Umm al Hasa (Umm Hasah) lies G miles north-northwest- 
ward of Ras al Maruna ; it rises to a small rocky hillock, some 20 feet 
high, the coast reef extends off about 1 mile, and shoal water is 
reported to extend some distance further off. Boats shelter close to 
the coast southward of the ras in a shamal. 

Sas Rakkin (Rakan) (lat. 26° 11', long. 51° 13'), 8^ miles 
northwestward of Ras Umm al Hasa is the northwestern point of a 
T-shaped island, nearly 2 miles long east and west, narrow, the 
greater part being less than 200 yards wide, and very low, with tufts 
of grass ; the T-h8ad at the western end is 1 mile long. It is situated 
about 1 mile inside the northern extremity of the reef extending from 
the peninsula of Bar al Katr, and is nearly 1^ miles off the coast, 
from which the island can be reached at low water by wading. 
Native boats shelter southward of the island. The 5 -fathom curve 
is 3^ miles northward of Ras Rakkin, and there is a 2|-fathom patch 
* about 2 miles north-northwestward of the ras. 



118 HALUL ISLAN'D. 

A small rocky mound, conspicuous from seaward, stands on the 
mainland, 2^ miles southeastward of Ras Rakkin. 

Tides. — The time of high water, full and change, at Ras Rakkin 
has not been determined, but it appears to be about 5h., and the rise 
about 5 feet at springs. 

Ar Ruweis (Buwais)^ 2| miles southward of Ras Rakkin, is a 
small town on the peninsula ; it is seen before the land when approach- 
ing from the northward. 

Eras Bu Amran. See Chapter VI. 

Halul Island (Halul) (lat. 25° 40', long. 52° 25'), 71 miles east- 
southeastward of Ras Rakkin, and just within the edge of the Great 
Pearl Bank, is about 1^ miles long northeast and southwest, 1 mile 
broad, 192 feet high, and hilly ; the fringing reef round the island ex- 
tends off 400 yards in places, and shoal water extends about 1,200 
yards northward and northeastward of the island. 

Cairn and beacon. — A cairn, surmounted by a small staff and ball, 
stands on the summit of Halul Island, 192 feet above high water. 

An iron girder embedded in masonry, surmounted by an iron tri- 
angle, about 60 feet in height, stands about 200 yards from the beach 
on the southeastern side of the island ; this beacon is known as Law- 
rence Beacon. 

The cairn and beacon in range, bearing 304°, lead to the anchorage. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage in 7 fathoms about 600 yards 
off the southeastern coast, but much swell rolls round the island in a 
shamal, and the bottom, being patches of sand and rock, is not very 
good holding ground. 

Landing. — There is a landing place in a gap in the low cliff, 
southwestward of a sand beach northwestward of the anchorage, but 
it is only suitable for boats of light draft, and as there are many 
patches of rock it should not be attempted in heavier weather. With 
southeasterly winds, landing here would be dangerous, and then there 
is a more sheltered place on the southwestern part of the island. 
The island is visited by the pearl boats, but is quite barren and 
without fresh water. 

Soundings. — The soundings are not much guide in approaching 
the island (lat. 25° 40', long. 52° 25'); there are great overfalls 
everywhere around it; from 15 to 20 miles off the island, and also 
about 1 mile oft', there are depths of from 10 to 14 fathoms, whilst 
two small shoals, with 6 fathoms water, lie 115°, 26 miles, and 298°. 
15 miles, respectively, and a similar shoal, with 7 fathoms water, 
152°, 20 miles from the island. 

Shah AUum Shoal, 45 miles, 6° from Halul, see Chapter X. 



CHAPTER VI. 

PERSIAN GULF— RAS RAKKIN TO JAZIRAT BUBIYAN, 
INCLUDING KUWEIT AND KHUR ABDALLA. 

(Lat. 26** 11', long. 51° 13', to lat. 29'' 45', long. 48° 40'.) 

General remarks. — The whole coast between Eas Rakkin (lat. 
26° 11', long. 51° 13') and Jazirat Bubiyan, 260 miles northwestward, 
is a low sandy or stony desert, with a few little hills here and there. 
The only vegetation, except near Al Katif and one or two other towns 
where there are date trees, is the coarse grass growing in tufts on 
the sand hills, and small brushwood in places. The coast is fronted 
by extensive reefs until within 70 miles of Kuweit; and many is- 
lands, all small and low except Bahrein, lie off it, some about 50 
miles distant. With the exception of a few towns this coast is 
rarely visted by Europeans. Large tracts of coast are without vil- 
lages or settled inhabitants, and it is probably not safe to wander 
away from the towns on the mainland without any armed party. 

Tides. — the times of high water, full and change, vary from about 
G h. 5 m. at Bahrein, through 12 h., to h. 13 m. at Kuweit, and the 
rise from 6^ to 10^ feet at springs. 

Observations made between Bahrein Island and Al Hawar show 
that the spring rise there is about 4 feet. In summer, the southwest 
monsoon drives the water into the Persian Gulf, and raises the gen- 
eral sea level about 1 foot. As a rule, southeasterly winds raise, 
and northwesterly winds lowr, the level. 

Tidal currents. — The tidal currents are felt everywhere on the 
Great Pearl Bank, especially around reefs and islands. The west- 
going current appears to run about six hours, ending some time after 
high water, and the eastgoing current the next six hours, but the 
times of the turn of the currents are not known. The westgoing 
current sets from Ras Rakkin along the coast southward into Dohat 
Salwa, and between Ras Rakkin and Bahrein Island; off Bahrein 
Island and amongst the outlying reefs the currents are very erratic 
and much affected by the wind, but, to a certain extent, they follow 
the general trend of the reefs, attaining, at springs, a velocity of 
from 1 to 2 knots, and even 3 knots at times, but this is exceptional. 

119 



120 RAS RAKKIN TO RAS TANURA. 

Eastward of Bahrein Island the tidal currents are for the most 
part weak ; there are, however, heavy tide-rips southward of Bahrein, 
in Dohat Salwa, caused by sudden alterations in depth. 

The westgoing current appears to turn south west ward and south- 
ward on the bank northeastward of Fasht al Yarim, and set south- 
ward on the eastern side of Fasht al Yarim until abreast of Ras al 
Ain, where, joining the current flowing westward along the northern 
edge of the Khaseif a Reef, it turns southwestward into Bahrein Har- 
bor. Northward of Fasht al Yarim, and acroiss the eastern part of 
the Sheikh Gata Bank, the current sets southwestward, turning 
southward on the western side of Fasht al Yarim until within 1 mile 
of that bank and 2 miles of Najwa Reef, and southeastward between 
Fasht al Yarim and Khur Fasht in the Khur al Bab; but it sets 
southward over Khur Fasht and westward of it. 

The current sets southward over Khaura Bank (lat. 26° 38', long, 
50° 18') and southwestward between Chaschus and Najwa Reefs. 

The southern edges of the Khaura and Sheikh Gata Banks are 
marked by overfalls. 

The current sets southeastward between Muharrak and Bahrein 
Islands, and southward to the eastward of Muharrak Island. In 
Bahrein Harbor entrance, northward of Muharrak, it sets west- 
southwestward at a velocity of from 1 to 2 knots. 

The east-going current sets oyer and between the several reefs in 
opposite directions to those during the westgoing current. 

Bas Sakkin to Bas Tanura. — The coast from Ras Rakkin trends 
generally south-southwestward, about 68 miles, and then turns north- 
westward and northward, 96 miles, to Ras Tanura, and in the bay 
thus formed is Bahrein, a large island. From the eastern side of 
Bahrein reefs extend to within 5 miles of Ras Ashiraj, which is 
situated 17 miles southwestward of Ras Rakkin, and from these reefs 
there are depths of from 2 to 3 fathoms across to the fringing reef 
off Bar al Katr. Southward of this the bay has been but little ex- 
plored, though an intricate channel could probably be found navi- 
gable by small craft, with a draft of less than 10 feet. The British 
naval vessel Investigator^ with a draft of 14J feet water, endeavored 
to navigate around Bahrein, starting from the western side, but be- 
tween Ras al Bar, the southern extremity of Bahrein, and Al Hawar, 
to the southeastward, such a network of reefs and shoals was fallen 
in >vith that the attempt had to be abandoned. 

Bas Bu Amran, 2 miles south-southwestward of Ras Rakkin, 
projects nearly 1 mile to the northward; it is low, but rises to a 
small rocky mound. 

Bu Thaluf (Abu Dhuluf ) , about 1\ miles south-southwestward 
of Ras Bu Amran, is a small town with four conspicuous towers on 
its fort. 



PERSIAN GULF. 121 

Khur Hasan^ 7^ miles southwestward from Bas Bu Amran, is 
a small and very compact walled Arab town on the coast; i mile 
northward of it is an islet on which stands a low round tower. 
There are two small villages in ruins between Bu Thaluf and Khur 
Hasan. 

Has Ashiraj (^Ashairik), 7 miles southwestward of Khur 
Hasan, is low but prominent and rocky; on it is a lookout tower in 
ruins. Eastward of it is a shallow bay with an entrance 1^ miles 
wide, and extending the same distance southward. On the eastern 
side of this bay are the ruins of the once important town of Zubara 
(Zubarah), now abandoned. In 1902, the old fort, though fast 
crumbling away, was still conspicuous. 

Marks. — Between Ras Rakkin and Ras. Ashiraj, the coast is low 
and of so light a color that it is difficult to sight, especially when 
enveloped in the prevailing haze. The marks described can, how- 
ever, generally be seen, and are the only means of distinguishing the 
localities. It should be borne in mind that the Arabs frequently 
desert their iowns, in which the best buildings, being constructed of 
soft coral rock, with mortar but little better than mu:l, soon fall to 
decay, so that what are now described as prominent marks may cease 
to be so in a few years, and others may have been erected. 

From Ras Rakkin to 4 miles from Ras Ashiraj (lat. 26° 00', long. 
51° 00'), a reef extends from 1 to 2 miles offshore, and becomes steep- 
to a short distance from Ras Rakkin, and plainly visible with good 
light; it nearly all dries, making landing very difficult except at high 
water. From Ras Ashiraj, the reef extends 200 yards; in the bay 
eastward of it, and from the coast northward of the bay, the sand 
dries and shallow water extends a long way off. To approach Ras 
Ashiraj make the land about Ras Rakkin or Ras Bu Amran, and 
steer southwestward along the edge of the reef, keeping a good look- 
out for indications of shoal water, as this locality has not been closely 
surveyed. 

Anchorage. — Vessels of 10 feet and less draft anchor about ^ 
mile northwestward of Ras Ashiraj in 2 J fathoms; and those of 15 
feet draft, 5 miles north-northwestward of the ras, in 3J fathoms. 

The coast from Ras Ashiraj trends southward 28 miles to the 
head of Dohat al Adhwan, a shallow inlet 9 miles long, with a 
greatest breadth of 3 miles, in which the deepest water is 2 fathoms. 
The ruins of Rubeija are situated 2 miles southward of Ras Ashiraj, 
and there are no signs of habitation between them and Dohat al 
Adhwan. Forts and huts appear to have been constructed at Dohat 
al Adhwan shortly before 1902, and there is constant boat communi- 
cation with Bahrein. 

Al Hawar (Hawar Island). — On the western side of the en- 
trance to Dohat al Adhwan is a group of islands as yet but little 

173608^—20 ^9 



122 DUHAT SALWA. 

explored ; Al Ha war, the western and largest, is about 10 miles long, 
north and south. The waters about this group are shallow and 
unsurveyed. 

Off-lying reefs. — A bank, with 3} fathoms water, lies 13 miles, 
330° from Ras Rakkin ; it has not been closely examined, and should 
be avoided. Vessels of light draft pass between it and Fasht ad 
Dibal, but vessels of deep draft keep northward of it, in not less 
than 6 fathoms. 

Fasht ad Dibal, the northern extremity of which lies 296°, 15 
miles from Ras Rakkin, is 4f miles long north and south, 21 miles 
wide, and dries in patches; its northern edge is fairly steep-to. 
With a good light, Fasht ad Dibal can be seen at all times of tide. 

Caution. — As the soundings give no indication of approach to 
Fasht ad Dibal, and the westgoing current turns southward in its 
vicinity, keep well northward of it. 

Eata (Eatah) ad Jaradeh lies southwestward of Fasht ad Dibal, 
being separated from it by a .channel 2J miles wide, with depths of 
2 to 3 fathoms. It practically dries, and on its soutljeastern side 
is a narrow strip of sand about 1 mile long, parts of which only 
just cover; this sand bank, however, varies both in size and shape. 

Katat Ekhchejera (lat. 26° 1', long. 50° 58'), 2 miles northwest- 
ward of Ras Ashiraj, has 6 feet water. The sea breaks on the rock 
at low water ; and at high water the sea over it has an oily appear- 
ance, and is slightly discolored. 

Bahrein eastern reefs. — ^At 4^ miles southward of Kata ad Jara- 
deh is the eastern extremity of the reefs extending some 15 miles 
or more eastward from Bahrein Island, the whole space within being 
apparently encumbered with shoals, at present quite unexplored. 
There are depths of from 1 to 2^ fathoms between Kata ad Jaradeh 
and these reefs. 

Northward of Bahrein reefs, and westward of Kata ad Jaradeh, 
there are no shoaJs until the reefs off Muharrak Island are met with. 

Has as Sawad (lat. 25° 37% long. 50° 51') is the northwestern 
extremity of the mainland near the southern end of Al Hawar, and 
from this the coast trends southward about 30 miles on the eastern 
side of Duhat Salwa. For some distance northeastward of Ras 
as Sawad, according to native report, the coast is a series of moder- 
ately high stony hills. 

Dnhat Salwa (as Salwa) . — ^The extent of this bay to the south- 
ward has not been defined, but the Arabs state that there are ex- 
tensive ruins at its head. The few soundings taken show that the 
bottom is very irregular. The western shore trends north-northwest- 
ward about 26 miles to a point on the southeastern side of a bay. in 
which lies Jazirat Zakhnuniya; it is a range of sand hills, one of 
which is said to be known as Jebel Mowa. 



BAS RAKKIN TO JAZIRAT BUBI¥AN. 128 

Jazirat Zakhnuniya (Zakhnuniyali) is about 4 miles long 
northwest and southeast, and there is a village and a fort on it, sub- 
ject to the Shaikh of Bahrein. There is a shallow channel between 
it and the mainland, and shoals are charted within about 2 to 3 
miles northeastward and northwestward from the island. 

Ojar ('Okair)y about 8 miles west-northwestward from the 
northern extremity of Jazirat Zakhnuniya, is a small place, little 
more than a customhouse, an old Arab fort, and a few buildings, 
surrounded by the desert, on the western shore of a khur extending 
about 4 miles north-northwestward from its entrance, which is 
westward of Eas Seiha, and appears to be about 2 miles wide. It 
is the seaport of the Wahabi, but is unhealthy, and fever is com- 
mon. Ras Seiha (Saiya) is the southern extermity of a long, low 
sandy peninsula, and there was a pole beacon on it when visited by 
the British naval vessel Lapwing in 1903. 

The Lapwing anchored in 2J fathoms water, eastward of the 
peninsula, with a fort bearing 260°, 4 miles. 

Depths. — ^There is a shoal about 1,600 yards in extent, with from 
4 to 6 feet water, at the entrance to Ojar khur, and inside it there 
are depths of from 4 to 6 fathoms until near the fort. Between Ras 
Seiha and Bahrein, the depths vary from 3 to 14 fathoms. The tidal 
range is about 2 feet. 

The fort, a well-built low structure, with four towers, apparently 
some 60 feet high, near it, is visible from the northward ; water can 
be obtained from a well at the towers, and other supplies either by 
camel from Al Hasa or by bagala from Bahrein. 

A well-built jetty, about 150 yards long, with 3 feet water at its 
outer end, extends from the fort. There is a considerable caravan 
trade with the interior. 

The coast from Ras Seiha trends north-northwestward 22 miles 
to the entrance to Dohat Thalum (Dhalum), which bay is about 7 
miles in extent and shallow. Its shores are uninhabited. Hamadiya 
Hill, on the southern side of the bay, is about 1 mile long east and 
west, and 120 feet high. North Hill, 2^ miles west-northwestward 
from Hamadiya, is 100 feet high, small, and round; these hills are 
good marks. 

There are numerous sand hills extending some distance inland on 
the western and northern shores of Dohat Thalum, but only one, 
about 56 feet high, northward of the bay, is at all conspicuous. 

Kureya, the northern entrance point of Dohat Thalum, is low 
sand, and from it the coast trends northward about 7 miles to the 
entrance to Dohat Ain as Sih (Saih), which bay is about 2 miles in 
extent and shallow, with about 6 feet water in the entrance. About 
1 mile off the entrance, and lying parallel with the coast, is a long. 



124 " BAHREIN ISLAND. 

m 

narrow sand bank which partially dries. An isolated sand hill, 55 
feet high, is situated If miles northward of the entrance, and 3f miles 
farther northward is a group of four sand hills, of which one is 
named Zabanat (Tall i Zabanat) ; the isolated hill and Zabanat are 
good marks. 

The northwestern extremity of Baht^ein, and the nearest part of 
that island to the coast, is about 12 miles eastward of these sand hills. 
The passage between is much obstructed by reefs, intersected by 
narrow and shallow channels, of which the easternmost is considered 
the best, and is the only one which has been examined. 

Bas Euwakib. — Jilat al Husain (Kal'at al Husain) is a small 
fort 11 miles northward of Dohat Ain as Sih, inhabited by a few fish- 
ermen.. Eas Kuwakib (lat. 26° 20', long. 50° 14'), close to it, is the 
southern point of Al Katif Bay. 

Near the coast southward of Ras Kuwakib is the Lailiya (Lalyah) 
* district, said to be fertile and well watered. 

A reef extends 8 miles eastward and northeastward from Ras Ku- 
wakib, with Chaschus, dry sand banks, near its outer edge. 

Jebel Thahran (adh Dhahran)^ about 4J miles, 260°, from Ras 
Kuwakib, is the southeastern peak of a range of hills; it is a long, 
sloping hill, with a remarkable and rather flat -topped peak, 500 feet 
high, rising abruptly from the middle, and is conspicuous. 

Mathra (Mudrah), the northwestern peak of the range, 3^ miles 
northwestward of Thahran, is 416 feet high and conical. Coast con- 
tinued, further on. 

Sahrein Island (Awal) is 26 J miles long north and south and 
10 miles broad at its northern end ; it gradually narrows southward, 
and ends in Ras al Bar. Some rocky table-land, from 100 to 150 
feet high, extends many miles southward from 4 miles southward of 
the north coast, and nearly across the island; it is bordered on all 
sides by small cliffs. Partly on it, and partly at its northeastern 
foot, 7 miles southward of Al Menama, are the village and hill fort 
of Ar Rufa (Ar Rifa) (Rifa'ash Sharki), about 210 feet high, with 
several towers, which are visible from seaward over the date trees 
on southerly bearings, but sometimes, owing to the growth of the 
trees, are difficult to distinguish, even from aloft. 

Jebel Dukhan (ad Dukhan), 12 miles from the northern end, and 
about midway between the east and west coasts, is a small compact 
group of dark hills, 410 feet high ; in clear weather it is the first part 
of the island seen when approaching it, but it has been reported 
(1913) not to be easy to distinguish until near the entrance. 

The coasts of the island are low, and along the north coast is a 
belt of very fertile well watered land 2 or 3 miles wide and covered 
with date groves, lucerne, and a few fruits and vegetables of indif- 



^S !lAKKiN TO JAZIRAT BUBIYAN". 125 

ferent quality. The remainder of the island is uncultivated, owing 
chiefly to the want of water. 

Landmark. — ^The radio mast situated near Al Menama, in lat. 
26° 13' 45'% long. 50° 35' 30", is sighted simultaneously with Jebel 
Dukhan. 

. The north coast of Bahrein Island from Ras ar Kuman (Rum- 
man) , the northeastern point of the island, on which is Al Menama 
town, trends westward, with a slight curve southward, 3^ miles 
to the Portuguese fort. A large ruined mosque, with two minarets 
about 70 feet high, is situated 2.6 miles southwestward from the ras 
and 1 mile inland. The upper parts of the minarets are visible from 
the northward, over the date trees, until near the inner harbor; they 
are good marks, but are not easily made out. The coast is bordered, 
for distances between i mile and IJ miles, by reefs, which dry. 

Portuguese fort (lat. 26° 14', long. 50° 31'), in ruins, is little 
better than a heap of stones ; it is called by the natives Kibliya, and 
stands in a gap in a date grove, 150 yards from the beach ; it appears 
from seaward a shapeless light-colored mass. In 1902 its highest 
part, about 60 feet high, was at the edge of the moat about the middle 
of the southern side of the fort. 

Lighthouse Bock, 2 feet high, is on the edge of the reef, 1 mile 
341° from the Portuguese fort, and is not conspicuous. 

Liya, 1,600 yards northward of Lighthouse Rock, is a rock which 
dries 3 feet, with foul ground for ^ mile westward of it, and shoal 
water from the shore reef to 1 mile northeastward of it. 

The coast from Portuguese fort trends westward 2J miles to 
Shereiba village, in which is a tower close to the beach and higher 
than the houses ; it then trends southwestward If miles to the north- 
western extremity of the island, on which is Al Bidia (Budaiya), a 
town. Date groves extend along the whole of the north coast. 

The west coast of the island, from its northwestern extremity, 
trends southward, and the date groves are in detached clumps. 
Reefs and shallow banks extend from 4 to 4^ miles northwest- 
ward of its northwestern extremity, and off the west coast for 
some miles to the southward, rendering approach, except by small 
country craft, impossible. Sala and several other reefs, on the main 
reef, dry, and here and there are rocks above water. 

Baka Island, about 1 mile southwestward of the northwestern 
extremity of the island, is about 1,200 yards long north and south, 
300 yards broad, 5 feet high, and covered with scrub. 

Cliff Island; IJ miles westward of the southern extremity of 
Raka, is about 1,400 yards long east and west and 400 yards broad; 
its western end is a cliff 52 feet high ; the eastern end is low sand. 

Um Nasan Island (Umm Na'san), 1.1 miles southward of 
Cliff Island, and 1^ miles offshore, is 3 miles long north and south. 



126 ZELLAG. 

2 miles broad, low and sandy, but has two rocky peaks, one, 66 feet 
high, and i mile within the western point of the island, being con- 
spicuous ; the other, i a mile to the northeastward, is 25 feet high. 

The reef on which these islands stand extends about 1 J miles west- 
ward of Cliff Island, and about | mile westward and southward of 
the western part of Um Nasan. 

Tidal currents. — ^In the channel westward of Um Nasan the 
current sets southward from about 3 hours before until 3 hours after 
high water, and northward from about 3 hours after high water 
until 3 hours beiore the next high water, at a velocity of from 2 to 3 
knots at springs. 

Zellagy a small pearling village, is situated about 10 miles south- 
ward of Al Bidia ; the Shaikh owns several large bagalas. 

Landing is good at Zellag, but bad both northward and southward 
of it. 

The coast from Zellag (lat. 26*^ 03', long. 50*" 29') trends south- 
southwestward 4 miles, and then turns south-southeastward 13 miles 
to Ras al Bar, the southern extremity of the island, a long low sandy 
point. Southward of Zellag all cultivation and date palms cease, 
the country becoming a stony desert with small patches of camel 
grass and scrub here and there. 

Shoal water extends ^ long way offshore, especially off Ras al Bar, 
which can not be approached within about 5 miles. On the eastern 
coast of the island the extensive fringing reef prevents any commu- 
nication except by small boats. 

Directions — Bahrein to Ojar. — British naval vessel, Lapwing^ 
in 1903, proceeding from Bahrein Harbor to Ojar, passed between 
Khur Fasht and Marwadi, where the depth is 15 feet. These reefs 
are usually marked by the discoloration of the water, but when the 
Lapwing passed through at one hour after high water, and in the 
middle of the day, they were not seen, nor was any current then ex- 
perienced. 

Jebel Thahran, Jebel Dukhan, Um Nasan Peak, Cliff Island, Por- 
tuguese fort, and the northern extremity of the trees on Muharrak 
Island are good marks for fixing the position when passing through 
the narrows westward of Um Nasan Island; great difficulty is oc- 
casionally caused by refraction and mirage. The two sandy islets 
on the western side of the passage are conspicuous. It is not ad- 
visable to proceed through the narrows with a favorable current. 

For Zellag, approach with the village bearing 81°, and anchor in 
5 fathoms, about 2^ miles offshore, with Um Nasan Peak bearing 25°. 
The depths decrease suddenly from 5 to 3 fathoms. 

The east coast of Bahrein, from Ras ar Ruman, trends southeast- 
ward about I mile to a low sandy point, on which is Halat an Nannas, 
a little fishing village ; Ras al Jasra is IJ miles south-southeastward 



PEBSIAK GTTLF. 127 

of the low point, with a bay between. There is a village and de- 
tached date grove on Ras al Jasra, and a fresh-water spring on the 
beach below high-water level. 

The coast at Ras al Jasra (lat. 26° 13', long. 50° 37') turns south- 
westward 1 mile, and then northwestward and westward 2J miles 
on the northern side of an extensive shallow backwater. Sitra 
(Sitrah), an island on the southern side of the entrance, IJ miles 
wide, is 4 miles long north and south, and 1^ miles broad, with a 
narrow khur between it and Bahrein, which dries. The northern 
half of the island is covered with high date trees, and the eastern 
extremity of this part terminates abruptly in a bluff, with a con- 
spicuous tree just southward of it. Sitra village and fort are 
amongst the trees. Jazirat Nabbi Sali, 2 miles southwestward of 
Ras al Jasra. in the backwater, is about J mile in extent and covered 
with date trees. 

Mahana as Saghira, a small fishing village, is on the southern end 
of Sitra Island, and there is apparently a wide and deep channel 
about i mile eastward of it, leading southward; it, however, has 
not been examined. Mahana al KsHbira, on Bahrein Island, is 1 mile 
southwestward of Mahana as Saghira. The coast from the southern 
point of Sitra Island trends generally southward 20 miles to Ras al 
Bar. 

Ehur Ealiya is bounded on the west by the northeastern -part of 
Bahrein Island ; on the north by Muharrak Island and the reefs be- 
tween it and Bahrein ; on the east by a reef extending 3 miles south- 
ward from Muharrak Island, and terminating in Kassar Diwan, 
1 foot high; and on the south by the reefs extending from Sitra 
Island. The kuhr is about 3 miles long north and south, 2 miles wide, 
and the only entrance available for shipping is between Kassar 
Diwan (lat. 26° 11', long. 60° 40') and the outer edge of Sitra Reef, 
but boats can cross the reef at the northern end of the khur. 

Depths. — ^The entrance is 400 yards wide, but a bar stretches 
entirely across it, and has a least width of 120 yards. There is a 
channel across the middle of the bar, about 60 yards wide, with 
depths of from 12 to 16 feet ; it shoals abruptly on the eastern and 
gradually on the western side. The bar is steep-to, especially on its 
outer side^ the remainder of the entrance channel is steep-to on both 
sides, and has depths of from 25 to 54 feet. 

Shoals. — A shoal, 1,200 yards long northwest and southeast, and 
from 200 to 400 yards wide, with 11 feet least water, lies immedi- 
ately off the entrance, and there is a good channel on each side of it 
up to the bar. Good anchorage can be obtained northeastward of 
the shoal in 7 fathoms water, sheltered from the shamal. 

The middle of the khur is occupied by a large sand bank with 
from 7 to 16 feet water, the least water being near the entrance; 



128 MXJHARRAK. 

there is a large area around this shoal with depths of from 18 to 
45 feet. 

Beacon. — An iron beacon, surmounted by a black ball, 12 feet 
high, stands nearly 400 yards within the eastern edge of a drying 
sand bank, which extends westward from the reef on the western 
side of the entrance ; it is known as Khur Kaliya beacon. 

Anchorage. — ^The best anchorage is IJ miles within the entrance 
between the middle sand bank and the eastern reef in from 24 to 
28 feet. The khur is frequented by native craft which run up to the 
head, close to Muharrak town. 

Tides and tidal currents. — ^It is high water, full and change, at 
Khur Kaliya at 6h. .5m.; springs rise 6^ feet, neaps, 5 feet. The 
tidal currents in the entrance attain velocities of from IJ to 3i 
knots, and about i in the khur. 

Directions. — In a vessel of suitable draft, approach with Jebel 
Dukhan bearing 229°, and when Kassar Diwan is in range with the 
minarets, 284° steer 270°; when that rock is in range with a con- 
spicuous house on Has al Jasra, 298° keep it so until the rock is 
distant from 600 to 800 yards. Then turn west-south-westward to- 
ward the southern side of Sitra date grove, and again northwest 
ward to cross the bar Khur Kaliya beacon open westward of Menaina 
clump. When over the bar steer northward to the anchorage. 

It is advisable to enter in the morning, and to leave in the after- 
noon, when the position of the sun is favorable for seeing the 
reefs. 

Muharrak Island^ northeastward of Bahrein, and separated 
from it by a shallow strait, about IJ miles wide, is 2f miles long 
east and west, 2^ miles broad, and is low and sandy, with several 
conspicuous groves of date palms about 40 feet high, which are first 
seen in hazy weather, but Jebel Dukhan will be seen just before them 
in clear weather. Kalali village, on the northeast extremity of the 
islands, has two small towers, the eastern being the larger. Simahi 
(Simahij), Ad Dir (Dair) (Daiyir,), and Basaitin (Busaitin) vil- 
lages, with their date groves, are on the northern and western coasts 
of the island. 

Landing on the island is only possible between half flood and half 
ebb. 

Muharrak (lat. 26° 15', long. 50° 37'), a large town, is on the 
southwestern point of the island. On a low detached bank, which 
becomes an islet at high water, about 200 yards southward of the 
town, is a square fort with one large and three small towers, con- 
spicuous from the anchorage. 

Water. — Bu Mahir (Abu Mahur), the fresh- water submarine 
spring from which the town is chiefly supplied, is about 500 yards 
eastward of this fort. Submarine springs are characteristic of these 



HAS RAKKIIJ TO JAZlRAT BUBIYAIT. 129 

islands; several are mentioned in the following pages; often by 
putting down a hollow bamboo the fresh water rises through it 
above the sea. 

Al Hadd^ a town on the long southeastern point of Muharrak 
island, is conspicuous from the eastward. Arad peninsula extends 
south westward 1 mile between AlHadd and Muharrak towns; it 
is i mile wide, and on its southwestern part is a large ruined fort 
and a date grove. 

Saya (Sajah) , about 1,600 yards from the shore, and on the dry- 
ing reef extending westward from Muharrak Island, is an islet 
about 20 yards in extent, 2 feet high, of light color, and scarcely 
noticeable; there is a spring of fresh water on it. 

Ehaseifa (Ehasaifah) (lat. 26° 17', long. 50° 38'), on the reef 
extending northward of Muharrak Island, and about 700 yards off- 
shore, is a small rocky islet, 8 feet high, of light color, and, with the 
sun on it, is easily made out at high water when seen clear of the 
land. Between it and the shore are fresh water springs which un- 
cover. 

Bahrein Harbor lies northward of Bahrein Island, and between 
the reefs extending from it and Muharrak Island, with Fasht al 
Yarim to the northward. Fasht al Yarim does not, however, pre- 
vent a considerable sea, bad for boats, getting up in the outer har- 
bor during a strong shamal, but communication with the shore is 
seldom interrupted, and vessels ride easily at anchor. 

The inner harbor, a bight in the reefs west-northwestward of Al 
Menama Town, is about 1 mile in extent, suitable for small craft, 
much better protected, and usually full of bagalas; vessels of more 
than 15 feet draft should not enter it. The reefs bordering the har- 
bor are all flat, and, with a good light, show well. There are numer- 
ous fish weirs on them, but, with few exceptions, they are a long way 
inside the outer edge of the reef. Discolored water often extends 
westward of Khaseif a Islet, across the harbor. 

Depths. — There is a least depth from seaward to the outer harbor 
of 21 feet, but 23 feet could apparently be obtained ; and there is a 
least depth of 16 feet into the inner harbor. 

Lightbuoys and buoys. — ^The following buoys, which belong to 
and are maintained by the Government of India, have been laid 
down in the entrance to, and in, Bahrein Harbor, but they sometimes 
break adrift, and their b^ing in position can not therefore be re- 
lied on: 

A red with a white horizontal band conical light buoy, exhibiting 
a flashing white light is moored about J mile north-northeastward 
of an 18- foot patch in the entrance channeL 



130 ITASHT AL YABIlff. 

A red conical buoy, surmounted by a cage, about 1 mile west-north- 
westward of the buoy just mentioned. 

A red conical buoy off the extremity of West Spit. 

BaB Zarwan — Beacon. — Ras Zarwan is the western point of the 
reef on the northeastern side of the Inner Harbor; on it is a white 
masonry beacon surmounted by a small staff. 

An occasional light is placed on the beacon by the British India 
Steam Navigation Company for working their steamers. It can not 
be relied on. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, at 
Bahrein Harbor, at 6 h. 5 m. ; springs rise 6^ feet, neaps 5 feet. 

The tidal currents set eastward and westward in the entrance to the 
Outer harbor at a velocity of from 1 to 2 knots, and in the Inner 
Harbor northwest and southeast at a velocity of ^ knot. 

Pilots. — Apparently native pilots go out when they see a vessel 
approaching, but the services of a pilot appear to be scarcely neces- 
sary. 

Fasht al Yarim ( Jarim) , which protects Bahrein Harbor from 
shamals, is about 13 miles long north and south, and, toward its 
northern end, 8 miles broad. The middle and southern parts are rock 
and sand, but the northern is coral ; the whole reef shows well at low 
water; on the northern end are black lumps of decayed coral, and 
the southern part appears as a large sand bank, called Jadum. 

Eas as Shabb (Shab) (lat. 26° 33', long. 50*^ 32'), the northern 
point of the reef, lies 16 miles, 343°, from Khaseifa Islet; there are 
depths of 3 fathoms i mile northward of the ras, and 2^ fathoms 2 
miles northwestward of it; about 4 miles to the eastward there is 
a depth of 5 fathoms. The northern part of the reef is out of sight 
of land, and caution is necessary in making Bahrein from the 
northward. 

Haraka is a small bight on the eastern side of the reef, with from 
1 to 2 fathoms of water, in which the pearl fishing boats shelter dur- 
ing a shamal. 

Southward of Haraka and off Ras al Ain, 5 miles north-northeast- 
ward of Jadum, the southern point of the reef, the water deepens very 
gradually for 4 miles eastward to the 3-fathom curve. Eastward of 
Jadum, the water deepens suddenly from 2 to 3 fathoms 1 mile from 
the reef. 

Ealiya (Kalai'ali)^ 4| miles north-northwestward from Jadum, 
is a rock of Fasht al Yarim, about 20 feet in extent, which just 
covers; it can generally be seen when near the reef except at high 
water. 

Anchorage. — ^There is good anchorage eastward of Jadum, com- 
pletely sheltered from the shamaL 



KAS RAKKIIT TO JAZIBAT BUBIYAK. 131 

Approach — ^Bu Athaxna, a small patch, with 6 fathoms water, 
lies 46 miles, 346°, from Bas Rakkin, just within the 20- fathom curve. 

The British Indian S. S. Kilwa reported in June, 1890, that i^ound- 
ings of from 3 to 5 fathoms were obtained about (lat. 26° 52', long 
50° 56') 5 miles west-south westward of Bu Athama; the bottom 
was visible, and, by the tide ripples around, the shoal appeared to 
extend about \ mile east and west. 

A vessel reports having touched a submerged obstruction in lat. 
26° 54' 00", long. 50° 46' 00". 

The edge of the Great Pearl Banl: extends about 40 miles east- 
southeastward from Bu Athama; there are overfalls of from 9 to 
20 fathoms on the bank, which is here called Abu Kharab. 

Bennie Shoal, 38^ miles, 48°, from Eas Tanura, is about 1 mile 
in extent, with 2 fathoms water, rock bottom. 

About 2f miles southward of Rennie Shoal is a patch also with 
2 fathoms water, rock bottom. The 20-fathom curve passes closely 
on both sides of the shoals and about 1 mile northwestward of them; 
there is no visible indication of the shoals. 

Tidal currents. — In the vicinity of Rennie Shoal the currents 
appear to set westward during the flood, and eastward during the 
ebb tide, at a rate of about \ knot. 

Shoals. — A bank, about 4 miles in extent north and south and 5 
miles east and west, with from 4 to 4f fathoms water, lies with its 
center about ib miles, 78°, from Ras as Shabb. 

Depths of 5i and 6 fathoms have been reported over a considerable 
area northward of Fasht ad Dibal, and in the appipoach to Bahrein 
Harbor from the eastward. 

Directions. — For Bahrein from the southward and 6 miles north- 
eastward of Halul Island, steer 312° for 75 miles, and then steer 
254°, direct to the outer light buoy. This latter course leads on a 
line of soundings with depths of from about 19 fathoms to 7 fath- 
oms, which depth is maintained, except the reported soundings of 
6i and 6 fathoms above mentioned, until about 8 miles from the 
outer light buoy, when the depths gradually decrease. The radio 
mast Jebel Dukhan, and possibly Jebel Thahran, may be in sight 
before the buoy is reached. A lookout from aloft should be kept 
for any shallow patches, as the locality has not been thoroughly 
sounded. From abreast the outer light buoy proceed as directed, 
*' Entering the harbor." 

If a vessel, in approaching, is set to the southward of the entrance, 
the clumps of date trees on Muharrak Island, Kalali, Al Hadd 
vUlage, Khasefa Islet, Jebel Dukhan, and Rufa Fort, should be 
seen in time to safely ascertain the position ; if set to the northward, 
see the following directions. 



132 BAHUBI^ — ^DIREGTIOITS. 

From the northward take a good departure from the Persian coast, 
and avoid the Rennie shoals and the 3-f athom patch west-southwest- 
ward of Bu Athama. From Abu Shahr, when Jabal Direng bears 
64", with the land distant 14 miles, and in about 20 fathoms water, 
a course 197°, allowing for tide, leads midway between, and about 
6 miles distant from, the Kennie shoals and the 3-f athom patch west- 
southwestward of Bu Athama. 

Keep a lookout from aloft ; the edge of Fasht al Yarim will prob- 
ably be shown by the pale green color of the water, especially in 
the morning. The tidal currents set westward and eastward, and 
both the Fasht ai Yarim and the Fasht ad Dibal, must be guarded 
against, but with close attention to the soundings the position should 
not be much in error. 

In clear weather, as Bahreim is approached, Jebel Dukhan may be 
seen from a distance of about 25 miles, and then the date palms at 
Riya, the northernmost clump on Muharrak Island, situated north- 
westward of Simahi, will appear. Jebel Dukhan bearing £02° when 
it is open eastward of the Riya clump of date trees, leads direct to 
the outer lightbuoy. 

On a near approach, should the buoy be adrift or out of position, 
Jebel Dukhan bearing 208° or Riya clump bearing 232°, leads in 
5 fathoms until Kalali tower and the remaining clumps on Muharrak 
Island can be seen, and the vessel's position approximately fixed. 

Entering the harbor. — ^A least depth of 19 feet water can be 
obtained by passing J mile northward of the outer lightbuoy, and 
then steering 255° and a least depth of 22 feet by passing 1 mile 
southward of the outer lightbuoy and then steering 270° until the 
inner lightbuoy bears about 240°. Then steer southwestward in 
about 23 feet least water, and pass 200 to 400 yards southeastward 
of the inner lightbuoy. When the western minaret is in range with 
the western shoulder of Jebel Dukhan, 182°, keep this mark on, 
which leads southward in a least depth of 21 feet, and anchor as 
directed below. 

As the buoys are not to be relied on, the following remarks will be 
useful. 

From about the position of the outer lightbuoy, steer for Jebel 
Thahran, bearing about 262°, which leads northward of Muharrak 
Island flat, and when the old Portuguese fort (lat. 26° 14', long. 50° 
31') bears 202° keep it so to the anchorage; or, keep the bearing on 
until the western shoulder of Jebel Dukhan is in range with the west- 
ern minaret, when follow that route as already directed; caution is 
necessary. 

The Portuguese fort (lat. 26° 14', long. 50° 31') shows well in the 
early morning, but is diflScult to distinguish in the afternoon. The 



PERSIAN GULF. 133 

minarets are somewhat difficult to make out, but with the aid of a 
glass two small pointed towers can be seen just above the date palms. 

Attention must be given to the tidal currents. 

Anchorage. — Large vessels anchor a little westward of the 
range, in from 24 to 30 feet water, with the northern extremity of 
Muharrak Island bearing between 85° and 90° ; this position is i 
mile eastward of West spit buoy. Vessels of 15 feet draft stand on 
and anchor in from 18 to 19 feet a little eastward of the range, with 
the fort southward of Muharrak town bearing 102°, and the minarets 
183°, and those of lighter draft anchor in 17 feet with Ras Zarwan 
beacon bearing about 0°, ^ mile. 

The closer in a vessel is able to anchor, the less sea will be felt 
during a shamal. 

Al Menama XManamah) y the principal town and port of Bah- 
rein, is situated on Eas ar Rtiman and the land for some distance 
to the westward. The town is dirty and the houses are poor, the only 
consipicuous building being the house of the British Political Agent, 
which, with its flagstaff, is situated about 200 yards southwestward 
of the ras. A clump of date trees, on rising ground, 700 yards south- 
ward of the ras, is conspicuous, and.near it is the Christian cemetery, 
surrounded by a high wall. 

Piers. — A stone pier, dry from half ebb to half flood, extends 
150 yards northwestward from the British Agency. The customs 
pier, of which some 600 feet has been constructed, is intended, when 
completed, to admit of boats going alongside it at low water. The 
customs pier is accessible at all states of the tide. Boats's crews 
should be warned against wading with bare feet, as the coral is sharp, 
and cuts caused by it are liable to be poisoned. 

Radio. — ^A radio mast, 105 feet in height, is situated about 800 
yards southward from Ras ar Ruman. 

Government. — The Bahrein Islands are under the rule of Shaikh 
Isa bin Ali, the head of Al Khalifah family, who was placed on the 
throne by the British Government in 1869. Since 1904 the British 
Government has been represented by a political agent belonging to 
the political department of the Government of India. 

Population. — There are about 100,000 people in the islands, about 
half of them being in the four principal towns, thus : In Bahrein— 
Menama 25,000, Al Bidia, 8,000; in Muharrak Island — ^Muharrak, 
20,000, Hadd 8,000, the remainder being distributed in small villages 
in the northern part of Bahrein and in Muharrak. Bahrein, as a 
port and trade center, is the resort for people from Persia, Turkish 
Arabia, Katr, and Trucial Oman, and to a less degree from Central 
Arabia. 

Almost the entire population is Muhammadan, but there may be 
200 or 300 non-Muhammadans in Menama. 



184 BAHREIN — CLIMATE — HOSPITALS. 

A large number of the people, estimated at 17,500, are engaged 
in the pearl fishery from the middle of May to nearly the end of 
October. 

The language of the country is Arabic ; in Menama, however, there 
are considerable Persian and Hindustani-speaking communities. 

Climate and health. — ^The climate of Bahrein is extremely damp 
at all seasons, and is undoubtedly unhealthy. The extremes of heat 
and cold are not excessive, but the very great humidity makes even 
moderate heat disagreeable. Very strong northwesterly winds pre- 
vail, which are varied during the hot weather from the beginning of 
May till well into October, by southeasterly winds or calms, when 
the humidity is such that there is a difference of only 2° between 
the dry and. wet bulb thermometers at a temperature between 95° 
and 100° F. 

The barih, or 40-days shamal, often makes the climate in June and 
July comfortably cool and pleasant. 

Menama (lat. 26° 14', long. 50° 35') is, away from the bazaar, 
fairly free from insect pests. 

The average annual rainfall is 2.7 inches; the highest tempera- 
ture 108°, and the lowest temperature 41°. 

In autumn and sometimes in spring, there is a good deal of fever. 
Rheumatic afflictions are very general. From 1905 to 1911 Bahrein 
was visited every second year by plague, and the epidemic in 1911 
was the severest yet on record; the number of deaths that then oc- 
curred in Menama, Muharrak, and the neighboring villages, was 
estimated at 2,000. Cholera occasionally visits the islands. 

Hospitals. — ^The maintenance of a charitable medical dispensary, 
built by local contributions and known as the Victoria Memorial 
Hospital, was undertaken by the Government of India from 1905, 
and the institution itself has been attached to the Political Agency. 
There is an American mission at Menama, one of its members being 
a medical man, who has a well appointed hospital for both European 
seamen and natives, under his care. 

Siipplies. — ^Water is plentiful, but the quality is poor, and there 
are no facilities for shipping it. Provisions are procurable in small 
quantities, but are very expensive, excepting rice, of which a better 
quality can be obtained here than at other ports in the gulf. ^ Very 
little timber can be obtained, and that only at exorbitant prices. 
There is no coal. 

Bustard and sand grouse exist, but are preserved by the Shaikhs 
for hawking. 

Fishing is good. The natives use as bait a peculiar kind of weed, 
of which a quantity can be obtained on the shore in front of the 
Consulate. 



RAS RAKKIN TO JAZIEAT BITBIYAN. 135 

Trade. — ^The principal articles of export are pearls, specie to 
neighboring countries, rice, piece goods, dates, coffee, tea, oyster 
shells (uncertain), and sugar. 

The principal articles of import are pearls from the neighboring 
fisheries, specie from India, rice, piece goods ghi, coffee, dates, 
daughter animals, sugar, tea, fuel, and tobacco. The importation of 
arms and ammunition, except with the consent of the British Gov- 
ernment, is forbidden by the treaty engagements of the Principality; 
and that of alcoholic liquors and drugs is prohibited by local regu- 
lation, but permission is granted only to Europeans to import for 
their personal use. The British agent should be applied to before 
entering into any contract with the natives. 

Cargo is landed entirely by sailing boats, an unsatisfactory 
method, as it is usually blowing half a gale or is calm; the boats can 
only get near the wharf at high water, and otherwise have to be dis- 
charged by small boats, and then by coolies and donkeys at some 
distance from dry land. All goods from steamers are taken direct to 
the chief custom-house at Menama (lat. 26° 14',, long. 50° 35'). 

Weights and measures. — ^The following are the most important 
of the weights and measures in Bahrein : Weights — 1 rutl or kiyas= 
1.54 pounds (avoirdupois); 1 ruba'=:4.11 pounds; 1 mann=57.6 
pounds; and 1 rifa'ah=576 pounds. Many of the weights in use are 
under standard. In the pearl trade the unit of weight is based on 
the Indian measure called " chao," but the Bahrein chao equals 4 
Indian chaos. One hundred dukra=l chao; 330 chaos=l miskal 
(149 grains troy) ; 66 habbe=l miskal. Measures — 1 dhira' 
(cubit) =18J inches; 4 dhira'=l ba' (fathom) =6 feet 3 inches. 

Currency. — ^The Indian rupee (15 Rs.=£l), and its silver and 
copper fractions are firmly established as the general medium of 
exchange in Bahrein. Nickel coins are rarely seen. Indian currency 
notes of 1,000 and 500 Es. are in fairly common use. 

English sovereigns are appreciated, but are not plentiful. 

The Maria Theresa dollar is current, but is not much seen ; its per- 
sistence is due to the trade relations with the Arabian mainland, 
where it is in general use; the gold Turkish lira is accepted freely, 
but the rupee values of the dollar and the lira are subject to constant 
fluctuations. 

The term kran is sometimes used to denote the value of 6^ annas ; 
there is no corresponding coin. 

Local products. — ^Agriculture in Bahrein is almost exclusively 
confined to date growing, and dates and date juice, with a small quan- 
tity of lucerne seed, are the only agricultural produce. There are 
no industries beyond a certain amount of boat building, and a small 
manufacture of sail cloth. Producing little but pearls, all necessaries 
are imported. 



136 KHUR AL BAB. 

Coxnmunications. — ^The vessels of the British India Steam Navi- 
gation Co.'s subsidiary mail service, between Bombay and Basra, call 
at Bahrein on their passages from and to Bombay. The fast service 
vessels from Bombay transfer mails for Bahrein at Abu Shahr 
(Bushire) to the subsidiary service vessel from Basra. 

Communication with the mainland of Arabia is by native craft, 
the time taken being entirely dependent on the weather. There is 
also much traffic of native craft between Bahrein and the Persian 
coast. 

Internal communication in the islands is by donkey, and option- 
ally between places on the coast by boat. Except one or two private 
vehicles and water carts in Menama, there is no wheeled traffic in the 
islands. 

Post. — An Indian post office is located in the British agency. 

There is no telegraphic communication. 

Khur al Bab, the channel southward and westward of Fasht al 
Yarim, leads from Bahrein to Al Katif. A vessel of more than 15 
feet draft should not use this channel, and all vessels should take a 
native pilot at Bahrein. 

The entrance to the khur is between West Spit in Bahrein Harbor 
and Jadum, the southern part of Fasht al Yarim. The khur trends 
northwestward with an average width of 1 mile, and depths of from 
21 to 38 feet, with some shoal patches of 18 feet. 

About 4 miles from West Spit, a branch runs westward between 
Marwadi Reef, a small s^,nd bank which hardly covers, and is always 
marked by flocks of birds, op the southern side, and Khur Fasht, on 
the northern gide. 

Khur Fasht; a reef 2^ miles westward of Jadum, is about 3 miles 
in extent, and on it are two or three sand banks, of which the largest is 
on the southern side, and mostly dries about 4 feet, but the south- 
eastern corner dries only 3 feet. On the reef near this sand bank is 
a fresh-water spring in 3 feet of water, which is much used by the 
pearl fishers during the season, but in the cold weather it is closed 
up by the natives. It is difficult to find the spring, except at low 
water, when the sea is smooth. 

The reef is entirely of coral, of which the greater part is dead; 
it is generally steep-to except on its southeastern side, where a spit 
extends a short distance. The eastern edge of the reef generally 
shows plainly, and is step-to, but it is said to be very difficult to make 
out either this reef or Marwadi, when high water occurs about mid- 
day. 

Bras (Bak) al Yadda is a large sand bank southwestward of 
Klhur Fasht; its extent has not been determined. There are depths 



RAS RAKKIK TO JAZIRAT BUBIYAK. 137 

of from 20 to 31 feet in the channel, which has a least width of 800 
yards, between Khur Fasht and Ras al Yadda. 

Chaschus is a line of several sand banks on the outer part of the 
reef extending 8 miles northeastward from Eas Kuwakib ; its north- 
eastern point is 7 miles northwestward of Khur Fasht. The sand 
banks are shifted about considerably by strong winds and tidal 
currents; they are generally visible from half ebb to half flood 
from the southeastward. A bank with from IJ to 3 fathoms water 
extends nearly 3 miles eastward from Chaschus, and is the western 
side of Khur al Bab. 

A large shoal, with from 15 to 18 feet water lies midway between 
this bank and Has as Sala (lat. 26° 25', long. 50° 27'), the western 
point of the southern part of Fasht al Yarim. 

Najwa, a reef lying about 350°, nearly 6 miles from Chaschus, is 
2^ miles long north and south, and IJ miles broad. There are two 
sand banks on the reef ; the large one in the middle, being always 
dry, is generally visible from the southeastward between half ebb 
aiid half flood; the other, on the southern end, shows only at low 
water. 

Kak as Surra^ a pearl bank midway between Najwa and Fasht al 
Yarim, is 3 miles long east-southeast and west-northwest, and 1 jnile 
broad, with from 2 to 2f fathoms water. The bank, deepening to 
the eastward into 4 fathoms, joins the Adala Bank projecting north- 
westward from Fasht, al Yarim, a detached patch of which, with 
2 J fathoms water, lies about 297°, 5 miles from Ras as Shabb. The 
water is generally much discolored over the rocky parts of Eak as 
Surra. 

The channel between Rak as Surra and Najwa has from 5 to 9 
fathoms water. There is an area, from about 2J to 10 miles north- 
eastward of Najwa, with depths of from 6 to 15 fathoms. 

Khaura Bank (lat. 26° 39', long. 50° 19') extends north-north- 
eastward about 8 miles, with a breadth of about 5 miles, from 3 miles 
northward of Najwa, and has depths of from 2J to 5 fathoms. 

Sheikli Gata Bank^ 5 miles northward of Ras as Shabb, is about 
8 miles long east and west, 4 miles broad, and has depths of from 
3f to 5 fathoms. 

Between Khaura and Sheikh Gata Banks there is a channel with 
depths of from 10 to 12 fathoms, and between Adala and Sheikh 
Gata Banks a channel with 7 fathoms water. 

On allthe pearl banks the bottom is uneven, and sudden differences 
of from 2 to 3 fathoms in depth are often found. 

Directions. — From Bahrein northward, through Khur al Bab. 
When northward of West Spit Buoy with Riya date trees, at the 
north end of Muharrak, bearing 102°, steer 292° until the Portuguese 
fort is in range with Jebel Dukham; then steer 320° through the 

173608**— 20 10 



138 DAMMAN. 

channel, guarding against the west-going tidal current which at 
times is very strong on the southern side of Marwadi Beef, and also 
on the southern side of Khur Fasht. The middle of Jebel Dukhan 
bearing 193° leads eastward of Khur Fasht. 

The water shoals gradually toward Fasht al Yarim, except off Ras 
as Sala, where it is steepto. Mathra Peak bearing 267*^, or Kaliya 
Rock, 57°, leads northward of Khur Fasht; from either line steer 
317°, allowing for tide, which leadij over the 15-foot bank lying in 
midchannel westward of Ras as Sala, and thence southwestward 
of Rak as Surra. 

When northward of Khur Fasht, after losing sight of Jebel 
Dukhan, Kaliya Rock, which shows well from half ebb to half flood, 
Jebel Thahran, Mathra, and the sand banks on Chaschus and Najwa 
Reefs when near them, are the only marks. 

The water shoals suddenly from 7 to 3 fathoms near Najwa Reef, 
therefore pass about 2 miles eastward of it on a northerly course, 
and after rounding its northern end in not less than 5 fathoms, steer 
direct to Ras Tanura. 

From the northwest extremity of Rak as Surra, with 2J fathoms 
water, Mathra Hill bears about 234°, and the dry sand bank oi) 
Najwa is not visible; therefore keeping the dry bank on Najwa well 
in sight insures being westward of Rak as Surra. 

The channel between Chaschus and Najwa is 4^ miles wide, with 
. from 2 to 7 fathoms water; Mathra Hill, bearing 246°, leads north- 
westward of Chaschus, and the same hill bearing 230° leads south- 
eastward of Najwa, in about 2 J fathoms water. 

Ras Khali (lat. 26° 30', long. 50° 10'), a projecting point of the 
shore reef about 8 miles southward of Ras Tanura, has a fresh- 
water spring on it, always covered. The passage between Ras Khali 
and Najwa is between 2 and 3 miles wide, with about 3 J fathoms 
water, and the eastern edge of the mainland reef, after forming a 
bight extending 2^ miles westward from Ras Khali, trends north- 
ward to near Ras Tanura. 

The coast from Ras Kuwakib trends northwestward 22 miles to 
Al Katif, 10 miles southeastward of which place are a number 
of small rocky hills, some 50 feet high, called by the Arabs Maraki- 
bat Sadun, from their resembling the hulls of bagalas. 

Damm&n is an important town on the coast northeastward of the 
Marakibat Sadun. The principal fort, which has a high tower with 
a flagstaff in the middle, is some 70 feet above the sea ; it stands on 
an island on the shore reef, nearly joined to the mainland ; there is 
also a smaller fort on the mainland. 

The channels through the reef, by which native vessels approach 
the town, are shallow, and probably only practicable at high water. 



HAS RAKKTN TO JAZIRAT BUBIYAN. 139 

The island, channels, and coast behind have not been examined, and 
are only approximately delineated ; there is said to be a narrow in- 
shore channel, which dries. 

Saihat is a town and large fort on the coast about 5 miles south- 
southeastward of Al Katif. Thick date groves commence here and 
continue northward to about 3 n 3 beyond Al Katif. There is a 
sand hill, probably about 100 feet high, within the town. Eastward 
of it is Khur Saihat, a channel commencing in the bight of the 
reef westward of Bas Khali, of which one branch is the best channel 
for large boats proceeding to Al Katif; the other, turning south- 
ward, is that by which boats approach Damman. On the coast, mid- 
way between Saihat and Al Katif, is Anich ('Anik) Fort. 

Al Katif is an important coast town about 10 miles west-south- 
westward from Eas Tanura. It is situated in an oasis of the same 
name, which extends 9 miles northward and 9 miles southward from 
the town, and, as an average, 3 miles inland; the oasis is bounded 
on the north and west by a large desert tract. The fort, the only 
part- visible from seaward, is large, but contains little besides the 
residence of the Shaikh and his followers, the town being scattered 
in the surrounding date groves. There is a minaret from 80 to 100 
feet high in the southern part of the fort ; the citadel, in the north- 
western corner, is said to have been built by the Portuguese. A 
brown sand hill, about 100 feet high, lies 3 miles west-northwestward 
of the town. 

. There being many fresh-water springs in the locality, date and 
fruit trees, vegetables, melons, etc., are grown, and some rice culti- 
vated. There is a good bazaar in the town. 

The climate of the oasis is damp and unhealthy, and malaria is 
prevalent. The total settled population of Al Katif oasis was esti- 
mated at 26,000, and of this number 10,000 belonged to Al Katif 
town and its suburbs. 

Tarut (Tartit) , an island on the reef which extends about 7 miles 
eastward from the coast, and off the town, is about 4 miles in extent'; 
its eastern part is closely grown with high date trees, and amongst 
them, near the middle, is Tarut Fort, with towers, some 80 feet high, 
which show above the trees. Darin, a town with a square fort, is 
situated on the southern end of the island, and Sanabis, a large fish- 
ing village, on the east coast northeastward of Tarut Fort. 

Khurs. — ^Al Katif town can be reached bv boats of 7 feet draft; 
the larger boats enter by Khur Saihat. About 3 miles eastward of 
Darin is the entrance to a smaller khur; this kuhr trends westward, 
passes close to Darin, and joins Khur Saihat near Burj Abul Lif, 
a small fort on the reef If miles westward of Darin, above which the 
larger boats can not go. The main channel passes i mile eastward 



140 . RAS TANURA. 

of Burj Abul Lif, but there is a small branch which admits such 
boats, at high water, close up to the walls of the fort. There is 
also a channel, navigable at high water, round the northern end of 
Tarut Island, which joins the khur from Burj Abul Lif , off Al Katif ; 
anchorage could probably be obtained off the khur, about 5 miles 
eastward of Darin. 

Bas Tanura (Taniirah) (lat. 26° 38', long. 50° 10') is the ex- 
tremity of a strip of sand, with sand hills on its outer edge, which 
extends southeastward about 9 miles from the mainland, 10 miles 
northward of Al Katif, and is about 100 yards broad in places. The 
sand hills appear to be some 40 feet high, and show white with the 
sun on them ; the point is level sand over coral, about 12 feet high. 
The reefs inside this point show well, especially the large main reef 
off Tarut Island. 

A reef extends IJ miles northeastward from the sand strip 3 miles 
northwestward from the point, but there is no reef near the point; 
there are soundings of 3f fathoms about 1 mile eastward of the 
point, and from this position the water shoals to the southward and 
southwestward ; between these shoals and Najwa Reef, about 5 miles 
southeastward, are depths of from 5 to 7 fathoms. 

Anchorage. — The reefs extending from Tarut Island and the 
mainland northward of Al Katif approach the southwestern side of 
Ras Tanura sand strip, but leave a passage about J mile wide and 1 
mile long immediately inside the 'point, with depths of from 22 to 39 
feet. Anchorage can be obtained in from 30 to 39 feet from about 
J to I mile inside Ras Tanura and 200 yards offshore ; the anchorage 
is completely sheltered, but the bottom is hard, and plenty of cable 
is necessary. 

The channel inside the ras continues about 4 miles northwestward, 
passing close southward of an islet, and has 5 fathoms in places, but 
is narrow and tortuous. There is no fresh water near the an 
chorage. 

Directions. — The approach to Ras Tanura anchorage from the 
eastward appears to be safe for vessels of 18 feet and less draft, 
and the best method is to steer for a position in lat. 26° 45', long. 51° 
00'; then steer 349° 22 miles, and direct to the ras, passing between 
Najwa and Khaura shoals, and using caution. Should the vessel 
be set to the southward, which is unlikely, the edge of the Fasht al 
Yarim will probably be visible from a considerable distance, but if 
not the rapidly decreasing soundings will indicate its vicinity. 
Round the ras (lat. 26° 38', long. 50° 10'), which is steep-to, at a 
distance of 100 yards, and anchor as above directed. The reefs 
southward of the entrance can generally be seen. 

From the results of a recent survey it appears that the best ap- 
proach to Ras Tanura from the eastward is on or a little to the 



PERSIAN GULF. 141 

northward of its parallel. The best water shown on the chart on 
this route is 3f fathoms. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It appears to be high water, full and 
change, at Bas Tanura anchorage, about Vh. approximately, and the 
rise at springs may be about 7 feet. The tidal currents seem to 
divide and meet near the ras ; the general west-going current turning 
southward to the southeastward of it, and turning northwestward 
to the northward of it, and a general east-going current setting north- 
ward to the southeastward of the ras, and southward to the 
northward of it, but neither current is strong enough to interfere 
with safe navigation. In the anchorage the current runs north- 
westward during the rising and southeastward during the ebb tide, 
at rates of IJ knots at springs and i knot at neaps. 

The times of the turn of the currents are not given ; it is probable 
that the northwest going current continues some time after high 
water, and that the duration of each current is about 6 hours. 

The general east-going current appears to set northeastward from 
Ras Tanura, passing between Fasht Bu Saaf a and Al Ashira. 

Fasht Bu Saafa (lat. 26° 58', long. 50° 24'), 24 miles, 31°, from 
Ras Tanura, is a patch of large rocks on which the sea breaks heavily 
at times, there being 3 feet water on the shoalest part, and 3 fathoms 
about 1 pile to the southeastward; the shoal is 2^ miles in extent 
northwest and southeast, and does not always show in calm weather 
and at high water. The bottom around is sand, and there are depths 
of from 6 to 16 fathoms close-to. 

A detached bank with 5 fathoms water lies about 3^ miles eastward 
of the shoal, and patches of 4J and 4J fathoms within 4^ miles farther 
east-southeastward; there is a patch of 4| fathoms 4J miles west- 
southwestward of Fasht Bu Saafa. Between these shoals and Al 
Ashira, to the southeastward, the depths are from 17 to 6 fathoms. 
The shoals are frequented by fishermen from Tarut Island, who take 
large quantities of fish with lines. 

Al Ashira is a pearl bank some 8 miles in extent, with depths of 
from 3 to 10 fathoms, lying about 13 miles northward of Fasht al 
Yariin, and 11 miles south-southwestward of the 2-fathom rock 
south of Rennie shoal. Bu Amama, close eastward of Al Ashira, is 
a bank, about 7 miles long northeast and southwest, and 3^ miles 
broad, with from 8 to 10 fathoms water. 

The coast from Ras Tanura to Ras al Mishaab, 125 miles north- 
westward, is low sand or stony desert, with a few isolated hills at 
intervals ; it is fronted nearly the whole distance by extensive reefs, 
which, in places have passages inside them, and there are several 
off-lying low islets. The water is not generally so clear as it is to the 
southward, owing to some of the bottom being white clay, and the 



142 JAZIHAT ABTT ALT. 

shoals in consequence do not show well. Many patches of whitish 
muddy color are often seen, apparently indicating shoal water, where 
no change in depth is found, yet the warning of discolored water 
must not be neglected. There are neither towns, villages, nor a fixed 
population on the coast from Ras Tanura until 60 miles northwest- 
ward of Mishaab, except the villages on Jazirat Janna and Musala- 
miya Island. 

From Al Katif to Kuweit the country is called Al Adan ; the only 
inhabitants are several Bedawin tribes, the principal of whom are 
Al 'Ajman, with whom have become incorporated the remnant of 
the once powerful Bani Khalid tribe. The Bani Hajir, a large tribe, 
occupies the district about 20 miles on each side of Al Katif, and 
Al Morra and Mukhatiba tribes are also located near that town. 

The Great Pearl Bank decreases in width off the coast and may be 
said to end off Jazirat Abu Ali, although pearls are fished for on a 
small scale on some banks northward of that island. This part has 
been very incompletely surveyed. 

Ras Abu Ali, the eastern extremity of Jazirat Abu Ali, bears 326° 
48 miles from Ras Tanura. The desert coast between is sandy, with 
several low hills in places, and there are a few small shrubs on it. 

Ras al Ealiya, on the coast, 16 miles northwestward of Ras 
Tanura, is a high sand hill ; shoal water extends 4 miles off ^e point. 
About 4 miles northwestward of it and 1,400 yards inland is Faneitis 
(Jebel Dhalaifain) (lat. 26° 50', long. 49° 53'), a rather remarkable 
square black rocky hillock. 

Fasht al Eling, a patch about 2 miles in extent, with 1^ fathoms 
water, lies 13 miles east-northeastward of Ras al Kaliya. A patch, 
with 2 J fathoms water, lies about 4^ miles, 80°, from Fasht al Eling. 

The soundings between Fasht al Eling and the shoals off the land 
to the southwestwkrd vary from 3^ to 5^ fathoms. 

Jebel Khaweir^ 15 miles northwestward of Ras al Kaliya, is a 
high sand hill on a slightly projecting point at the southern end of 
Dohat Abu Ali, which is large and shallow ; inland of this point are 
some very high sand hills, and on the coast a few miles northward of 
it a small stony hill. Daka, 7 miles eastward of the point and in 
the fairway, is a patch almost dry. 

Jazirat Abu Ali (Abu ^Ali), the eastern half of which is the 
northern side of Dohat Abu Ali, is 13 miles long east and west and 
lies northward of Ras Barabakh (Jazirat al Batinah), a point of the 
mainland 19 miles northwestward of Jebel Khaweir; there is a nar- 
row shoal passage between the island and the mainland. A ruined 
tomb stands on a small hill close to Ras Abu Ali, and from the point 
a sand-spit, which dries, extends eastward about 4 miles. At low 
water thousands of cormorants settle on the spit. 



HAS RAKKIN TO JAZIRAT BTJBIYAN. . 143 

There is good anchorage in a shamal soutjiward of Ras Abu Ali, 
there being but little reef at the northern end of the bay southward 
of the eastern part of the island, but shoal water extends nearly 4 
miles off the mainland. 

In less than about 9 fathoms the bottom is hard sand ; in greater 
depths it is mud ; the soundings are pretty regular, from 18 fathoms 
in the middle of the channel between the shore and off-lying reefs to 
6 and 4 fathoms close to the reef, and 7 fathoms within ^ mile of the 
spit off Eas Abu Ali. 

The best position to anchor is in about 6 fathoms water, with the 
tomb bearing 0°, distant about 1 mile; within this the water shoals 
quickly to the reef, which extends about i mile from the shore. A 
small bight in the coa^t westward of the tomb affords complete shel- 
ter to the small native craft, but for larger vessels there is no shelter 
in this bay from the kaus, during which a heavy sea rolls into the 
bay. Anchorage, sheltered from the kaus, can, however, be obtained 
on the north side of the ras, in 4 fathoms, with the tomb bearing 
about 170°, distant about 3 miles. 

In rounding the spit extending eastward from the island, give its 
eastern extremity a wide berth, as the water shoals very rapidly, 
and a heavy sea breaks on the weather side.- 

The Arabs say there are springs of fresh water, and date trees, in 
one or two places on the southwestern side of the Dohat Abu Ali. 

Jazirat al Jiraida (Jaraid), charted 10 miles north-northeast- 
ward of Jebel Khaweir, but recently reported to be about 6 miles 
further eastward, is about J of a mile in extent, sandy, and 12 feet 
high; it is covered with thin scrub, and is surrounded by a reef 
which extends ^ mile from its northern side, and has from 13 to 37 
fathoms near it. The islet (lat. 27° 20', long. 49° 49'), appears 
to be a breeding place of the cormorants. 

Jazirat al Jinna (Jinnah) (Janah), charted 9 miles, 72°, from 
Eas Abu Ali, but recently reported to be about 4 miles further east- 
ward, is i mile long east and west, very narrow, 10 feet high, and 
sand covered with thin scrub. A small reef, which is steep-to, sur- 
rounds the islet and extends f mile from its northern side. Fisher- 
men dry and cure fish on the islet. Shelter can be obtained from 
.shamals or kaus under the lee of the islet. 

Shoals. — Between Jazirat al Jinna and Fasht Bu Saafa and 
Fasht al Eling with the shoals between them, 35 miles southeast- 
ward, is a large area but partially explored ; it is known to be much 
encumbered with shoals, between which are depths of 20 or 30 
fathoms, and great caution is necessary in standing within it. 

The area between latitude 26° 69' and latitude 27° 8' and longitude 
49° 54' and longitude 50° 15' must be avoided, as within it are 
numerous shoals, with depths of from 1 to 4J fathoms. 



144 RAS BIDDIYA. 

Inshore passage. — From Ras Tanura to Eas al Ghar, between 
the mainland and the large and dangerous area just mentioned, 
there is a navigable channel ; its southern end is wide, but the width 
soon decreases to 3 or 4 miles, with depths varying from 5 to 20 
fathoms, and there is a S^-fathom patch about 7 miles nortlunorth- 
eastward of Ras al Kaliya. 

Janna Island (Jinnah) (lat. 27° 22', long. 49° 20'), about 8 
miles west-northwestward from the northwestern point of Jazirat 
Abu Ali, and 1,600 yards off the mainland, is about 1^ miles long 
northeast and southwest, f mile broad, and some cliffs on its north- 
eastern side are 35 feet high; the top of the island is level and its 
western part low; its color is light. There is a large fort with a 
circular tower to the northi^ard on the top of the island, and a 
village on the northern side, inhabited by about 200 fishermen, with a 
large number of boats. Abundant fresh water is obtained from 
springs and is said to be good. The island and Musalamiya Island 
are under the Shaikh of Janna. 

Dry sandbanks extend about 2 miles northward and 1 mile east- 
ward of Janna. Just inside Ras Biddiya, a branch of the khur, with 
about 3 fathoms water, runs southward between Janna and the main- 
land ; a small branch from this admits boats at high water to reach 
the village. There is a small basin, with 3 fathoms water, close 
northeastward of the island, and large boats lie in it; the entrance 
to the basin, from the eastward, dries. 

The bay (Dohat ad Dafi), which extends about 15 miles southeast- 
ward of Janna, passing westward of Jazirat Abu Ali, is shallow and 
ends in a swamp. It appears to be frequented by black fish from 15 
to 20 feet in length. 

Has Biddiya (al Bidya); about 2^ miles northward of Janna, 
is low sand, with tufts of grass. Dohat Musalamiya extends west- 
ward, probably about 7 miles, from Ras Biddiya. The entrance to 
this bay is about 400 yards wide between the ras and the reefs and 
sandbanks which extend northward from Janna Island, and are dis- 
tinguishable even at high water; here there is a bar with about one 
fathom water, but within the bar there is a deep but somewhat tor- 
tuous khur leading nearly up to Musalamiya Island, and boats are 
able to get right up to the village on its eastern side at high water. 
The sandbanks and reefs in the bay are numerous and can generally 
be seen and are easily avoided. The mainland on the .northern side 
of the bay is all low, but just southward of Musalamiya Island is a 
conspicuous cliffy bluff, and the coast southward of the bluff for 
some miles is from 50 to 80 feet high, with a growth of shrubs. 

Musalamiya (Musallannyah) (Al Amair) Island, about 4 miles 
westward of Ras Biddiya, and at the head of the khur, is about 1 
mile in extent, with low sand hills, on which is a small village situ- 



RAS RAKKIN TO JAZIRAT BUBIYAIT. • 146 

ated amongst a few trees. The population of the village and sur- 
rounding district is said to be about 700, of which apparently not 
more than 200 were living in the village in March, 1913; these were 
all Arabs and negroes engaged in fishing,, and a considerable number 
of boats w^ere hauled up on the beach. A small quantity of water 
is obtainable on the island, but it is very brackish, and the natives 
say very unwholesome. 

Directions. — ^To approach Janna, pass through the entrance to 
the khur, and follow the main khur west-south westward until 
Janna village bears 180° ; then steer for it, and keep close to the 
sand banks on the eastern side. For Musalamiya village, after 
passing through the entrance to the khur, keep iA its main arm, and 
steer toward the conspicuous bluff southward of Musalamiya Island, 
and when close to the mainland turn toward the island. 

AnchoifSige. — The best anchorage, when visiting Janna or Musa- 
lamiya, is about 5 miles northeastward of Janna Fort, in from 4 to 5 
fathoms water; inshore of this position are extensive sand banks, 
with numerous ridges and reefs running north and south ; the pro- 
tection from shamals and kaus here is very slight. 

In anchoring in this locality allow for a distance in the sea level 
due to the action of the winds, as well as for the usual fall of the 
tide; at a spot where 18 feet water was obtained after 12 hours 
of a strong kaus, there were only 14 feet on the following day, when 
a strong shamal had replaced the kaus and had been blowing for 
several hours. 

The coast from Ras Biddiya trends northward and northwest- 
ward 9 miles to Ras al Ghar (Ghar) ; it is low, brownish, rocky 
hillocks overgrown with small shrubs, and th«re is but little shore 
reef. 

Foul ground extends about 5 miles north-northeastward of Eas al 
Ghar, and continues, for distances up to about 16 miles, off the coast 
northwestward of Eas al Mishaab. 

Faslit al Kash (lat. 27° 31', long. 49° 32') 60°, 12 miles from 
Eas Biddiya, extends^ about 5 miles northeastward, with a breadth 
of about If miles. Between Fasht al Kash and Jazirat al Jinna the 
waters are unexplored. The channel between it and the mainland 
has only been partially sounded; there are depths of about 4 to 6 
fathoms for about 5 miles off the reef bordering the coast, but the 
depths near the fasht are unknown. This is the northern entrance 
to the channel leading past Jazirat Abu Ali to Eas Tanura. 

Directions. — The channel from Eas al Ghar to Eas Tanura, in 
which 5 fathoms water could probably be carried, should only be 
taken in daylight, the vessel anchoring at sunset. Make either 
Jazirat Herkuz or Jazirat al Kran, and steer toward the land just 



V" 



146 • JAZIRAT FAKSL 

southeastward of Ras al Ghar. The soundings being very irregular 
are not much guide in the approach. When about 4 miles from the 
coast, steer southeastward toward Ras Abu Ali, the tomb near 
which is conspicuous, and give the end of the spit extending about 
4 miles eastward from the ras a wide berth. Then steer to pass 
about 4 miles northeastward of Jebel Khaweir, and keep about that 
distance off the coast, avoiding Daka shoal, Give Ras al Kaliya 
a berth of at least 5 miles, to avoid the shoal extending off it, and also 
avoid the 3^ fathom patch about 7 miles north-northeastward of the 
ras. Pass -southward of Ffisht al Eling, and thence steer southward 
to Ras Tanura, using the chart as the guide. 

Islands. — Jazirat Farsi, Arabi, Al Kran, Al Karaiyin, and Her- 
kuz, all very low, and with deep water close to them, lie from 30 to 
65 miles east-northeastward and northeastward from Ras al Ghar. 
These islets are difficult to make in the haze during and after a 
shamal, especially in summer, and should not be approached at night. 
The tidal current in the locality of the group sets westward, prob- 
ably for 6 hours, ending some time after high water, and eastward 
for the next & hours, but the times of the turn of the currents are 
not known. There is no fresh water on either of them. Anchorage 
can be obtained southeastward of Al Kran, but is bad at all the other 
islands. 

Jazirat Farsi; the northeastern islet, 65 miles, 61°, from Ras al 
Ghar, and 66 miles from the Persian coast, is J mile in extent, 10 
feet high, overgrown with coarse grass and brushwood, and on 
its northern end is a pyramidal beacon of loose stones about 12 
feet high. The beach of the islet is white sand, and the fringing 
reef extends off about J mile ; it shows plainly, and has 25 fathoms 
close-to. 

Flocks of small birds assemble on Farsi at certain seasons* and 
their noise may be heard on a quiet night from a distance of about 
1 mile, sometimes even before the islet is seen. Turtle abound on 
Farsi, and they attract fishermen, chiefly from Kharag, who capture 
them for their oil and shell. 

Beacon. — ^A wooden mark, 30 feet in height, surmounted by a cir- 
cular iron top mark, 9 feet in diameter, has been erected on the sum- 
mit of the southern part of the islet. 

Jazirat Arabi (lat. 27° 47', long. 50° 10'), 13 miles southward of 
Farsi, is a sand bank about 600 yards long .east and west, with a 
rocky base, and 10 feet high; there is a small pile of stones in the 
middle. The fringing reef extends i mile or less around, and is 
steep-to. 

The islet literally swarms with birds, chiefly cormorants, and in 
the season is covered with their nests and young ones, so that it is 
scarcely possible to walk without treading on eggs. It has, or had, 



RAS RAKKIN TO JAZIRAT BUBIYAN. * 147 

a deposit of guano, a few inches thick, and is visited by turtle 
fishermen. 

Beacon. — A wooden mark, 30 feet in height, surmoimted by an 
iron 4-pointed star, 9 feet in diameter, has been erected on the sum- 
mit of the southeastern extremity of the islet. There is a cairn about 
6 feet in height on the northern end of the islet. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, at 
Jazirat Arabi, at 6 h. 30 m. The currents between Jazirat Arabi 
and Farsi appear to attain a velocity of about 1 knot. 

Jazirat al Eran (Earan); 31 miles, 71^, from Bas al Ghar, is 
nearly 1 mile long northeast and southwest, a few feet high, quite 
level, and covered with brushwood. Comparatively few birds were 
seen here. A fringing reef nearly surrounds the island, and extends 
about 1 mile to the northwestward, and about 800 yards to the south- 
eastward ; there are from 7 to 10 fathoms about ^ mile from the reef. 
The island is frequented by fishermen from Musalamiya, who dry 
fish, make turtle oil, etc., and dispose of their catch at Kuweit or Al 
Basra. Anchorage can be obtained on the southeastern side in 8 
fathoms, sand, about i mile from the island. 

Jazirat al Earaiyin (Eraijrin) (Eurain), about 3^ miles 
southward of Jazirat al Kran, is small, sandy, 2 feet high, and sur- 
rounded by a narrow reef, and generally covered with birds. A 
5-f athom bank is said to exist about 8 miles eastward from the islet, 
but its position has not been determined, and the Euphrates passed 
over the assigned position with finding it. 

There is a channel with 12 fathoms water between Jazirat al Karai- 
yin and Jazirat al Kran. The sea southward and westward, toward 
Jazirat al Jinna and Fasht al Kash, appears to be clear, but has been 
only partially examined, and caution is necessary in navigation here. 

Jazirat Herkuz (Harkis) (lat 27° 56', long. 49° 42'), 15 miles, 
330 **, from Jazirat al Kran, is a sand bank about 200 yards long and 
3 feet high, with a small fringing reef, which is steep-to, there 
being 15 fathoms close to it. But few birds were seen here. There 
are depths of from 14 to 17 fathoms within 5 miles eastward of the 
island, and thence to the islets just mentioned depths of from 20 to 
30 fathoms, mud, and between it and Bas Bildani, 20 miles to the 
westward, 16 and 17 fathoms. 

Beacon. — A wooden mark, 30 feet in height, surmounted by a cir- 
cular iron topmark, 9 feet in diameter, has been erected on the center 
of the islet. 

The coast from Bas al Ghar trends northwestward, with an in- 
shore curve, 23 miles to Bas at Tanajib, and is generally low, with 
shoal banks extending from 5 to 9 miles off it. Jebel Munifa (Mani- 
fah), situated on the coast 12 miles west-northwestward of Bas al 
Ghar, is small, and near it is Dohat Balbul, small, and with anchor- 



148 JAZIRAT AL MUKTA, 

age for boats, where a kind of fair is held from April to June, when 
the Bedawin barter ghi for dates, rice, and other produce, brought by 
boat, from Kuweit, etc. 

The 10-fathom curve is from 11 to 12 miles off this<5oast; between 
depths of 8 and 20 fathoms the bottom is generally white clay. 

Bas at Tanajib (Tan&jib) rises steeply to a flat light-colored 
hill from 70 to 100 feet high. 

The coast from Ras at Tanajib trends northwestward 7 miles to 
a point, between which and Ras Safaniya (as Safaniyah), a low pro- 
jecting point, 8 miles farther northwestward, is a large bight; it is 
little known, but is low, with one or two small hills. The coast from 
Ras Safaniya trends northwestward 13 miles to Ras al Mishaab; 
Jebel Thaluf, 4 miles west-northwestward of Ras Safaniya, is a 
coast hill, about 40 feet high, showing two rises with a bluff on the 
north; and Jebel Amudi ('Amudah), 2^ miles south westward of 
Ras al Mishaab, is a dark volcanic-looking hill, 105 feet high, which 
makes in four hummocks ; the coast is otherwise all low. 

Bildani Beefs extend from 15 to 16 miles off the coast for about 
23 miles northwestward of Ras at Tanajib. Ras Bildani (lat.27° 57', 
long. 49° 14'), the southeastern extremity of the reefs, is 16 miles, 
61® from Ras at Tanajib, and from it the edge of the reef, which 
appears to be continuous, trends northwestward 25 miles; it then 
turns southwestward 7 miles to Kassar al Mitma. Parts of the reefs 
are above water or dry, and there is a depth of 10 fathoms generally 
about i mile outside them. There is a boat channel along shore in- 
side the reefs; it has not been examined, but the Arabs say it has 
enough water for a vessel. 

Anchorage sheltered from a shamal, but open to a kaus, might b«f» 
obtained under the lee of the reefs between Ras Bildani and Ras at 
Tanajib, with Tanajib Hill 260°, about 8 miles. 

Shoal. — A patch, about 100 yards in extent, with 2i fathoms 
water, sand and rock bottom, and 12 to 13 fathoms around, lies 
about 6 miles northeastward of Bildani Reefs, with Ras at Tanajib 
bearing 212**, 22 miles; the water is but little discolored over the 
shoal. 

Bildani Reefs should not be approached at night to less than 18 
fathoms, nor by day, when in clear weather they can be seen from 
a distance of about 3 miles, to less than 15 fathoms ; the land is not . 
in sight from seaward of the reefs. The 2i-f athom patch north- 
eastward of the reefs should be given a wide berth. 

Bas al Mishaab (Bas Misha' &b) is low and sandy, with 
patches of low cliff. 

Jazirat al Mukta (Makta')^ close southward of Ras al Mis- 
haab, is about 2 miles long northeast and southwest, narrow, with 
cliffs from 20 to 30 feet high on its eastern side, and covered with 



PERSIAN GULF. 149 

grass and brushwood. There is no channel inside it. A sandy spit, 
on which are several dry sand banks, projects 2J miles eastward from 
the island. The shore reef, with 2 fathoms water, extends 4 miles 
north-northeastward from the island, and Kassar (Kasr) Umm as 
Sahal, near its outer edge, 3^ miles, 36°, from Ras al Mishaab, almost 
dries ; there are depths of 9 fathoms close to this shoal. 

Bandar Mishaab is the anchorage where native craft shelter 
from the shamal, on the southern side of the spit extending eastward 
from Jazirat al Mukta, and in the northwestern part of a large bay 
which is mostly shoal ; the entrance, with from 6 to 7 fathoms water, 
is between Mukta Spit and Kassar al Mitma (Kasar al Mitma'), 2 J 
miles to the eastward. The best position is about IJ miles southeast- 
ward of the northeastern point of Jazirat al Mukta. A detached 
shoal patch lies 1^ miles southward of Mukta Spit. The northern 
entrance to the inshore boat channel from Bas at Tana jib is in this 
bay. 

Al Kumra (Kumrah), 18 miles northeastward of Ras al Mis- 
haab, is a pearl bank with 8 fathoms water. 

The coast from Ras al Mishaab (lat. 28° 12', long. 48° 39') 
trends north-northwestward 75 miles, to Ras al Arz, and it can be 
approached to a distance of 6 miles, but northward of Katat Arai- 
fiyan to 2 miles. The soundings are very little guide, there being 
much irregular ground within the off-lying islets. The bottom in 
less than 8 fathoms is sand or rock, but in greater depths mud. 

There is no place of shelter on this coast, except for very small 
boats, from the shamal, which blows from north-northwestward, and 
sometimes from northward, causing a considerable sea. 

The principal tribe between Mishaab and Shiaiba is Al Hawajir, 
consisting of about 1,500 men. 

Tidal currents. — The tidal currents set north-northwest and 
south-southeast on the coast, and are strong. 

The coast between Ras al Mishaab and Ras al Khafji, 14 miles 
north-northwestward, is low sand hills, and there are depths of 3 
fathoms from 2 to 3 miles off it. Dohat al Asli, some 2 to 4 miles 
southward of Ras al Khafji, is shallow. 

Ras al Khafji (Khafji) is a sandy projection; on its northern 
side is a small khur. The shore reef extends 1 mile off it. The 
coast between Ras al Khafji and Ras Bardhalj, about 5 miles north- 
northwestward, falls back about 1 mile. 

Breakers, apparently caused by a shoal, were reported in 1908 12 
miles east-northeastward of Ras al Khafji. 

Ras Bardhalj (Bardhalk) is low, white, and sandy, and a spit 
extends a mile northeastward from it. The coast from Ras Bardhalj 
turns westward about 3 miles, and then north-northwestward 14 miles 
to Ras az Zaur. Hadd al Hamara (Hamarah), 4^ miles northwest- 



150 RAS AZ ZAUB. 

ward of Ras Bardhalj, is a small sandy spit under the lee of which 
boats shelter. 

Jebel Banaya (Bannah), 10 miles northwestward of Ras Bard- 
halj and 2 milei^ inland, is from 70 to 100 feet high, saddle shaped, 
small, and dark colored, the coast being low white sand hills. About 
2 miles northward of this hill is the entrance to a small khur, fre- 
quented by fishing boats. 

Umm al Maradim^ 14^ miles, 87^, from Bas Bardhalj, is a sand 
islet, about i mile in extent, some 20 feet high, and covered with 
brushwood ; a reef extends nearly ^ mile off it except on the southern 
side, and there are from 14 to 16 fathoms water around. There is no 
water on the islet. 

A small reef, awash and steep-to, lies 2 miles 331° from Umm al 
Maradim. 

Depths. — ^There are depths of less than 10 fathoms for about 12 
miles east-northeastward from the coast near Jebel Banaya, and a 
9-fathom patch 9 miles north-northwestward of Umm al Maradim; 
thence to Jazxrat Kubbar the surroundings are fairly regular, from 
14 to 18 fathoms, except Taylor Rock, and decrease toward the 10- 
f athom curve, which is generally about 5 miles from the coast. 

Jazirat Kani (lat. 28° 48', long. 48° 48'), 10 miles, 39°, from 
Umm al Maradim, is about 200 yards in extent, 3 feet high, and saiid, 
on which are a few tufts of grass. A spit extends i mile northward 
from the islet. The islet swarms with birds and is covered with 
their eggs and young in the season. 

A small detached reef, steep-to, and on which the sea breaks at 
low water, lies 1^ miles 341° from Jazirat Karu. The soundings are 
no guide in approaching the islet or reef, and neither should be neared 
at night. 

Tidal currents. — ^In the vicinity of Jazirat Karu the current sets 
northwestward during the flood tide, and southeastward during the 
ebb tide, at a velocity of 1^ knots at springs; the times of the turn 
of the currents are not known, but are probably shortly after high 
water and 6 hours later. 

Madura Reef (Madaira), 7 miles, 2°, from Jazirat Karu, is two 
coral patches extending 1,700 yards northwest and southeast, with 
a width of J mile; there is a depth of 5 feet water on the north- 
western and 3 feet on the southeastern patch, and from 10 to 20 
fathoms around, but there is a depth of 9 fathoms about 1 mile to 
the southeastward; in fine weather the reef is only indicated by 
slight overfalls in its immediate vicinity, but in bad weather it 
probably breaks. 

Has az Zaur (Zor) is the extremity of a long low sandy projec- 
tion; a spit extends. 2 miles off it. Dohat az Zaur (Zark), between 



RAS RAKKIN TO JAZIRAT BUBIYAN. 151 

Eas az Zaur and Ras al Kaliya, 10 miles northwestward, has many 
shoal patches, some 4 miles offshore. 

Has al Kaliya (Kaliyah) is low, and from it a spit, with 2 
fathoms water near its outer end, extends northeastward 4 miles, to 
within a mile from the 10-fathom curve. 

The coast from Ras al Kaliya trends north-northwestward, with 
a slight inshore curve, 30 miles to Ras al Arz, and is a low stony 
desert, brownish in color, but it rises gradually to the height of 200 
or 300 feet a few miles inland. About 3 miles northwestward of 
Ras al Kaliya is a small square hill, some 50 feet high, resembling 
a fort in appearance, and along the coast to the northward are sev- 
eral forts and villages. 

Eatat (Kita^at) Araiflyaiiy 7 miles, 342°, from Ras al Kaliya, 
and about 4 miles from the shore, is a small detached reef, nearly 
awash at low water, with from 7 to 10 fathoms close around. 

Taylor Rock. — ^A coral patch, 300 yards in extent, with 1^ 
fathoms water, lies 17 miles, 58°, from Ras al Kaliya, and 5 miles, 
122°, from Jazirat Kubbar. There is no indication of the shoal in 
fine weather, but in bad weather it probably breaks. 

Jazirat Kubbar (lat. 29° 05', long. 48° 30'), 15^ miles, 40°, from 
Ras al Kaliya, is about 400 yards in extent, 8 feet high, and sand 
overgrown with brushwood; a fringing reef extends 300 yards 
southward, 600 yards eastward, and 200 yards northward from the 
island, and a narrow rocky tongue of foul ground, on which the se-a 
breaks in heavy weather, extends 1,200 yards northwestward from 
it. A l^-fathom patch lies 1,200 yards westward of the island. 

Anchorage can be obtained in 11 fathoms ^ mile south-southeast- 
ward of the island, but there is no shelter during a shamal. In 
fine weather there is good landing on the southwestern side of the 
island. 

A few birds frequent the island from the mainland. There is 
usually no water on the island, though there may be a little after 
rain. 

Beacon. — A stone beacon, surmounted by a barrel, stands on the 
north side of Jazirat Kubbar. 

Tidal currents. — ^The currents in the vicinity of Jazirat Kubbar 
set northwestward during the rising and southeastward during the 
ebb tid^ at a rate of 1 knot at springs, but the times of the turn of 
the currents are not known. 

Shiaiba (Shi'aibah) , 13 miles northwestward of Ras al Kaliya, 
is a small square fort on the coast ; it is inhabited by about 40 fami- 
lies of the 'Ajman Tribe. The beach is sandy, but landing is indif- 
ferent at low water; there is a date plantation, and some wells; the 
people here are herdsmen and cultivators, as they are also at the 
small places to the northward. 



152 KUWEIT HARBOR. 

Fahaheel (Fahaihil) is a small place 2 J miles northward of 
Shiaiba, and Abu Halaifa (Halaifah) is a small fort about 5 miles 
northward of Shiaiba with a few date trees near it and some wells 
of good water. Horses are sometimes exported from Shiaiba to 
India. Al Fantas (Fantas), about 2^ miles northward of Abu 
Halaifa, is a small date grove. Abu Fatera (Fatairah) is about 2 
miles northward of Al Fantas, and Fanailis (Fanaitis), 2 miles 
farther northward, is a small fort near the coast, with about 40 
men. All these places are under the Shaikh of Kuweit. 

Shoals. — A IJ-fathom patch lies about f mile offshore 7^ miles 
southward of Ras al Arz. 

Kola Patch, on which the steamship Kola grounded in 1906, is situ- 
ated 1,600 yards offshore, 3.6 miles southward of Bas al Arz; an ex- 
amination found it to be a small rock with 1 fathom water, and 7 
fathoms 150 yards around. 

A shoal, \ mile long north-northeast and south-southwest, and 
about 400 yards broad, with 2 fathoms least water, lies about 1,200 
yards offshore, its northern end being 1.7 miles southward of Ras 
al Arz. 

B»as al Arz (Ardli)^ the southern entrance point of Kuweit Har- 
bor, is low and sandy ; it is reported to have grown out considerably 
since the first survey in 1821-1829. Shoal water extends 400 yards 
northeastward from the ras. About 5 miles southwestward of the 
ras is Sirra (Sirrah) Hill Fort on ground 180 feet high; it is small, 
square, arid a good mark. There is a very heavy sea on Ras al Arz 
during a kaus. A temporary light is shown at an elevation of 25 
feet from Ras al Arz Beacon. 

Beacon. — A black pyramidal beacon, 32 feet high, and surmounted 
by a black ball, stands on the extreme of Ras al Arz. 

Tidal currents. — The currents off Ras al Arz are strong at 
springs. 

Kuweit approach. — ^Depths. — Between the shoal ground west- 
ward of Jazirat Kubbar and the vicinity of Katat Araifiyan (lat. 
28° 59', long. 48° 16'), there are depths of about 16 fathoms; north- 
ward of this line, the water shoals gradually toward the entrance 
to Kuweit Harbor. 

Kuwait (Kuweit) Harbor is a bay, 20 miles long east and west 
and 10 miles broad, in the greater part of which there is anchorage, 
with good holding ground. In a shamal there is a considerable sea 
in the southern part of the bay, but not enough to distress a large 
vessel. The depths in the harbor are from 10 to 16 fathoms off Ras 
al Arz ; from 5 to 9 fathoms off Ras al Ajuza ; 4^ to 5 fathoms north- 
eastward of Ras asheirij ; and from 5^ to 6 fathoms in Dohat Kat- 
hama, shoaling to 4 fathoms near the narrows at its head. 

The whole country around is a desert of white sand. 



PERSIAN GULF. 153 

The bay between Ras al Arz and Ras al Ajuza, 5^ miles west- 
northwestward, is shallow, the shoals extending outward consider- 
ably beyond a line joining the points. A narrow bight, with from 
7 to 11 fathoms water, extends 1^ miles west-south west ward on the 
northern side of Ras al Arz, and on the shore near its inner end is 
Dimna (Dimnah), a fishing village. On the shoal ground, 1^600 
yards northwestward from Ras al Arz, is a patch with 3 feet water. 

Has al Ajuza (Ras ^Ajuzah) (lat. 29° 23', long. 48° 00') is 
low, and on it is a small, but conspicuous, square fort about 15 feet 
high ; a rocky flat, which dries, with fish weirs on it, showing within 
3 hours from low water, extends 700 yards off the ras ; native boats 
anchor 2 miles southeastward of the ras, sheltered during a shamal. 

The shore from Ras al Ajuza trends west-south westward 9 miles to 
the head of Dohat Abu Tala. The town of Kuweit is on the shore 
southwestward of Ras al Ajuza. Shoal water extends about 1,600 
yards off the town, and the beach dries out a considerable distance, 
but at high water the sea washes up to the houses ; the native boats 
are hauled up on the beach, inside substantial breakwaters ot loose 
stone. A short distance southwestward of the town are As Salaibik- 
hat, some white sandhills. 

Shoal. — A shoal, with 2 J fathoms and less water, extends off the 
shore westward and southwestward of Ras al Ajuza, its northern 
extremity bearing 343°, distant IJ miles from the ras. There are 
depths of 3J fathoms for about 1,200 yards eastward of the northern 
extreme of the shoal. 

Buoy. — A black conical buoy is moored close off the northern 
extreme of the shoal. 

Fasht al Hadeiba (Hadaibah)^ 2^ miles, 312°, from Ras al 
Ajuza, is rockj'^, with If fathoms water; it is at the end of a spit, 
with from If to 2J fathoms water, extending about 2 miles east^ 
northeastward from the northeastern part of Al Akkaz Reef. 

Buoy. — A red conical buoy is moored on the eastern edge of Fasht 
al Hadeiba ; a vessel of more than 10 feet draft must not pass over 
any part of the reef westward of the buoy. 

Light. — A red fixed light is exhibited, at 58 feet above high water, 
from the flagstaff at the British Political Agency (lat. 29° 23', long. 
47° 59'), situated on the shore about 1.4 miles westward of Ras al 
Ajuza, and should be seen from a distance of 8 miles. The flagstaff 
is 88 feet .high. 

Anchorage buoy. — ^A conical buoy, painted black and white in 
horizontal stripes, is moored in 3^ fathoms nearly 2 miles west- 
northwestward from' Ras al Ajuza. The depth quickly increases to 
^ fathoms northward of the buoy. 

The three above mentioned buoys belong to and are maintained by 
the Government of India, 

j78608'-29— W 



154 JAZIRAT KUREIN. 

Anehorage. — Vessels of light or moderate draft anchor about IJ 
miles northward of the town, from about J mile northeastward to 
^ mile southwestward or westward of the anchorage buoy, in from 
3J to 4f fathoms. The farther westward the anchorage, the more 
shelter received during a shamal. 

Yessels requiring deeper water anchor eastward of Fasht al 
Hadeiba in from 7 to 9 fathoms ; here there is not much shelter from 
the kaus. - In fine weather there is generally a light land wind in the 
morning, and fine easterly to southeasterly sea breezes in the after- 
noon. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, at 
Kuweit, at h. 13 m. ; springs rise 11^ feet, neaps 8 feet. The tidal 
currents in the entrance, eastward of Fasht al Hadeiba, set about 
east-northeast and west-southwest and attain a velocity of from 2 
to 3 knots at springs. The currents appear to set eastward from 
li hours before until 4^ hours after high water, and westward from 
4^ hours after high water until IJ hours before the next high water, 
but they are much influenced by the winds. 

Al Akkaz ('Akaz) reef extends from about 3^ miles, 284^, from 
Ras al Ajuza, 4 miles southwestward, with a breadth of about 2i 
miles; the southern part of the reef, 2^ miles long and IJ miles 
broad, dries; the northern part has about 2 feet water with some 
rocky patches, which dry. 

Jazirat Eurein^ on the southern side of Al Akkaz Reef, and i 
mile off the southern shore of Dohat Abu Tala, is J mile long north 
and south, 400 yards broad, with a peak 30 feet high at its southern 
extremity .and barren; it is not conspicuous. Southeastward of the 
island is Bandar ash Shuwaik, a small basin, with from 4 to 2% 
fathoms water, mud, where small native boats lie completely shel- 
tered. The channel to it passes eastward of Al Akkaz Reef, and has 
depths of 1^ fathoms, hard bottom, in places. 

The shore of Dohat Abu Tala (Talah), which is low, curves west- 
ward about 5 miles from southward of Jazirat Kurein, and then 
turns northward about 4 miles to Ras Asheirij. Dohat Abu Tala 
is occupied by sand and mud flats, which dry. 

Ras Asheirij (^Ashairij) (lat. 29° 23', long. 47^ 51), 8i miles 
westward of Ras al Ajuza, is about 12 feet high; Jazirat Umman 
Namil, close eastward of the point, is nearly 1 mile long northeast 
and southwest, with a greatest breadth of J mile, 10 feet high, and 
rocky. 

Beacon. — On the hill at the northwest part of Jazirat Umman a 
beacon, surmounted by an upright bisected triangle of 10-foot base, 
51 feet above high water, has been erected. 

A conspicuous building is situated about 400 yards northward of 
the beacon. 



RAS RAKKIN TO JAZIRAT BUBIYAN. 155 

Buoy. — A conical buoy, painted black and white in vertical stripes, 
is moored in about 5 fathoms at 3.4 miles, 11°, from the beacon. 

Dahat Kathama is the portion of Kuweit Harbor westws^rd of 
Ras Asheirij. The shore, which is low sand covered with scrub, 
trends west-southwestward 8 miles from Ras Asheirij, and then turns 
northward and northeastward 4 miles to Ras Kathama. 

The southern shore 4s bordered by sand or rocky shoals, on which 
are many fish traps, to the distance of about IJ miles, and the 3- 
fathom curve terminates about 1 mile east-southeastward of Ras 
Kathama. 

Beefs. — ^Kutotain Ousherij (Kita'atain Ushairij), 1^ miles, 326®, 
from Ras Asheirij, is a small rock with IJ fathoms water; Kutat 
Abu Taleh, 1,800 yards farther west-southwestward, is a small reef, 
awash at low water, and there are small patches, with 3 and 5 feet 
water, respectively, about i mile and H miles west-southwestward 
of it. These reefs lie on or near the shoal water extending from the 
southern shore, and the 5-fathom curve passes close northward of 
them. • 

Ras Kathama (Kadhamah) is just above high water, and is 
swampy. About ^ mile inland from Ras Kathama and from the 
northwestern shore of Dohat Kathama, the ground is sandy and 
covered with scrub, gradually rising to the foot of a range of hills 
from 2^ to 3 miles inland, which attains a height of 410 feet north- 
westward of the head of the harbor. 

Northeastward of the ras a soft mud flat extends from the shore, 
making landing very difficult a;t low water, and Fasht Oushair, with 
less than 6 feet water,' lies 1.4 miles from that shore, 5 miles north- 
eastward of Ras Kathama. With this exception the depth decreases 
gradually toward the mud flat on the northwestern side. 

Anchorage. — The outer part of Dohat Kathama affords anchor- 
age in from 5 to 6 fathoms for a large number of vessels. It is the 
only good anchorage for large vessels in the northern part of the 
Persian Gulf, and affords shelter in a shamal. To the eastward of 
Ras Asheirij a bank, with from about 4J to 5 fathoms and a breadth 
of from IJ to 3 miles, extends northward across the bay. 

The head of the harbor, westward of Ras Kathama, is shallow. 
The only landing place is at Khwesat, IJ miles west-southwestward 
from Ras Kathama; Fasht al Jather (Jathir), 1,600 yards southwest- 
ward of the ras, dries 11 feet, and there is a boat passage on either 
side leading to the landing place; the southern is known as Khur 
Rasdan. Jehara (Jahrah) (Jaharah) village lies about 1^ miles 
southwestward from the head of Dohat Kathama. 

The northern shore of Kuweit Bay is low; it curves gradually 
round from the head of Dohat Kathama to a point about 2 miles 
southwestward of the entrance to Khur Sabiya, and situated about 



156 FATtAKA ISLAND. 

12 miles north-northeastward of Ras al Arz. A mud flat extends 
some distance frpm the beach, which increases in width eastward to 
nearly 5 miles. Al Aghthi, the country inland, is probably from 
200 to 300 feet in height, level. on top, of a dusky brown color, and 
ending seaward abruptly in cliffs. 

Tharub (Thanib) is the great mud flat lying between Failaka 
and the mainland to the northwestward. Mashkan ( Mash j an), a 
sapd islet, 1,200 yards long northwest and southeast, and about 10 
feet high, lies on the flat, 2 miles northwestward of Failaka. 

Failaka Island (Failakah.) stands on an extensive flat of mud, 
sand, and rock, extending southeastward of Khur Sabiya; it is 7 
miles long northwest and southeast, 3J miles broad at its north- 
western end, and very low; there is a clump of date palms on the 
southwest coast, about 2 miles from its southeastern end. 

The highest part of the island is a little mound on its southern 
coast i mile eastward of its western point, which has a small tomb 
(lat. 29° 26', long, 48° 16') on it, 30 feet high, and a good mark. 
About the middle of the northwestern side is Az Zowar (Zor) Vil- 
lage, the only inhabited part of the island, with a small date grove, 
and about 200 families. Native boats anchor on the flat off the 
tomb, and shift round the point on which it stands, according to 
the wind. The island is unhealthy and water indifferent. 

Extenisive flats of mud, sand, and rock surround Failaka Island 
everywhere except on its western side, where, although there are only 
from 2 to 6 feet water, there is good landing for boats at all times 
of tide, especially at Az Zowar. 

Uha or Auha (Auhah) Islet, 2 miles east-southeastward of the 
southeastern extremity of Failaka, is about 300 yards in extent, 8 
feet high, and sand covered with scrub ; on it are three cairns erected 
by Arabs, the northwestern and southeastern being about 6 feet 
high ; the middle one is smaller. 

Beacon. — A stone beacon, 11 feet high, surmounted by a wooden 
triangle on staff, 30 feet above high water, stands on the southeastern 
end of Uha Islet (lat. 29° 22', long. 48° 26'). 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Uha Islet at 11 h. 
50 m. ; springs rise 11 feet, neaps 7^ feet. 

Has al Kahi (Yahi), 3^ miles eastward of the southeastern ex- 
tremity of Failaka and at the extremity of the shoals extending from 
that island, is a rocky patch ^ mile long north-northeast and south- 
southwest, and 200 yards broad, which dries 2 feet. The water 
deepens to 5 fathoms 300 yards northeastward of the patch, and 
caution is necessary in its locality, as the lead gives no warning when 
approaching from the northward or eastward. 

The water is shoal l^^tw^W Uha and Ras al Yahi, and also between 

tbew w4 Failaka, 



PBTOIAN GtJLF. 167 

Depths. — ^The 3-fathom curve from about 6 miles southwestward 
of the point southwestward of Khur Sabiya trendy southeastward 
to about 9 miles southwestward of the southeastern extremity of 
Failaka, and then eastward 8 miles, when it turns north-northeast- 
ward to Ras al Yahi. The 5-f athom curve is generally about ^ mile 
outside the 3-fathom curve westward of Failaka, but closer in places ; 
southward of Failaka the 5-fathom curve is about 4J miles outside 
the 3-fathom curve, and from about 10 miles south-southeastward of 
Failaka it trends northward to J mile eastward of Ras al Yahi. 

Abu Jezza ( Jazzah) is a large flat, with depths of from 6 to 9 
fathoms, southeastward of the shoal water extending from Failaka. 

Directions — Kuweit Harbor. — From the southeastward steer to 
pass about 10 miles northeastward of Madura Reef and continue 
about 8 miles northwestward into a depth of 10 fathoms. Then steer 
westward, keeping in depths of from 8 to 10 f athomsj but not deepen- 
ing the water to more than 10 fathoms on the southern side of Abu 
Jezza Flat. In clear weather make Jazirat Kubbar, pass about 3 
miles northward of it, and then steer west-northwestward toward 
Sirra hill fort. When about 4 miles from the land steer north- 
^ northwestward and pass li miles northeastward of Ras al Arz ; 
there is usually an indraft toward the ras. In hazy weather it might 
be well to continue westward with caution and make the mainland, 
which can be approached to IJ miles. 

From Shatt al Arab lightvessel steer about 196°, guarding against 
Palinurus Shoal, in 4 J fathoms least water, until well past Failaka 
Island, and then westward in 5 fathoms water; from the eastward 
steer for a position on Abu Jezza flat, and then westward, guided by 
the soundings. Sirra hill fort (lat. 29° 17', long. 48° 2') bearing 
275° leads southward of Failaka Flat, in 3| fathoms water; possibly 
the clump of date trees on the southwestern side of Failaka might 
be sighted. 

From IJ miles northeastward of Ras al Arz steer to a position. 1 
mile east-northeastward of the black conical buoy oflf the extremity 
of the spit northward of Ras al Ajuza; then gradually turn, and 
pass on a southeast course between the black conical buoy and the red 
conical buoy off the eastern extremity of Fash al Hadeiba, and an- 
chor as previously directed. 

Should the buoys not be in position steer for the peak of Jazirat 
Kurein, bearing 227°, which leads midway between Fasht al Hadeiba 
and the shoal water off Ras al Ajuza. The bearing must be care- 
fully maintained, as a deviation from it on either side of about 3® 
leads into shoal water. 

Kuwait (Kuweit), one of the most important Persian Gulf 
towns, is situated on the shore from about i mile to 1 mile south- 



r 



158 KTTWAIT TOWir. 

westward of Ras al Ajuza; it is built on a considerable slope, "the 
front houses being close down to the sea, while those behind are some 
50 feet above it. There is a large suburb of mat huts outside the 
town proper. It is a nice looking place, the houses being principally 
of stone and sun-dried bricks. The population of the town is esti- 
mated at about 35,000, and of the territory about 89,000; the people 
are of various tribes, and a large number are Persians. There are 
generally one or two Bedawin camps near the town. 

The natives are a united warlike tribe; Shaikh Mubarak, their 
ruler (1914), is influential and powerful. The town possesses more 
bagalas than any other port in the gulf, and sends about 400 boats 
to the pearl fishery. 

The sandstone mound just westward of the town has a single-story 
house 6n it, the residence of the doctor attached to the American mis- 
sion ; the hospital lies between it and the water. There is a flagstaff 
without yard in front of the sheik's palace. 

A British political agent is stationed at Kuweit. 

Landing. — The best landing is under the British political agency ; 
it is only available for very small boats at low water. 

Trade. — Native sailing vessels, from 100 to 300 in number, and* 
from 20 to 300 tons, belong to the place ; they bring dates from Al 
Basra, and do much trade in the gulf. Horses are occasionally ex- 
ported. Timber and rice are brought from India. Kuweit is much 
visited by the Bedawin, who bring horses, cattle, etc., to barter for 
dates, clothes, arms, etc. 

Supplies. — Sheep can be procured; vegetables are scarce and 
indifferent in quality. The water in the district is unfit for drink- 
ing ; water for the town is brought by tank boats from Shatt al Arab ; 
from 3 to 6 days' notice is required. The coaling pier is a sloping 
hardway extending from the sheik's coal shed. 

Communication. — ^The vessels of the British India Steam Navi- 
gation Co.'s subsidiary mail service between Bombay and Basra 
call at Kuweit weekly on their passage up the gulf and fortnightly 
on their passage down the gulf. 

Jazirat Bubiyan (Btibiyan) is about 26 miles long north and 
south, 12 miles broad, low, barren, and partly covered with high 
water. Kas al Abreisha (Abraishah) (lat. 29° 33', long. 48° 12'), 
its southern point, is 7 miles northwestward from Failaka Island. 
Khur Sabiya (Khor al Sabiyah), on its western side, is about | 
mile wide, and has from 2 to 10 fathoms water, but its southern 
approach over Tharub flat is very shallow, with several nearly dry 
patches. The flat of mud, sand, and rocks connecting Failaka and 
the mainland continues as a mud-flat northeastward about 3 miles 
off the southeastern coast of Bubiyan, and there is a depth of 3 



PERSIAN GULP. 159 

fathoms and less within a distance of 6 miles from that side of the 
island. 

Khur Sabiya. — Sabiya is a fortified mud inclosure on the west 
bank, at about 3 miles from the entrance to the Khur; it is sur- 
rounded by tamarisks, and has a few date palms. The well water is 
brackish. 

Khur Abdalla ('Abdullah) ^ between Bubiyan Island and the 
banks on the western side of the Shatt al Arab, is 13 miles wide at its 
entrance between Has al Geit (Gait) (al Kaid), on the eastern coast 
of Bubiyan, on the southwest, and Kas al Bisha on the northeast, 
and it extends about 17 miles northwestward to the eastern* end of 
Warba Island, where its width is about 2^ miles. 

There is a conspicuous fort on Kas al Geit. 

The channel to Umm Kasr is northward of Warba Island, and 
apparently carries a depth of 24 feet. 

Warba Island (Warbali) , northward of Bubiyan, and near the 
head of Khur Abdalla, is about 7 miles long east-northeast and west- 
southwest, and 2^ miles brdad in the middle; it is separated from 
Bubiyan by Khur Sabiya, and from the mainland by the upper 
part of Khur Abdalla. 

A. sand bank, with from i to 2 J fathoms water, extends nearly IJ 
miles eastward from the island. 

Both shores of Khur Abdalla are low alluvial land, covered in 
places with reeds and grass*, and with shallow flats extending a long 
way off both sides, but much farther from the northern shore, and 
Marakat Abdalla, a shoal flat, stretches 12 miles southeastward from 
Kas al Bisha to the 3-f athom curve. 

Umm Easr, above Warba, is a fort about ^ mile inland. Plenty 
of good water is obtainable, but no other supplies. Abreast of fort 
there is very little water, even at high water, but at about 2 miles 
southward good anchorage is obtainable. 

Fasht al aich (d.ik), about 6i miles, 103°, from Ras al Geit, is a 
detached bank, with 3 feet water, hard sand, and there are three 
separate patches, with 2J and 3 fathoms water, about IJ miles out- 
side it. Shoals, with from 1 to 3 fathoms water, extend about 4| 
miles southeastward of Fasht al aich, and shoals, which dry in places, 
7J miles northwestward of it. Khur al .Geit, a IJ-fathom channel, 
lies inside the shoals. 

There are two patches with 2f fathoms water about 3 miles south- 
eastward and 5 miles east-southeastward of Fasht al aich. 

Channel. — The channel of Khur Abdalla, trending west-north- 
westward, passes between Fasht al aich with the shoals off it, and 
the flats off Jazirat Bubiyan to the northwestward, on the south- 
west, and Marakat Abdalla on the northeast. Its width varies from 
about 4 miles to 1 mile between the 3-fathom curve, and depths 



160 KHUB ABDALLA— AITOHORAGE. 

of 4 fathoms can be carried to about 8^ miles from Warba Island 
sand bank, and thence 3^ fathoms to the channels on either side of 
that island, but the southern of these channels is not recommended. 
The plan is the only guide. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage anywhere in Khur Abdalla 
above Ras al Geit (lat. 29° 47', long. 48° 22'), but it is unadvisable 
to anchor below it. 

For the Shatt al Arab and the coast to the eastward, see Chap- 
ter XI. 



\ 



CHAPTER VII. 

COASTS OF LAS BEILA (BELA) AND MAKRAN. 

RAS MUARI TO GWADAR HEAD. 

(Lat. 24** 50', long. 66° 39' to lat. 25** 7', long. 62° 16'.) 

The coast from Ras Muari to Gwadar Head, 230 miles to the 
westward, is chiefly an uninhabited desert, presenting a wilderness of 
hills and cliflfs, with either swampy or arid clay plains. Water is 
everywhere bad and difficult to get, and but few supplies are obtain- 
able at the villages. 

Ras Muari (Muwari) (Cape Monze) (lat. 24° 50', long. 66° 
39'), 17 miles westward from Manora Point Lighthouse, on the west- 
ern side of Karachi Harbor entrance (West Coast of India Pilot), 
is the western extremity of a sloping headland, which rises to a peak, 
460 feet high, | mile to the eastward. Lakki hills, a ridge with a 
nearly level top, on which are some remarkable hummocks, the high- 
est being 776 feet high, extend northeastward from the ras, and turn 
gradually inland from about 3 miles eastward of it, the coast becom- 
ing low about 5 miles farther eastward. 

Light. — A group flashing white light, elevated 150 feet above high 
water, visible 18 miles, is exhibited from a concrete tower, painted 
black and white in bands, on the low southwestern coast of Ras 
Muari headland, about 1 mile southeastward of Ras Muari. For 
arc of visibility see Light List and Charts. 

ITancowry Shoal. — ^A ridge, with less than 10 fathoms water, 
extends 3 miles southwestward from Ras Muari Lighthouse, and on 
it, with the lighthouse bearing 45° 1.7 miles, is Nancowry shoal, 
with 4 fathoms water. 

The 10-fathom curve is about | mile, and the 5-fathom curve from 
400 to 800 yards oflf the coast for 4 miles eastward of the ridge. 

To pass southward of the shoals do not close Ras Muari to less 
than 4 miles, nor at night bring Manora Point Light eastward of 83°. 

Soundings. — ^The bank, with less than 100 fathoms water, extends 
53 miles southwestward, and 30 miles westward, from Ras Muari. 
The bottom is everywhere soft, except in less than 20 fathoms south- 
westward of the ras or in less than 10 fathoms eastward of it. 
161 



162 HAB BIVER. 

Sonmlyani Bay lies between Ras Muari and Bas Kuchar (lat. 
25° 23', long. 65° 45'), about 60 miles to the northwestward, and 
it extends about 23 miles northeastward. The shore, a succession 
of rocky points and small bays, trends northward 19 miles from 
Ras Muari, and then turns northwestward 27 miles, becoming sandy 
with sandhills and covered with small jungle; it then so continues 
westward to the Hara Hills. Pab Mountains commence about 5 
miles northeastward of the northern entrance point to the Hab 
River, and trend northeastward and northward, increasing gradu- 
ally in height to upward of 3,000 feet ; westward of them is a plain, 
35 miles broad, extending to the Hara Hills. This plain is drained 
by the Pur Ali River, which enters the sea at Sonmiyani. Hara 
Hills trend north-northeastward from the northern shore of the 
bay, arid their height is estimated at 1,500 feet; they are of light 
color and irregular outline. The town of Bella (Bela), the capital 
of the State of Las Bella, stands in the valley, distant 65 statute 
miles by road northward from Sonmiyani. 

Soundings. — Northward of Ras Muari the 10-fathom curve is 
about 3 miles, and off Sonmiyani about 9 miles, from the shore ; the 
soundings decrease regularly to 4 fathoms close to Sonmiyani Bar 
and within 1 mile of the shore eastward of it. The water deepens 
regularly to seaward. 

Shoal. — A small patchj with 3 fathoms water, lies 1,400 yards 245° 
from Ras Muari ; the ground is foul between the ras and the patch. 

Beauchamp Reef , 3^ miles 270° from Ras Muari, is a coral patch 
with 5 fathoms water, and foul ground, with from 7 to 9 fathoms 
water, extends J mile south-southeastward and 1 mile noilh-nortli- 
westward from it. 

The shore. — Just northward of Ras Muari is a small sandy bay 
and beach, inside which is a valley between the Lakki Ridge and some 
detached hills, 560 feet high, with cliffs along their sea faces, which 
extend to the left bank of Hab River. Foul ground extends nearly a 
mile offshore for If miles northward of Ras Muari. A few fishermen 
are generally here in the fine season. 

Hab River rises in the mountains northward of the Pab Range, 
and, after a course of over 150 miles, falls into the sea 3^ miles north- 
northeastward of Ras Muari. There is no fresh water within several 
miles of its mouth, except during freshets. The rocky hills on its 
southern side end about 1 mile within the mouth, after which there 
is a plain on each side of the river, called the valley of the Hab. The 
northern side of the entrance is low, and a sandy spit extends nearly 
across the channel. A small isolated rocky hill stands on the 
northern side, a little inland. 

The channel of the Hab River is tidal and nearly dries; it has 9 
feet at high water, and there are generally breakers across the en- 



COASTS OF LAS BEILA AND MAKRAN. 163 

trance; it is only used by fishing boats. The channel outside high- 
water mark shifts, but is practicable for a ship's boat. The tidal 
influence does no extend more than about 2 miles inside the mouth. 

The locality oflf the mouth of the Hab appears to have been but 
partially examined. 

Churna Island, 4 miles north-northwestward of Kas Muari, is 
about 1,200 yards long northwest and southeast, 600 yards broad, and 
580 feet high, with almost precipitous light-colored hills; from the 
southward it shows a peak, and from the westward a flat-topped hill, 
sloping northwestward and southeastward ; it is steep-to, barren, un- 
inhabited, and has no water. 

There is anchorage in 5 fathoms, sand, 400 yards offshore, with 
the highest part of the island bearing 225^. 

There are depths of from 5 to 11 fathoms for 2^ miles southeast- 
ward and eastward of the island. For 6 miles southwestward of the 
island the soundings are irregular and the bottom rocky. 

The shore from the northern entrance point of the Hab River 
trends northward 3J miles, and is low ; it then continues northward, 
with an easterly bend, 5 miles to Chir Churna (lat. 25° 01', long. 66° 
41'), a detached square rocky hill, about 100 feet high, joined to the 
mainland by a low sandy isthmus. 

Shoals. — A patch, with If fathoms water, lies 1^ miles 285° from 
the northern entrance point of the Hab River. A 3-fathom patch 
lies \\ miles northward of the point 3^ miles northward of the 
northern entrance point of the Hab River, and there is a sunken 
rock \\ miles farther northward; there are from 4 to 6 fathoms 
around both the patch and the rock. 

Islet. — A low rocky islet lies \ mile northwestward of Chir 
Churna ; there is a depth of 7 fathoms close seaward of it, and of 5 
fathoms between it and the land. The 10- fathom curve trends from 
about \ mile northwestward of Churna Islaiid to 2 miles westward 
of the islet. 

The shore. — North-northeastward of and within 8 miles from 
Chir Churna are three small bays separated by high rocky points. 
Inland of the southernmost of these bays are backwaters, one of 
which has an entrance close eastward of Chir Churna; from these 
backwaters, the ground rises abruptly to the southern part of the 
Pab range. The shore, about 8 miles north-northeastward of Chir 
Churna, turns northwestward, and at the distance of 16 miles is £he 
entrance to Sonmiyani Harbor; it is hilly for the first 3 miles, and 
thence to the harbor is sand hillocks covered with tufts of grass and 
small bushes. 

Sonmiyani (SQnniiani)^ the seaport of Bella, is a small town 
with a population of 3,200, standing on the northeastern shore of 



164 SONMIYAin. 

the Miani hor, a^ extensive backwater, which receives a number of 
large creeks, and through which flows the Pur Ali Eiver. ' Scarcely 
any craft larger than fishing boats belong to the place, and the trade 
is in the hands of a few Banyans settled here, who farm the customs 
from the Jam of Beila. The town is difficult to make out from sea- 
ward, owing to its low position and dull appearance. The water is 
bad, and hardly any supplies are obtainable. The only exports are 
salt fish, fish maws, and mustard seed. 

Depths. — The entrance to Sonmiyani Harbor (lat. 2^° 20', long. 
66° 33') is nearly 2 miles wide, and on the bar there is a depth of IJ 
fathoms, but the channel inside it, with from 3J to 6 fathoms water, 
close to the eastern bank, has a width of about 300 yards. A great 
shoal flat, on which the sea breaks heavily, extends nearly 2J miles 
outside the entrance, and the entrance channel, winds through it; 
there are 4 fathoms water close to the outer edge of the shoal. 

The eastern point is sandy hillocks, thinly covered with tamarisk 
bushes, and between it and the town is a mud-flat, which mostly dries, 
over which the Vindar River, flowing southwestward, discharges 
during floods. The western entrance point is low bare sandhills 
The town, which lies north-northeastward from the anchorage inside 
the bar, can be seen from between the points. 

The channel trends northward from the eastern entrance point, 
passes about 2 miles westward of the town, and, becoming very nar- 
row, turns northeastward in two shallow branchees to the north- 
eastern shore, whence it continues northwestward to a bar, which 
dries, 3 miles northwestward of the town. The branches are used 
by native craft to get nearer to the town. 

Formerly, about 2 miles within the eastern entrance point, the 
main channel turned westward about 18 miles inside the shore sand- 
hills, nearly to the eastern and lesser Hara Mountains. This country 
has not been surveyed, but it appears now to be a vast swamp. Dur- 
ing heavy rains, the Pur Ali (Porali) Eiver flows into the swamp, 
but usually the waters of the river are entirely absorbed in irriga- 
tion, it being dammed about 20 miles inland.* The western shore of 
Sonmiyani backwater is low, and partly overflowed at high water. 

Directions. — The breakers on the projecting shoal are the best 
mark for approaching the harbor, but if the water be smooth, do 
not decrease the depth to less than 5 fathoms. If the weather is 
clear, Churna Island bearing 173° astern leads to the bar, and in 
thick weather, from the southward, a departure can be taken from 
the island. There are generally fishing boats about, either entering 
or leaving the harbor. 

European vessels never enter the harbor ; the largest native craft, 
about 30 tons, lie about a mile from the town. Even for a boat go- 
ing inside, it is advisable to take a local fisherman as pilot. 



HAS MUABI TO GWADAR HEAD. 165 

To communicate, anchor off the bar in 5 fathoms, and about 8 
miles from the town. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, at 
Sonmiyani Harbor at about 9 h. m. ; springs rise 9 feet. The tidal 
current sets eastward during the flood tide in the offing on the 
northern shore of Sonmiyani Bay, but turns southward on the east- 
ern shore, following the curve of the land, and the current during 
the falling tide takes probably the reverse directions ; the currents 
are weak. 

The shore of Sonmiyani Bay, from the western entrance point of 
Sonmiyani Harbor, trends west-northwestward 10 miles, and then 
turns westward 33 miles to Ras Kuchar; it is low with sand-hillocks, 
on which are tufts of grass, to the lesser Hara Mountains, a dis- 
tance of about 24 miles, when it again is low to Darya cham, 13 
miles farther westward. The soundings are regular, and the shore 
can be approached to 6 fathoms, the 3-fathom curve being from 1 
to 2 miles offshore. 

The land between the Hara Mountains and Ras Malan . (lat. 25° 
19', long. 65° 13'), about 48 miles westward, appears from seaward 
a succession of rugged mountains, generally of light color, with 
lower whitish clay peaks, called " shur " by the natives. Jabal 
Hinglaj, 20 miles west-northwestward of Ras Kuchar, and 8 miles 
inland, is 3,500 feet high, and quoin shaped, Gorangati, 8 miles 
further west-northwestward, with a valley between, is a conspicuous 
square-topped mountain, 3,800 feet high, resembling a castle with 
bastions, its sides appearing almost vertical. From Jabal Hinglaj, 
the main branch of Jabal Hara, of irregular outline and with lower 
hills in front, trends east-northeastward from 8 to 12 miles inland, 
until 5 miles from the lesser Hara mountains, when it turns north- 
northeastward, parallel with the latter. 

Pur River entrance is about 33 miles westward of the western 
entrance point of Sonmiyani Harbor ; it is a small salt-water creek, 
which, during the rains, drains the valley between the two Hara 
ranges. The shore from Pur river to Ras Kuchar, 10 miles westward, 
forms a slight bay. 

Darya cham (D&riyocham) , the eastern of a group of low hills, 
is situated 2 miles inland, and is several white conical hillocks, the 
highest of which is about 300 feet high. 

Anchorage could be obtained in about 5 fathoms in the bay west- 
ward of Par river, but a depth of 3J fathoms is charted about 2^ 
miles off-shore, south-southwestward of Darya Cham. 

Bas Kuchar (Kuchari) (Kuchri) (lat. 25° 23', long. 65° 45') 
is the southeastern point of a range of low cliffs extending along the 

shore, which rises to th^ detached group of low hills. 



166 HINGOE RIVER. 

The coast westward of Has Kuchar is low; Jabal Ghurab (Gii' 
rab), near the beach and 2^ miles from the point, is small and ob- 
long. A shoal bank extends 2J miles from the shore southward of 
it, with 6 fathoms close to. 

Darya Cham, Eas Kuchar hills, and Jabal Ghurab are situated 
near the middle of the southern- part of a plain extending from the 
Hara mountains to Jabal Hab. 

Jezirat Chahardak (Chahardam), on the coast 4 miles westward 
of Jabal Ghurab, are some rocks from 20 to 30 feet high, and some- 
what higher than the coast. There is a good landing for a boat in- 
side them. From the rocks the coast is low 10 miles 'westward to 
Jabal Hab, a little westward of which a ridge of low hills comes 
down to the sea. 

Hingor River (Hingol), the entrance to which is 1 mile east- 
ward of Jabal Hab, can be entered by small craft of 6 feet draft at 
high Water. Fresh water is alwaj^^s obtainable in the river, though 
at some distance from the sea. The river is generally nearly dry ; it 
winds close round the eastern side of Jabal Hinglaj, and through a 
gap in Jabal Hab ; it has a course of about 140 miles from the interior, 
and brings down quantities of driftwood during freshets. Eastward 
of the river, the plain inside the coast sand hills is swampy after 
rain. There is a well of good water near the sea on the eastern side 
of Jabal Hab. 

The coast from Jabal Hab westward, about 12 miles, to the cliiFs 
of Ras Malan is low with sandhills. 

Anchorage can be obtained in the bay eastward of Eas Malan 
in 4 fathoms water, with Gorangati bearing about 0°, and the ras 
230" about 1 mile offshore, but the- water appears to shoal close 
inshore of this position. 

Ras Malan (lat. 25° 19', long. 65° 13'), about 14 miles west- 
south westward of Jabal Hab, is prominent and presents a steep bluflf, 
with a level top of clay, capped with impure limestone ; the highest 
part, about 4 miles northward of the ras, is 2,050 feet high, to which 
the cliffs rise abruptly with no beach. Great masses of clay, de- 
tached from the mountains, frequently fall. The ras from seaward 
appears a long, light-colored tableland ending in cliffs; between it 
and Jabal Hinglaj is a confused mass of lower hills and shur. There 
is a depth of 4 fathoms about 1 mile off the ras. There are no 
native inhabitants anywhere in the locality, and water cannot be 
procured. 

Soundings.— The 10-fathom curve is about 6 miles off Ras 
Kuchar, 9 miles off Jabal Hab, and 4 miles off Ras Malan, and the 
100-fathom curve is 24 miles southward of Ras Kuchar, and 11 
miles southward of Ras Malan. 



COASTS OF LAS BEILA AND MAKRAN. 167 

The coast is cliffs for 19 miles westward of Kas Malan; it then 
is low and sandy about 15 miles farther westward to Ormara 
Isthmus, with a plain inland. The high land westward of Ras 
Malan, known at Batt (Bat-h) Mountain, is divided 7 miles from 
the ras by the Khur Batt, a great watercourse and gorge running 
through the mountains, and having a salt water lagoon with a sandy 
bar between it and the sea. The mountain becomes lower westward 
of the khur. 

The plain westward of Batt mountain extends some 10 miles in- 
land to the Tallu (Taloi) hills, a range running nearly parallel with 
the coast in several ridges eastward to Gorangati. On this plain, 
northward of the eastern point of Ras Ormara, and 4 miles from the 
sea, is Chandra kup, a conspicuous white cone about 600 feet high, 
with a mud crater. 

Khur Maniji (Mannaiji), 20 miles westward of Has Malan and 
about 1 mile westward of Batt mountain, is shallow, but for a short 
time after rains becomes the mouth of a small river. Khur Gurad, 
about 5 miles farther westward, is similar ; both are visited by native 
boats. 

Soundings. — The 10- fathom curve is about 8 miles southward of 
Khur Maniji, and the 100-fathom curve is 9 miles southward of 
Khur Batt. 

Ras Ormara (Orm&rah), a mountainous peninsula, is 7^ miles 
long east and west, 2 miles broad, and 1,400 feet high ; the top slopes 
gently eastward and southward, and ends on all sides in cliffs. The 
peninsula appears wedge shaped from the southward. It is of sim- 
ilar geological formation to the other ranges on the coast, and is 
only accessible with great difficulty. The sandy isthmus connecting 
the middle of the peninsula (lat. 25° 11', long. 64° 37') to the main 
projects about 5 miles southward from the coast, is nearly IJ miles 
wid€, and on its southern part is Ormara Village. Northward of 
the village, there are high sand hills in the middle of the isthmus, but 
the beach on each side is low. 

Ormara Village, on the eastern beach of the isthmus, about 1 
mile from the cliffs, is filthy, absolutely reeking of decayed fish ; it is 
a few stone houses and mosques, and about 100 mat huts, with 
a population* of about 3,000, chiefly fishermen. A few hundred 
wandering herdsmen, belonging to the village, are scattered over the 
neighboring territory. There is a little inland traffic with the 
Kolwa district. The people own many fishing boats, besides a few 
small dangis, which trade to Maskat, Karachi, and the coast of India 
with salt, salt fish, pish, grain, gihi, etc. ; a few Banyans are settled 
hete. 



168 ORMARA, EAST AND WEST BAYS, 

Telegraph. — ^There is a telegraph oflSce on the isthmus about a 
mile westward of the village, where messages are received for all 
parts. 

Supplies. — Water is indifferent and scanty, and is obtained from 
wells near the telegraph office; a few sheep and fowls may be pro- 
cured, also excellent fish from any of the numerous canoes or fishing 
craft. 

Ormara East Bay, called by the natives Demi Zar, is the general 
anchorage for vessels visiting the place. It has sandy bottom, ex- 
cept near the cliffs, and is shallow off the village, from which the 
anchorage, in 3^ fathoms, is distant 2J miles. The eastern point of 
the ras, about 600 feet high, bears, from this anchorage 171°, and 
the telegraph office about 261°. The water shoals regularly when 
standing into the bay, and the eastern bluff point may be approached 
to i mile. The beach dries a long way off the village, making land- 
ing inconvenient at low water; a shoal extends from the northern 
side of the cliffs. 

The bay is open to easterly winds, which blow strongly at times 
from December to February. During the southwest monsoon there 
generally occurs at least one blow from the eastward, with rain, 
which is not of long duration ; West Bay is then the best anchorage, 
though communication with the shore is more tedious. Native craft 
appear always to ride out these breezes. In the southwest monsoon, 
and any time after April, a long swell begins to set round the point 
into East Bay, causing a surf on the beach and vessels at anchor to 
roll heavily. 

Tidal currents.^The tidal current sets northward and eastward 
round the bay during the flood tide, and westward and southward 
during the falling tide ; the currents are weak. 

Ormara West Bay, called by the natives Padi Zar, is nearly 8 
miles across its entrance between the western extremity of the ras 
(lat. 25° 10', long. 65° 33'), and the high cliffs of Ras Sakani 
(Saik-hani) to the west-northwestward; the shores are low and 
sandy; at its head, and about 5 miles from the village, is a small 
rocky hill near the shore. The bay is seldom visited, being open 
southwestward and westward. Shoal water of less than 3 fathoms 
extends 3 miles off the eastern and northern shores of the bay, and 
the anchorage is with the western extremity of the ras bearing 
about 180°. 

Soundings. — There are 6 fathoms water close to the cliffs on the 
southern coast of Ras Ormara, and 20 fathoms 7 miles distant; the 
100-fathom curve is about 2 miles further seaward. 

The coast from Has Sakani trends west-northwestward 20 mile$ 

|;o Kbur Kalmat, m^ |?etweeu fi^s Sakani md Bas Basul, ^ distance 



BAS MUARI TO GWADAR HEAD. 169 

r 

of about 10 miles, it is continuous cliffs, about 800 feet high, of light 
color and irregular outline, without any marked peak. The cliffs 
are the sea face of the Kamgar Hills, between which and the Tallu 
Range is a wide plain. There are 3 fathoms about 1 mile from these 
cliffs, and the 10- fathom curve is distant 8 miles. 

The Talar Hills trend east-northeastward from about 10 miles 
northwestward of the entrance to Khur Kalmat, and approach the 
western part of the Tallu Hills. 

Bas Basul (Bas61) is the western point of the cliffs. The bay 
between Ras Basul and Khur Kalmat is shallow, the 3-f athom curve 
being nearly 5 miles from its low sandy shore, which probably can 
hardly be seen at that distance. 

About 2 miles northwestward of Ras Basul is the mouth of Basul 
River, a large watercourse rising in the mountains of the Kplwa dis- 
trict and flowing from the interior between the Tallu and Talar 
ranges. The land about its mouth is swampy and very low. 

Khur Kalmat is the largest khur on the coast, having 5 and 6 
fathoms inside, with considerable width, but the bar has 2 feet 
water. The entrance is rendered difficult by rocks lying upward of 
1 mile outside the bar, and the tidal currents in the entrance^ are 
strong. The land near the entrance is very low, with mangrove 
swamps. Native craft of 9 feet draft are said to enter the khur 
by the eastern of the two channels over the bar. Inside the bar 
there are depths ot from 4 to 7 fathoms. At some distance inside 
the khur is joined by four creeks, which, beyond the range of the 
tides, are watercourses. Near the mouth of the khur are a few huts 
with fishing boats, and 3 miles up an old tower on the western 
bank with some date trees. 

The only permanent habitations are a cluster of seven houses, 
known as Tarr, on the western bank, which contain 28 people, and 
in the country around are about 900 Sangurs and 100 Kalmatis. 

The water supply at Tarr is scanty and very brackish. 

There is a small trade, the exports consisting of dwarf palm in its 
raw state, lime, and mangrove wood, and the imports of piece goods 
and food grains. 

The coast for 12 miles westward of Khur Kalmat is low, with 
shoal water about 3 miles off it ; it then continues 18 miles westward, 
gradually becoming higher with a number of shur hills, when it 
turns southward 6 miles to Ras Jaddi. Until near the village of 
Pasni, about 3 miles northwestward of Ras Jaddi, it is barren, but 
two small watercourses, generally dry, fall into the bay, one 18 miles, 
the other 22 miles, westward of Khur Kalmat, and there is a small 
boat harbor about 3 miles westward of the western watercourse. 

The 3-fathom curve is from 2 to 3 miles off the shore for 18 miles 
eastward of Pasni. 

173608°— 20 12 



170 ASTOLA ISLAND. 

Astola Island, known to the Baloch as Haptalaf, to the Meds as 
Astalu, to the Arabs as Astalo, and to the Hindus as Satadip, and 
situated 16 miles southwestward of the western entrance point of 
Khur Kalmat, is about 3 miles long east and west, ^ mile broad, and 
without water ; it is table topped with cliffs all around, and there is 
a partly detached hill (lat. 25° 6', long. 63° 50') at its western end, 
260 feet high, which is a little higher than th^ rest of the island. 
The cliflPs rise vertically from the sea, except on the northern side, 
where, about the middle, is a little sandy point, and at the north- 
western corner a sandy spit and a small boat harbor. There are 
rocky ledges off both ends and some detached rocks above water 
along the southern coast, but all are less than 4p0 yards from the 
cliffs. 

Sail rock (Gurab of the local fishermen), 1,400 yards southward 
of the middle of the south side of Astola, is small. 20 feet high, steep- 
to, and appears like a boat under sail ; vessels should not pass be- 
tween the rock and the island. 

Two shoals, each about 1,400 yards in extent, with IJ fathoms 
water, lie close together with their outer edge 1^ miles northward 
from Astola Island; the western shoal is connected by a bank to 
the island and the eastern shoal nearly so; their northern side is 
steep-to, and there is no passage between them and the shore except 
for boats. A shoal, with 2^. fathoms water, lies 1.9 miles northeast- 
ward from the eastern end of the island, and is steep-to; a patch, 
with 2J fathoms water, lies between it and the island. 

Astola Island is covered with a luxuriant growth of rank grass 
and low shrubs, and abounds with small venomous snakes, called 
' " garr " by the natives. The Arabs from Maskat frequent the place 
for turtle catching, and Pasni fishermen for gwahtag fishing, the 
latter being an excellent fish which abounds there. They also visit the 
island to collect searbirds' eggs, which are found in enormous quan- 
tities on the cliffs at the end of the cold weather. 

The island is held in extremity veneration by the Hindus, and 
pilgrims from all parts visit it in small but increasing numbers; 
on the southeast side of the top of the island, is a small open shrine 
made of rough stones. The Pasni Meds hold several places in the 
island sacred, and on a detached rock at the northwestern extremity 
are said to be the footprints of Duldul, the horse of Ali ; on the beach 
close to this rock is an inclosure dressed with red flags and dedi- 
cated to the Khwaja Khizr, the patron of the Meds. Here the Meds 
are wont to take omens at the beginning of each fishing season. 

The landing place generally used by pilgrims is at the northeast 
point of the island; the ascent from it is steep and tortuous, and 
after heavy rain it sometimes becomes impassable, when the ascent 
and descent have to be effected by the aid of ropes. 



COASTS OF LAS BEILA AND MAKRAN. 171 

Channel. — The mainland to the northward of Astola is very low 
and shoals extend 4 miles off it, leaving a clear channel about 7 
miles wide between these shoals and those northward of Astola, 
with from 5 to 8 fathoms water, sand, rock, and shell; depths of 4 
fathoms' are charted for about 8 miles southward of the coast just 
westward of Khur Kalihat. The depth between Astola and Ras 
Jaddi varies from 7 to 10 fathoms, but there are 4 fathoms 2 miles 
off the ras, and a detached 5-fathom rocky patch 7^ miles 104° 
from it. 

To proceed through the channel, which should not be taken at night, 
except under favorable /conditions, pass 4 miles from the island to 
avoid the outlying shoals, on Which vessels have grounded when at-^ 
tempting to pass them closely. 

Webb Bank (lat. 25° 02', long. 63° 53'), which was discovered 
when the telegraph cable was being laid in 1864, and named after 
the engineer in charge, is a rocky patch about 2 miles long east 
and west and 1 mile broad ; its eastern end is situated about 5 miles 
south-southeastward from the eastern end of Astola. A depth of 
3J fathoms has been obtained on the bank, but there may be less 
water; the sea breaks on the bank in the southwest monsoon. 

The channel between Sail Rock and Webb Bank is 2f miles^wide, 
and apparently clear, but the bottom is uneven, and there is said to 
be a depth of 5 fathoms, rock bottom, in places. The 20-fathom 
curve passes f mile southward of the bank ; caution is necessary in 
passing it, especially at night, when it should l3e given a wide berth. 

Shadi Khur is a river which breaks through the hills northward 
of Pasni, and ends in a large shallow creek with swampy banks; its 
mouth is 2 miles northeastward of the town, where it has formed a 
projecting point, with dry banks extending 1,200 yards off-shore. 
About 1 mile up the khur there are ruins and other remains denoting 
the site of a large ancient town, which is said to be the rich and 
beautiful city of Pesani, burnt by the Portuguese in 1581. Boats 
can enter the khur (lat. 25° 17', long. 63° 29') at high water. 

Pasni Town, on the low western shore of the bay northward of 
Ras Jaddi, has, since 1905, come into considerable prominence owing 
to its proximity to Turbat, the headquarters of the Makran admin- 
istration, about 70 ^niles north-northwestward. It has 306 houses 
and a population of about 1^500. The majority of the people are 
Meds fishermen, but a few Kalmatis, Sangurs, Hindus, and Lotiahs 
also reside here. It is the headquarters of the Naib of Kolanch and 
of the Kalmatis. A small fort, two mosques built by the Meds, 
and a bungalow in which the post and telegraph office is located 
are the only permanent buildings, the rest of the town being mat 
huts. It is the seaport of Kolanch (Kulanch), a district of Makran, 
extending about 120 miles westward of Kalmat. 



172 JABAL ZABBAIK. 

There is no vegetation near except a few date trees to the south- 
ward ; south westward of the town is a mass of high white sandhills, 
and, northward of these, a number of shur hills. 

Ancliorag^e. — ^The depth in Pasni Bay is 5 fathoms and less. 
There is anchorage in 3^ fathoms, sand, about 1^ miles from^ the 
shore, with the town bearing 270®, and Ras Jaddi about 194°, or 
farther off in 4 fathoms. There is considerable surf after April, 
when it is difficult to land. 

Supplies. — ^The water here is not good; no provisions can be 
obtained except fish, and occasionally a few sheep and fowls. 

Conununication. — ^The vessels of the British India Steam Navi- 
gation Co's. subsidiary mail service between Bombay and Basra, call 
at Pasni fortnightly, both ways. There is a bridle path from Pasni 
to Turbat and Panjshir. There is postal and telegraphic communi- 
cation. 

Trade. — Most of the trade of Makran has now gravitated to 
Pasni ; it is chiefly in the hands of Hindus and Lotiahs or Khojahs. 
The chief exports are wool, ghi, cotton, dates, and mats, and the 
imports piece goods, grain, and miscellaneous articles. The only 
industries are fishing and fish curing, and 125 boats belong to the 
port. 

Bas Jaddi (lat. 25° 13', long. 63° 30') is a small projection from 
which a rocky spit extends ^ mile, with 4 fathoms water close off it. 

Between Eas Jaddi and the southeastern point of Jabal Zarrain, 
li miles to the southward, is a small bay ; a cluster of clay hills of 
fantastic shape, about 150 feet high, rises 300 yards inland from the 
shore. 

Jabal Zarrain, the southern extremity of Pasni Bay, is about 400 
feet high, brown in color, conspicuous, and of barn shape, especially 
on easterly or westerly bearings. On northerly bearings it appears 
a long notched ridge with sloping ends, and, from a distance, iso- 
lated, the land around being low. It rises abruptly, and at a distance 
of about 1 mile is a depth of from 4 to 5 fathoms. 

The 10-fathom curve is 7 miles, and the 20-fathom curve 10 miles 
southward from it; thence, the water deepens to the 100- fathom 
curve about 5 miles farther southward. 

The coast trends westward 10 miles from Jabal Zarrain, and then 
curves round from northwest to southwest, 13 miles, to Ras Shamal 
bandar; it is low, and shoal water extends about 1^ miles off the 
western 13 miles. Chakuli Kuh, a range of mountains about 1,400 
feet high, continues westward from the Talar hills parallel to the 
coast, from 9 to 12 miles inland. 

The coast appears desert, but a little distance inland it is fertile in 
places, producing corn and cotton. 



RAS MUAia TO GWADAR HEAD. 173 

Soundings. — The 10-fathom curve is about 7 miles southward 
of Ras Shamal bandar, and the 100-fathom curve is about 16 miles 
south-southeastward of the ras, whefe it is close seaward of the 20- 
f athom curve. In over 5 fathoms water the bottom is generally mud, 
with patches of rock up to 12 fathoms. 

Kas Shamal bandar is the end of a long jagged ridg6 of precipi- 
tous white clay hills, close to the sea, with low ground at the back, 
which extends 19 miles westward to Eas Kapar, and is from 400 to 
500 feet high. There is no beach on the coast except in a few places 
at low water. The ras is a bluflf, and is the first high land near the 
sea westward of Zarrain; it should not be approached to less than 
6 fathoms water, as a reef projects 1 mile around it, oflf which the 
water deepens quickly. 

The bay eastward of the ras is shallow near the shore, but used 
by fishing boats and small vessels sheltering from westerly winds. 

Ras Shahidy 5^ miles west-southwestward of Ras Shamal bandar, 
is the southern extremity of the clay hills; there is a depth of 4 
fathoms about 1 mile off it. There are three gaps in the clay hills 
between 6 and 9 miles westward of Ras Shahid ; Sawur River flows 
through one of these gaps, and into the sea by a large salt-water 
creek. 

Sas Kapar is the southern extremity of a table-topped hill nearly 
800 feet high, with bluff ends, at the western end of and partly de- 
tached from the hills extending from Ras Shamal bandar; it projects 
but little. There are 3 fathoms water 600 yards from the ras. Kapar, 
a small village, is near the ras, and close to the sea. 

The coast from Ras Kapar trends westward 15 miles to a little 
shallow bay on the southern side of which is Jabal Sar; it is sandy, 
and rises to low hills, principally "shur." From about 11 miles 
north-northeastward of Ras Kapar, the Kuh Chilari, which is sepa- 
rated from the Chakuli kuh by the Sawur River Valley, extends 
westward and is continued westward by the Kuh Daram (i Dramb). 
Mukh, the summit of the latter range, situated about 17 miles north- 
westward of Ras Kapar, is a conspicuous peak 3,200 feet high, and 
Barn Peak, 5 miles eastward of it, is 3,152 feet high. Lower clay hills 
rise in front of these mountains. 

Kuh Dimak, 6 miles westward of Ras Kapar, and a short distance 
inland, is small, of darker color than the other hills in the locality, 
and has several little paps on the summit. 

Khur Barambab (Karwat River), about 9 miles westward of Ras 
Kapar, is small; it is the eastern boundary of the Gwadar territory. 
Shoal water extends from ^ mile to 1 mile off the coast between Ras 
Kapar and Sar. 

Sar, or Jabal Sar (Has Sur) (lat. 25° 13', long. 62° 28'), the 
northeastern point of Gwadar Bay, is a small, quoin-shaped white 



174 GWADAK BAY. 

clay hill, 560 feet high, with a vertical cliff facing eastward and rising 
steeply ; the isthmus connecting it to the mainland is low and sandy. 

Gwadar Bay (East Bay, or Demi zar). — The shore of Gwadar 
Bay from Sar trends west-southwestward and southward 12 miles 
to Gwadar. Promontory, and is low and sandy; it then trends east- 
ward 2^ miles to Ras Nuh. The bay is generally shallow, a flat of 
about 2 fathoms extending from IJ to 2 miles eastward from the 
isthmus. The deepest water is off Sar and Jabal Mahdi, and the 
5-fathom line from Ras Nuh trends toward the highest peak of 
Jabal Mahdi; westward of this line the water shoals regularly 
toward the flat, with sand bottom. 

The bay is well sheltered from southwesterly winds, but in the 
southwest monsoon the long low swell rounding Ras Nuh causes 
vessels to f^U heavily. During easterly winds communication with 
the shore is sometimes difficult, but these winds are rarely strong 
enough to endanger a vessel; a steamer at such a time might enter 
West Bay. 

Jabal Mahdi (i Mahdi) , on the northern side of the bay, about 
2 miles westward of Sar, the land between being low, is a precipi- 
tous white clay ridge about 4 miles long east and west, with vertical 
cliffs on its southern side, which rises abruptly from the plain. Its 
outline is very remarkable. The highest peak (lat. 25° 12', long. 62° 
25'), 1,375 feet high, is a sugar-loaf at the eastern end of the ridge; 
Asses Ears, 2 miles to the westward, is a curious double peak, 1,3G0 
feet high. From the eastward the ridge, and also Sar and Gwadar 
Head, appear isolated. 

The Kuh Daram range from about 13 miles northward of Sar 
decreases in height to the westward, and ends suddenly in the two 
Garr (Gar), great vertical steps, 1,550 feet high, which are situated 
about 20 miles west-northwestward of Sar, and are good marks. A 
wide plain extends from the foot of Kuh Daram to Jabal Mahdi, and 
from the Garr to the sea. In this .plain are some scattered villages, 
and much cultivation. 

Northward of the Kuh Daram range are the peaks of Kuh Saiji, 
3,260 feet high, part of a range extending east and west about 20 
miles inland. 

Gwadar Head is a rocky peninsula, the eastern extremity of 
which, Ras Nuh, bears 214°, distant 8^ miles from Sar; it is 7 miles 
long east and west, about 1 mile broad, and connected with the 
mainland by a low sandy isthmus 800 yards broad, on which stands 
Gwadar town, and on either side of which are Gwadar and West 
Bays. The headland is surrounded by cliffs, and slopes down from 
the highest bluff of 480 feet, which rises southward of the west 
coast of the isthmus. 



COASTS OF LAS BEILA AND MAKRAN. 175 

Bas Nub, (lat. 25° 06', long. 62° 23'), the eastern point of the 
headland, is a bluff 280 feet high, and on it stands a single tree, 
close to the cliff; it is conspicuous on westerly bearings, and, with 
its high white bluffs, appears like a quoinshaped island, but on 
northerly and northeasterly bearings it is not so noticeable, and 
appears a darker color against the land behind. 

Bandar Hairan, f mile south westward of Ras Nuh, is a small bay, 
where the cliffs are low and the beach sand, frequented by fishing 
boats. 

Ras Kamiti, the western point of the headland, is a cliff about 
70 feet high. A small white tomb on the southern edge of the cliff, 
about i mile eastward of Ras Kamiti, is conspicuous on northerly 
bearings when the sun is shining on it. 

Soundings. — ^The 10-fathom curve passes aT)out IJ miles eastward 
of Ras Nuh, and the same distance southward of Gwadar Head, and 
the 20-fathom curve trends from 3 miles southward of Ras Nuh to 
7 miles southward of Ras Kamiti; the 100-fathom curve is about 
7^ miles southward of Ras Nuh. In less than 10 fathoms the bottom 
is hard in places, but in greater depths it is mud. 

Spit. — A shoal rocky spit extends about 1,800 yards southward 
from a low rocky point about J mile southward of Ras Nuh ; there 
is a depth of 4 fathoms on its outer end, and from 6 to 10 fathoms 
close outside. 

The eastern peak of Jabal Madhi bearing 5° leads about 1 mile 
eastward of the spit, and the southern extremity of Gwadar head, 
285°, about 1 mile southward of it. From the westward do not 
shoal the water to less than 12 fathoms until Ras Nuh bears 350°, 
when steer north-northeastward until eastward of the ras. There 
is generally a ripple over the spit, and the sea breaks on it during 
the southwest monsoon. There is a depth of 5 fathoms 600 yards 
eastward of Ras Nuh. 

Boat harbor. — On the northern side of the head, IJ miles west- 
ward of Ras Nuh, there is a projecting cliffy point, within which 
is a small harbor where native vessels are laid up and boats shelter. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Gwadar Bay at about 
9h. 30m.; springs rise 8^ feet. The tidal currents are hardly per- 
ceptible ; off the head the current sets eastward during the flood, and 
westward during the ebb, tide. 

Directions. — From the eastward keep in depths of from 10 to 15 
fathoms, for even if hazy it would scarcely be possible to pass the 
head without seeing it. 

From the westward, in hazy weather, when nearing Gwadar Head, 
keep in depths of from 12 to 15 fathoms, which are about 2 miles 
southward of it, to avoid the spit off Ras Nuh. In approaching the 
head from the southward attention is necessary to the currents and 



176 GWADAB. 

• 

the position should be frequently obtained. When the whole of 
Jabal Madhi Kidge is open eastward of Ras Nuh, about 348° steer 
for the eastern peak of the ridge, and when off Ras Nuh turn north- 
ward until the telegraph office, a large block of buildings northward 
of the town, bears 262°. Anchor with the telegraph office bearing 
between 262° and 250°, as close in as the depth permits, both to fa- 
cilitate communication with the town and to obtain smooth water. 

If not bound to Owadar^ do not decrease the depth below 20 fath- 
oms when passing Gwadar Head in hazy weather. 

At night, especially, keep a good lookout for fishing boats and 
canoes with their nets. A vessel's blue light should be answered 
from the telegraph office, and a lantern hoisted on the flagstaff there. 

Gwadar^ until recently the principal town and port on the Makran 
coast, is situated on the sandy isthmus northward of Gwadar Head. 
It is a dirty place, and it is advisable for visitors to sleep on board 
their ships, as fever is prevalent amongst Europeans here. Most of 
the dwellings are mat huts, but a number of mud and stone houses, 
amongst which the Khojah mosque is conspicuous, are. clustered 
round a square fort with a high tower. There are a few date and 
banyan trees. The town (lat. 25° 07', long. 62° 19') and district are 
imder an Arab Wali of the Sultan of Maskat. The population was 
about 4,350 in 1903; the people are chiefly Meds, but the trade is 
carried on by Khojahs and Hindus. About 23 large native craft 
and 646 fishing boats belonged to the port in 1905. 

There are no jetties nor any convenience for landing goods, but 
native boats can be hired. 

Communieation. — The vessels of the British India Steam Navi- 
gation Co.'s subsidiary mail service between Bombay and Basra call 
at Gwadar fortnightly, both on the passage to and from the Persian 
Gulf. There is a British Indian post and telegraph office, which 
is situated in a building belonging to the Indo-European telegraph 
department, northward of the town. 

Supplies. — ^A few sheep are obtainable and also a small quantity 
of onions and potatoes. Rice, ghi, and other articles of native food 
can be procured; fish is abundant and good. Water of indifferent 
quality and in small quantity is obtainable from wells or by digging 
about 12 feet deep. There is no coal. 

Trade. — ^The trade of Gwadar has declined since 1905 ; the princi- 
pal exports were ghi, wool, goat's hair, hides, cotton, salt fish, fins, 
dates, pish leaves, and mats, and the imports cotton piece goods, silk, 
sugar, rice, iron, juari, and kerosene. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

COAST OF MAKRAN. 

GWADAR HEAD TO RAS AL KUH. 

(Lat. 25' 07', long. 62" 16', to lat. 25° 47', long. 57" 19'.) 

The coast between Gwadar and Ras al Kuh is low in places, with 
ranges of mountains some distance inland, but there are many high 
rocky points and hills iiear the sea. The country, though barren, is 
not absolutely desert. There are several villages or settlements, but 
no town of importance, and the population is scanty. 

.Navigation on this coast in the period of the southwest monsoon 
is much embarrassed by the land being constantly obscured by haze, 
and the only guide is the lead. When about 5 miles offshore, and in 
less than 10 fathoms water, it is often necessary to obtain the position 
by observations of the sun. 

The haze appears to begin about the end of April. In the north- 
east monsoon the weather is generally clear. 

Gwadar West Bay (Padi zar) , the entrance to which is between 
Eas Kamiti (lat. 25° 6', long. 62° 15') and Ras Pishkan, 9^ miles 
to the westward, is somewhat semicircular in shape, and extends 
northward about 8 miles. Shoal water extends about i mile south- 
westward from Ras Kamiti, but the northwestern extremity of the 
ras is steep-to: there are less than 3 fathoms nearly 2^ miles west- 
ward from Gwadar Isthmus. The isthmus, on which is the town, is 
the eastern shore of the bay, and thence the shore curves around 
northward and westward, continuing low to Kuh Tuzhdan, a small 
ridge of low hills on the shore northward of Ras Pishkan. A fort 
held and built by Gwadar Arabs in modem times stands near Kuh 
Tuzhdan. Khur Ankara, at the head of the bay, and 12 miles from 
Gwadar, is small ; near it the land is marshy. The shore of the bay 
trends westward and southward, and south-southeastward from Kuh 
Tuzhdan to Ras Pishkan, and within about 2^ miles from the ras 
are three little bays separated by two rocky points; shoal water ex- 
tends 2 miles off all the western shore. Garr Mountain, northward 
of the middle of the bay, is conspicuous. 

Bas Pishkan (PIshukan) (lat. 25° 05', long. 62° 05') is narrow, 
rocky cliffs about 20 feet hight ; a rocky spit, on which the sea breaks, 
extends 700 yards east-southeastward from it. There is a small vil- 

i77 



178 GWATAR BAY. 

lage (Pishukan) northward of the ras. Ras Pishkan is said to be 
the western limit of the Gwadar territory, but it is not settled. 

Soundings.— The 10-fathom curve passes IJ miles outside Ras 
Kamiti and 2^ miles outside Ras Pishkan. There are 8 fathoms 
water in the entrance to Gwadar West Bay, whence the depth de- 
creases gradually toward the shoals extending from the shores. 

Anchorage. — ^There is anchorage 2| miles oflFshore in 4 fathoms, 
sand, with Ras Kamiti bearing 198° and the telegraph office 90°; 
and, on the western side of the bay in 4 fathoms, with Ras Pishkan 
bearing 182° 3 miles. 

The <!;oast from Ras Pishkan trends westward about 12 miles, and 
is low; it then turns southward 4 miles, to Ras Gunz, and is a 
succession of rocky points of cliff with sand beaches between. 
Bandar Gunz (Ganz) is the bay thus formed; shoal water extends 
about 1 mile off its shores. Small vessels shelter in the bay in 3 to 4 
fathoms, about 1 mile offshore, in westerly winds. 

Ganz village, near the shore, about 4 miles northward of Ras Gunz, 
has 82 mat huts, and a population of about 400 (Meds). A small 
whitewashed mosque is the only permanent building. 

Ras Gunz (Ganz)^ the bluff eastern point of Katagar, is of 
light color, and about 200 feet high ; it is conspicuous from the west- 
ward, but not from the eastward. 

The coast of Katagar, a promontory about 454 feet high, trends 
westward from Ras Gunz 7^ miles to Ras Jiyuni, and is an almost 
unbroken line of cliffs, here and there fronted by a sandy beach. Ras 
Garnan, 2 miles eastward of Ras Jiyuni, is about 20 feet high, and. 
projects i mile southward beyond the line of the higher cliffs. 

Singular hills rise a short distance inland, having rugged peaks 
and pillars of clay; they extend nearly to the Dasht River, and 
northward of them is the great plain or valley of the Dasht. 

Sounding^s — Shoals. — The 10-fathom curve passes within 1 mile 
of Ras Gunz, and runs nearly parallel with the Katagar coast. Out- 
side this the water deepens regularly to the 100-fathom curve, which 
is 12 miles from the shore, but in less than 10 fathoms the bottom is 
very uneven and a 6-fathom patch was discovered 3^ miles south- 
eastward of Ras Jiyuni by the British naval vessel Sphinx , in Octo- 
ber, 1891. 

A shoal, with 2J fathoms water, rock and sand, lies about 1^ miles 
southeastward of Ras Jiyuni; it is of considerable extent east and 
west and there is a depth of 7 fathoms between it and the shore. 

Ras Jiyuni (Jinwri) (lat. 25° 00', long. 61° 42'), the eastern 
entrance point of Gwatar Bay, is a cliff about 100 feet high. A spit 
appears to dry about 200 yards off its western part. 

Gwatar Bay, the entrance to which is between Ras Jiyuni and Ras 
Fasta,'16 miles westward, extends about 8 miles to the northward. 



COAST OF MAKRAN. 179 

The eastern shore of the bay is cliffs for about 3J miles northward 
of Bas Jiyuni, after which it is sand with rocky hills a short dis- 
tance from the beach; the head of the bay is low, with several khurs 
and mangrove swamps extending some miles inland; the western 
shore is a succession of bluff points aiid sandy beaches rising to table 
hills. 

The hills near the eastern shore are of even outline, but a little 
farther back they are of fantastic shapes, and a remarkable pillar, 
one of the highest, is very conspicuous. Kuh Darabul, northw^ard of 
the middle of the bay, and 9 miles inland, is a detached table-topped 
hill about 500 feet high, with sloping sides. On the northwestern 
shore of the bay are several bluffs and points which terminate south- 
ward of Gwatar Village ; a low plain extends inland from the hills. 

Depths.— The depths in the bay are reported to be considerably 
less than those shown on the chart. The difference is slight off 
Gwatar Village, but considerable off Jiunri. 

Shoal. — ^A 2-fathom patch, with 6 fathoms water close northward 
and southward, lies 1 mile 276° from the northwestern part of Ras 
Jiyunij and a reef extends about ^ mile off the shore for 2^ miles 
iiorthward of this part of the ras. 

Ras Fasta^ the end of a detached ridge extending 6 miles west- 
ward along the coast, is a cliff 45 feet high, northward of which is a 
small bay, with from about 3 to 1^ fathoms water, mud bottom, 
resorted to by native craft for shelter; Castle Hill, 3| miles north- 
westward from the ras, is square, rocky, and 430 feet high ; its top, 
seen over the lower hills in front, resembles a fort. 

South Islet and North Islet, 1 mile eastward of Ras Fasta, are 
two small rocks situated close together on a reef about 400 yards in 
extent, off which foul ground extends 800 yards; the higher islet is 
108 feet high. There is said to be a channel with 4 fathoms water 
between the islets and the ras. 

The depths in the bay are regular, with mud bottom, decreasing 
from 6 fathoms at the entrance to 3 fathoms IJ miles off the head. 
The 5-fathom curve is about f mile off the shore westward of Jiunri 
Village, and the 3-f athom curve is about i mile off the western shore 
of the bay and Gwatar Village. 

Khur Dasht. — The entrance to this river lies about 5 miles west- 
ward of Khur Jiyuni, and on either side of it are low sandy shores 
on which the sea breaks during the southwest monsoon. The bar 
and breakers extend 1 mile southward from the shore. 

The passage over the bar is on the eastern side of the breakers, 
and a depth of 4 feet at low water can be obtained by keeping a 
sandhill covered with grass, situated near the shore on the western 
side of the river entrance in range with the third distant peak to the 
westward of Kuh Darabul range, bearing 338°. 



180 JIUNRI VILLAGE. 

Course should not be altered up the river until the sandy spit on 
the east bank is well clear of eastern extreme of Kuh DarabuL 
For the first two miles the river consists of two channels close to 
the banks. The eastern bank of the river should be followed. 

At from 10 to 11 miles from the entrance there is a caravan ford 
where the depth is only 2 feet, with a rise of from 2 to 3 feet. No 
villages or natives were observed until near the ford. 

Rivers. — Khur Jiyuni is the eastern creek at the head of Gwatar 
Bay; about 2 miles westward of it is Khur Dasht,,the mouth of 
the Dasht River, the largest river on this coast, running westward 
and south westward from its source eastward of Pan j shir through 
Dasht and the valley of Kej, and finally passing eastward of Kuh 
Darabul and entering the sea in the bay. The mouth of the river 
is about 400 yards wide, and flat sandy banks almost level with 
the sea. When the river is in flood the depth for 4 miles up is from 
2 to 3 J fathoms in the deepest places, and the width decreases to 
100 yards ; it is tidal for about 12 miles. 

The western large khur (Chil River), which enters the bay close to 
Qwatar village, is the mouth of two combined currents; it has a 
shallow bar, but is deep inside, and is tidal for some distance. After 
rain, the water is fresh some miles up the river. There are other 
small khurs around the head of the bay between the two described. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Gwatar Bay at 9 h. 
30m. ; springs rise 8^ feet. 

Jiunri Village (Jinwri) consists of two villages of mat huts, 
situated on low rocky cliffs on thg eastern shore of Gwatar Bay, 
about 2i miles northward of the ras, and a third village on the ras, 
with a population of about 450 (Meds). 

Gwatar Village (lat. 25° 09', long. 61*^ 29'), some 200 to 300 
mat huts, is situated near the khur above mentioned, where the in- 
habitants, mostly fishermen, keep their boats. Scarcely anything 
can be obtained either here or at Jiunri, and there is very little 
trade of any kind. 

Gwatar Flat. — There is a remarkable flat outside Gwatar Bay, 
which is a useful guide at night or in thick weather ; the 10-f athom 
curve is 10 miles, the 20-fathom curve 17 miles, and the 100-fathom 
curve 19 miles, south-southeastward of Ras Fasta. The bottom 
is of white clay, very tenacious and gritty. The evenness of the flat 
and of the bottom in the bay are probably due to silt brought down 
by the Dasht and other rivers. After heavy rain the water over the 
whole flat becomes discolored, and much driftwood is seen. 

The coast from Ras Fasta trends west-northwestward 15 miles to 
Ras Bris; for about 6 miles from Ras Fasta it is cliffs; then there is 
a gap of about 2 miles with a low shore, where the beach falls back 
a. little, and for the remaining 7 miles it is vertical level white cliffs 



GWADAR TO BAS AL KUH. 181 

about 200 feet high. Shoal water commences off the shore about 
3 miles westward of Eas Fasta and increases in width to about 1 
mile off Has Bris. 

Shoal. — ^A patch, with 4J fathoms water, lies 1^ miles 218° from 
Sas Fasta. 

Has Bris (lat. 25° 08', long. 61° 10') is the western extremity of 
the white cliffs. Northeastward of Ras Bris, and detathed from the 
.sea cliffs is a range of high white clay hills with very remarkable 
peaks. The ras, with the jagged range behind, is remarkable. 

The coast turns north-northeastward 2 miles from Kas Bris and 
then westward 32 miles to Chahbar Point. In the bay northward of 
Ras Br 3 is Bris, a small fishing village. Anchorage has been ob- 
tained in 5 fathoms sand in the middle of the bay, from which the 
water shoals gradually to the shore. 

The northern shore of Bris Bay Is low and sandy, and thence the 
coast continues low to Siya (Siyah) Kuh, about 1,000 feet high, dark, 
round, and close to the sea, with cliffs to seaward, which lies 18 miles 
westward from Ras -Bris. The 5-fathom curve from Ras Bris to 
about 3 miles from Siya Kuh appears to be about IJ nliles offshore, 
but 6 fathoms have been obtained ^ mile off Ras Bris. 

Kochu, a village 11 miles westward of Bris, now consists of only 
four huts. There is a large village on the coast IJ miles east-south- 
eastward of Siya Kuh. 

Kinj (Kinj Dap) River is a small water course issuing through a 
gap in the coast hills westward of Siya Kuh, where there are a few 
date trees; it is probably usually completely blocked by sand, but 
heavy rains in the interior open it at intervals. Westward of the 
river are rocky hills, with cliffs, gradually decreasing in height 
toward Chahbar Point. Inland of these coast hills is a vast plain 
extending many miles westward. 

Mountains. — Khaki (Kaki) Kuh, northeastward of Siya Kuh 
and 9 miles inland, is 2,030 feet high. The range extends some miles 
and presents a vertical face southward ; it has a deeply indented out- 
line and from the westward shows a double peak, with a bluff to the 
southeastward ; being white clay it shows clearly when the sun shines 
on it. The high land near the eastern side of Chahbar Bay, with 
cliffs nearly 1,000 feet high at the northern end, is detached from 
other hills. 

Soundings. — The 10-fathom curve is about 3 miles, the 20-fathom 
curve 8 miles, and the 100-fathom curve 12 miles south-southwest- 
ward of Ras Bris. Southward of Siya Kuh, the 10-fathom curve is 
IJ miles, the 20-fathom curve 4 miles, and the 100-fathom curve 8 
miles offshore. The 10-fathom curve is 1 mile, the 20-fthom curve 
2i miles, and the 100-fathom curve 10 miles southward of Chahbar 
Point. In depths greater than 10 fathoms the bottom is mud. 



182 CHAHBAR BAY, 

Chahbar Point (lat. 25° 17', long. 60^^36') is low and rocky, with 
small sand hills, and on it is a small square tomb with a white dome. 
A reef extends westward 600 yards, and foul ground 200 yards 
farther, from the point. 

Chahbar Bay, the entrance to which is between Chahbar Point 
and Ras Kuhlab, 7^ miles to the westward, extends northward 10 
miles. The shores on both side are rocky, with cliffs in places until 
about 4 miles inside the entrance ; the remainder is low and swampy. 
A range of mountains runs parallel with the. coast 8 miles inland; 
one of its summits is the conspicuous Q,u(Hn Peak, 2,400 feet high, 
situated 20 miles 344° from Chahbar Point, and, about 10- miles 
284° from Quoin Peak, is a sharp spiked peak, which is noticeable 
on northeasterly bearings. 

The telegraph station, a yellow building, stands on a sand hill to 
the southward of the town. A large white mosque, which is con- 
spicuous, stands at the northern end of the town. The post office is 
in the telegraph station. 

Depths. — There is a depth of 8 fathoms, sand and shells, in the 
entrance to Chahbar Bay, and the depth decreases regularly to 5 
fathoms 5^ miles to the northward, whence it gradually shoals to the 
head of the bay. A rocky bank, with IJ to 2 fathoms water, extends 
3 miles northwestward from Tiz Point. There are depths of 3 fath- 
oms generally about 2 miles off the northern and western shores of 
the bay, northward of the 270- foot cliff. ' 

The shore from Chahbar Point trends northeastward 1 mile and 
then turns northward and north-northwestward 3^ miles to Tiz 
Point, forming a small bay, at the head of which stands Chahbar 
town. 

The southern side of this small bay is partly bordered by a reef, 
an J is shoal with foul bottom for J mile from the shore, northeast- 
^-^ard to a small clump of date trees near where there is a fort in 
ruins. Northward of these trees the beach is sand. 

About I mile northeastward of Chahbar town is a high table- 
land, the southeastern side of which is 840 feet high, and almost 
precipitous in places. The shore of the bay from above IJ miles 
northward of the town to Tiz Point is clilts 150 feet high, rising 
steeply to the tableland. The cliffs turn inland northeastward of 
Tiz Point, and become the southern side of a large valley, on the 
northern side of which higher hills trend eastward and leave the 
shore of the bay low and swampy. 

In the vffiley northward of Tiz Point, about 1 mile from the sea, is 
Tiz Village, a mud fort with a few huts, a few trees, and some culti- 
vation. At the entrance to the valley is a small hill, on which is a 
fort, and, fronting it, a shallow lagoon, which is entered by fishing 
boats at high water. From Tiz the shore is low and swampy around 



COAST OF MAKRAN. 183 

the head of the bay. Khur Namak, 6 miles from Tiz, becomes a 
small river after rain. 

Ras Kuhlaby the eastern end of Kuhlab Promontory, is low cliffs ; 
there is a depth of 3 fathoms 400 yards, and of 5 fathoms } mile, 
eastward of it ; from the ras the cliffs increase in height, and trend 
northwestward 2 miles and northeastward 1 mile to a cliffy point 
270 feet high ; the cliffs then trend westward 2 miles, when the shore 
turns northward and northeastward to the head of the bay, and is 
low. Kunarak Village is situated on the western shore of the bay 
about 2 J miles northwestward of the 270-foot cliff; there is a con- 
spicuous tree southward of the village. There is a small village on 
the cliffs southward of the 270-foot cliff, but it is not visible from 
seaward. 

Light. — A fixed white light, elevated 10 feet above high water, 
visible 6 miles, is exhibited from the roof of the telegraph office at 
Chahbar. For the arc of visibility, see Light list and chart. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage off the town in about 4 fathoms, 
sand, with the tomb on Chahbar Point bearing 170°, and the mosque 
110°; native vessels anchor in 2 fathoms about i mile offshore. 
During the southwest monsoon, when a heavy south-southeasterly 
swell has been rolling into the bay, sheltered anchorage, with no 
swell, has been obtained about 2.1 miles, 32°, from the 270-foot cliff 
on the western side of the bay. There is good anchorage on the 
western side of the bay during a shamal. 

Prohibited anchorage. — In order to avoid fouling the telegraph 
cable, vessels are prohibited from anchoring to the southward of a 
line drawn 270° from the large white mosque. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, 
in Shahbar Bay at 9 h. 30 m. ; springs rise 9 feet. The tidal currents 
in the bay are scarcely perceptible. 

Directions. — The two entrance points, being of light color, are 
not easily distinguished at night, and the 20-f athom curve is distant 
about 2 miles from them, but the light on the telegraph office is a 
guide; approach must be made with caution. Pass not less than 
1,400 yards westward of Chahbar Point to avoid the spit off it. 

Chahbar Town. — Chahbar was taken from the Baluchis by the 
Arabs at the end of the eighteenth century, and held by them until 
dispossessed in 1872 by the Persians. The town, with Tiz Village, 
has been made over to a tributary local chief by the Persians. The 
telegraph station (lat. 25° 17', long. 60° 37') is a fine building 
about i mile southward of the town ; it can be seen from the south- 
eastward. There is a garrison, and barracks consisting of three 
large one-storied buildings near the telegraph station. The chief 
officer of customs is in charge of the place. The population is about 



184 PAZIM BAY. 

3,000, chiefly Baluchis, who are mostly fishermen, or employed in 
native dhows by which the small trade of the place is carried on. 
There are no roads and no trade with inland towns. 

Near the town are gardens with many fruit trees and a few date 
palms, extending i mile inland. At a short distance northeastward 
of the town is a mosque with a white dome, conspicuous from sea- 
ward. 

Climate. — Northwesterly and northeasterly winds prevail at 
Chahbar, but during the southwest monsoon in the Indian Ocean 
south-southeasterly winds of some strength are common by day, but 
fall light at night. These winds cause a heavy sea to break all round 
the shores of the bay, except. at the town, which is sheltered. Sha- 
mals are fairly frequent in winter. The prevalence of south-south- 
easterly winds renders Chahbar much more suitable to European 
than almost any other place in, or near, the entrance to the Per- 
sian Gulf. 

Trade. — ^The trade of Chahbar is insignificant. The exports are 
ghi, moong, fins, pish leaves and seeds, mats, wool, goats' hair, hides^ 
gelatine, and barley; and the imports are cotton piece goods^ rice, 
juari, sugar, etc. 

Supplies. — Water is scarce and brackish. Sheep and bullocks 
(which are said to be better than those obtainable at Maskat) can 
be procured from the country, but with some delay, also vegetables, 
fish, etc. There is no coal. 

Com mimication. — ^The vessels of the British Indian St^am Navi- 
gation Company's subsidiary mail service between Bombay and 
Basra call" at Chahbar fortnightly, both ways. There is telegraphic 
communication with all ports. 

The territory from Chahbar to Sadaich River, 100 miles to the 
westward, is under the Chief of Geh, who also rules over the Bahu 
and Dashtiyari districts, and is tributary to Persia. There are sev- 
eral villages near the coast and some cultivation; large numbers of 
camels are bred, and flocks of sheep and goats are maintained wher- 
ever pasture is available. 

The coast from Ras Kuhlab trends west-northwestward 11 miles 
to Ras Pazim, increasing in height from near Ras Kuhlab. It may 
be approached to 1 mile. 

Has Pazim (Puzim) (lat. 25° 19', long. 60° 17') is a cliff about 
300 feet high. There is a depth of 3 fathoms 1 mile oflP and around 
the point, outside which there are depths of from 6 to 8 fathoms. 

Pazim Bay, the entrance to which is between Ras Pazim and 
Ras Rashidi, 5 miles to the* westward, extends 3 miles northward 
by the chart,, but it is reported to extend farther northward; its 
shores within the points are low sand. The bay has 5 fathoms 
water in the entrance, whence the depth decreases to the shore. 



GWADAK HEAD TO RAS AL KUH. 185 

Northward of and sheltered by Ras Pazim is Puzim, a little fishing 
village, and on the western side are a few huts on the sandy isthmus 
northward of Has Rashidi* A large creek (Sir^an^River) enters the 
northeastern part of the bay, and Kair River, which flows from the 
town of Geh, more than 50 miles inland, enters the bay about 1^ miles 
northward of Ras Rashidi;^its mouth is a salt-water creek. Kair 
village and district, where there is much cultivation, are on the right 
bank of this river, about 4 miles inland. 

Anchorage can be obtained in about 4 fathoms water off Puzim 
Village, and also on the western side of the bay. 

Baklang Bock (lat. 25° 17', long. 60° 13'), oflF the entrance to 
Pazim Bay, and 2^ miles, 137°, from Ras Rashidi, is about 100 yards 
in extent, and dries; there are depths of 5 to 6 fathonls water close 
around, and the rock, when covered, does not show with smooth 
water. The low brown hills northeastward of Ras Tank half their 
width open southward of the west cliff of Rashidi promonotory leads 
directly over the rock ; in clear weather, Bir Peak will then be seen 
in the gap between these marks, the northeastern of the two highest 
peaks being in line with Rashidi Promonotory west cliff, and three 
peaks only being visible. From outside the rock, a fourth peak is 
open southward of Rashidi Promontory. 

The 10-fathom curve is about 3 miles, the 20-f athom curve 6 miles, 
and the 100- fathom curve 8 miles southward of Baklang Rock. There 
is a depth of 14 fathoms 4J miles southward of the rock, and east- 
ward or westward of this position are depths of from 18 to 19 
fathoms. At night, do not approach Baklang Rock to less than 
20 fathoms. 

Bfts Bashidi is the eastern end of a promontory, the coast of 
which trends westward 5 J miles. There is a depth of 4 fathoms J 
mile southward of the ras. The promontory is 150 feet high, table- 
topped, and nearly level, but almost inacessible on all sides; it is 
1 mile broad, and the land northward of it is low and sandy. 

The western point of the promontory is somewhat higher than Ras 
Rashidi, and is also a vertical cliff. The bay between the western 
point of Rashidi Promontory and Ras Tank, lOJ miles to the west- 
ward, extends northward nearly 2 miles, and the shore is low sand 
hills. 

A small group of brown hills lies 4 miles northeastward of Ras 
Tank, with some date palms and a f^w large trees to the westward, 
and is a good mark. 

Tank Village lies about 3 miles up a large creek, a branch of Kair 
River, which enters the sea close eastward of Ras Tank. The river 
bar is shallow but is sheltered by the ras ; there is deep water inside, 
where the creek is i mile wide. The river flows from the northeast- 
ward, and close inside the shore sand hills, until near its mouth. 

173608°— 20 13 



. I 



1 



186 KUH KALAT. 

Fishing boats from M askat trade with the village, and also with the 
people from the interior; they bring dates, cotton cloth, etc., and 
return with pish^. ghi, etc. 

Aspect. — The great plain continues inland of Pazim and Rashidi 
Promontories for about 12 miles, where mountains, part of the range 
seen from Chahbar, run nearly parallel with the coast. In front of 
these are some lower hills, one of which, Kuh Milin, 6 miles inland, 
is conical. 

Has Tank (lat. 25° 20', long. 59° 53') is a rocky promontory 1 
mile long east and west, with sand hills about 30 -feet high; it project 
about 1 mile from the coast, and the isthmus between is sand and 
50 yards broad. 

The south ijoast of Ras Tank may be approached to a distance of 
4 mile, or to a depth of 7 fathoms; shoal water extends eastward 
from the promontory, where there is a depth of 4 fathoms at the dis- 
tance of a mile. The little bay on the western side is shallow, and 
shoal water extends about 2 miles westward from the western point 
of the promontory. 

Soundings. — ^The 100-fathom curve is 6 miles southward of Ras 
Tank, and at night the ras should not be approached to less than 30 
fathoms; it should be given a wide berth, as the lead gives little 
warning. 

The coast from Ras Tank trends west-northwestward 3 miles and 
is cliffy ; it then turns westward 14 miles to Makki bluff, and is low. 
Hamadan (Humdan) Village and grove lie on the banks of a creek 3J 
miles eastward of Makki Bluff. • 

Makki Bluff is about 100 feet high ; the coast in the vicinity is re- 
ported to be incorrectly charted, and should be approached with 
caution (1911). 

Kuh Kalat is a great range of white clay cliffs of striking outline; 
its extremity is about 11 miles northward of Ras Tank, and it ex- 
tends westward some 20 miles. A vertical cliff, 650 feet high, and 
conspicuous from the southeastward, rises about 4 miles from the 
eastern end of the range. Bir, the summit, is a sharp double peak, 
1,680 feet high. A remarkable single spiked peak, about 1,350 feet 
high, lies about 3^ miles southwestward from Bir. Bearing 41° 
from a distance of 33 miles they present themselves as a group of 
three conical peaks, and form a good landmark. It is reported 
that the Kuh Kalat range extends east and west from the single 
spiked peak, Bir peak being isolated. 

The inland range of mountains from northward of Ras Tank be- 
comes lower and less conspicuous to the westward. 

Discolored water has been observed off the coast from Ras Tank 
westward to Ras Jagin; it depends on the water brought down by 



COAST Ot MAKKAN. 187 

the creeks, and is carried along the coast by the tidal currents. The 
edge of the discoloration should not be taken as a guide to the depth, 
* as its distance from the shore constantly varies. 

The coast from Makki Bluff trends northwestward 8 miles and 
then turns west-south westward 21 miles to Bas Maidani; it is low 
and sandy, with creeks and backwaters inside. Khur Doruk 
(Darak) is about 6 miles northwestward of Makki Bluff, and there 
is anchorage in 2^ fathoms J mile offshore. 

Khur Galag (Kaur Galag) (lat. 25° 27', long. 59° 23'), about 11 
miles west-northwestward of Makki Bluff, is the entrance to Rapch 
River, which has a course from the interior of over 100 miles. The 
entrance points are about 1 foot high, and there is a small village 
about 1 mile in on the left bank; here there are a few palm trees, 
and the natives are friendly. The bar, on which there is always 
a surf, extends about IJ miles off the khur, and the channel over 
it trends northwestward, and has a depth of about IJ fathoms. 
The river nearly dries, but there is a depth of about 3 feet off the 
western entrance point, where is the best landing with westerly 
winds. Dhows occasionally enter at half tide; they take sheep and 
goats, which are brought from the interior, to Maskat. The tidal 
rise appears to be about 9 feet. 

There is anchorage in 5 fathoms 2^ miles, 170°, from the en- 
trance ; the water seems to shoal quickly from 5 to 2 fathoms. The 
tops only of the palm trees at the village can be seen from the west- 
ward, the lower parts being obscured by sand hills; on northerly to 
westerly bearings the trees are noticeable. 

The best way to enter the river is to approach the eastern shore 
till the river is well open, and then steer direct to the western en- 
trance point, keeping close to- the breakers to the westward. The 
condition of the entrance may be subject to change. 

Khur Babij (Kaur Bapch) 8 miles westward of Khur Galag, is 
the entrance to a large tidal backwater, in which there is a channel 

with from 6^ to 1| fathoms water, but is otherwise encumbered with 
flats of mud and sand. The entrance to the khur is about 600 yards 
wide, but it is fronted for about IJ miles by a bar, which has a depth 
of 3 feet, and breaks at low water. 

The entrance points are low Sand hills, and there is a beacon sur- 
mounted by a triangle on Eas el Khur, the eastern point; close 
southward of the beacon is a heap. To enter the khur approach the 
bar as close as possible with the beacon, or heap, in range with the 
eastern edge of Korat el Usif (80 feet), 349° ; then steer 334°, across 
the bar, looking out for breakers to the eastward. When inside the 
bar, steer to pass 200 yards off a fuzzy bush on Eas el Khur. Then 
steer to the western shore, along which the water is deep to abreast a 



188 SADAICH BIYER. 

low sandy spit, projecting from the eastern shore. Landing can be 
made near the fuzzy bush or on the low sandy spit. 

The country near the khur is desert, and the khur appears to be 
of no importance, being only used by fishing boats. Inland of Khur 
Babij is the Karwan district, where there are several villages and 
groves of date palms. 

Anchorage has been obtained in 4^ to 4f fathoms, sand, about 2| 
miles southward of the entrance. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Khur Rabij at 10 h. 
10 m. ; springs rise 9^ feet, neaps 6:^ feet. 

The coast from Khur ^abij trends west-southwestward 7 miles to 
Has Maidani, and is low. 

Shoal water of less than 3 fathoms extends about 1^ miles off it, 
and the 10- fathom curve is distant from 4 to 5 miles. 

Has Maidani (Maidani) (lat. 25° 23', long. 59° 07') is white 
cliffs, 155 feet high, which extend westward about 3 miles, whence 
the coast is low and sandy, with small pushes for 2 miles farther 
westward. The hills, which terminate in the cliffs, are about 200 
feet high, table topped, and brown in color. Westward of the cliffs 
and a short distance inland is a large date grove. 

The coast from 5 miles westward of Ras Maidani trends north- 
westward 9 miles, and then turns westward 13 miles to Sadaich 
River ; it is low. Passing northward of the hills near Ras Maidani, 
the great coast plain continues westward about 60 miles. 

Shoal. — The shoal water which extends 1^ miles off Ras Maidani 
continues off the coast 10 miles westward and northwestward; it 
attains its greatest breadth of 3 miles about 5 miles westward of the 
ras, where it has depths of from 1 to 2 fathoms; the 20- fathom 
curve is 3 miles to the southward, and the 100-fathom curve about 5 
miles off the coast. Caution is necessary in navigating along this 
coast, especially at night ; the soundings off the shoal water are very 
little guide. 

Landing. — Good landing can be obtained in a little bay formed 
by a small rocky point about 8 miles eastward of Sadaich River. 

Kuh Gukardi, about 2 to 4 miles inland, 6 miles eastward" of 
Sadaich River, has three principal conical peaks, the northern and 
highest being 490 feet high. There aye some rocks, from 20 to 50 feet 
high, on the plain, about 5 miles eastward of these hills. 

Sadaich River is a tidal creek with a shallow bar and swampy 
ground near its mouth ; its course beyond the mountains has not been 
explored. 

There is not suflScient water on the bar at the low water for a boat 
to cross and there is very little water inside; probably the entrance 
is subject to change. A trade is carried on by small craft from Mas- 



COAST OF MAKRAN. 189 

kat ; here they load with mats, salt fish, etc. Shoal water extends 
about 2 miles off the river, arid the coast for 10 miles to the eastward. 

On the banks of the river, some distance inland, is Sadaich district, 
with a village, date groves, and some cultivation. 

Bashakird; the country westward of the Sadaich, is very moun- 
tainous, but little is known of it; Biyaban Plain, between the coast 
and the mountains, is narrow. 

The coast range extends from Quoin Mountain, 2,120 feet high, 
which is situated 20 miles northeastward of the entrance to Sadaich 
River, and has a great valley on its western side, westward toward 
Jashk; the height of the peaks varies from 1,400 to 2,540 feet. 

Jabal Shahu/ 6,220 feet high, situated 36 miles north-northwest- 
ward of the entrance to Sadaich River, is the summit of an inland 
range; it appears a J most detached, and on northwesterly bearings its 
eastern side shows a great bluff, the top sloping westward, but on 
easterly bearings it has a rounded form. 

Suraf 9 a range of white sand hills, about 100 feet high and without 
vegetation, extends 6 miles westward along the beach from Sadaich 
River. Water is found by digging in the hollows of these sandhills. 

The coast from Suraf sand hills trends westward 25 miles to Ras 
Jagin ; it is very low, with mangrove swamps and numerous creeks. 
The creek (lat. 25° 36', long. 58° 34') immediately westward of the 
sandhills affords shelter for boats; it has about 2 feet water on the 
bar, and 6 to 8 feet a short distance inside, the banks being about 6 
feet high and steep-to. The other creeks are also visited by boats 
for firewood and fish ; they are mouths of streams from the Bashakird 
Mountains, the Gabrig and Jagin Rivers being the principal. 

Gabrig River (Gabrig) entrance is 11^ miles westward of Suraf 
sand hills, and shoal water extends about 2 miles off the coast be- 
tween Sadaich River and it. There is an isolated sand hill covered 
with scrub 1 J miles westward of the entrance, and a conspicuous tree 
on a sand hill 6^ miles eastward of it. The boat channel is at the 
eastern end of the bar, and has 1 foot water. Anchorage can be 
obtained in 5 fathoms water 2 miles offshore, but the depth decreases 
quickly from 5 to 2 fathoms inshore. 

A northeasterly current has been experienced between the mouth 
x)f the river and Ras Jagin. 

Soundings. — Between Ras Maidani and Ras Jagin the depths are 
regular; the 100-fathom curve is about 18 miles southward of the 
coast westward of Suraf sand hills, shoaling to 20 fathoms at 5 
miles, and to 3 fathoms at 2 miles, but near Ras Jagin the water 
is deeper. 

Sas Jagin (Jagin) is very low, rounded, and sandy ; the mouth 
of Jagin River is close eastward of the ras; a sandy spit, which 
dries, extends i mile southwestward from the ras, around which 



190 JASHK EAST BAY. 

the 3-fathom curve is distant about 1 mile; it is probable that the 
configuration of the point alters after heavy rains or storms. There 
are from 18 to 20 fathoms within 1 mile of the spit, so the lead is 
scarcely any guide in passing it, and caution is necessary. Inland 
of Bas Jagin is a mangrove swamp, with a plain extending to the 
hills. As this point is difficult to make out, do not be misled as to 
the distance from it by the appearance of the distant hills. The 
100- fathom curve is 5 miles off Ras Jagin, which therefore requires 
a wide berth'^.t night. 

Jashk East Bay. — The coast from Ras Jagin trends northwest- 
ward 12 miles and then turns west-southwestward lOJ miles to Cape 
Jashk (lat. 25° 38', long. 57° 46'), Jashk East Bay, the bay between 
having deep water, there being 20 fathome about 2 to 3 miles, and, 
towards Cape Jashk, 100 fathoms 3 miles from the shore. 

The northeastern shore of the bay is low, the sandy beach drying 
upward of J mile off the creeks. Khur Lash, 8 miles northwest- 
ward of Ras Jagin, is large. At the head of the bay, the hills 
approach within 1 mile of the shore, and the coast range ends here 
in Kuh Ushadan (Gazdan), a ridge of white chiffs, 1,720 feet high, 
which, on easterly bearing, is quoin shaped, There is a village with 
a few date trees between it and the sea. The northwestern shore of 
the bay is rocky, about 14 feet hi^h, and level, with a sandy beach, 
scattered rocky ledges, and low cliffs in places. 

Beacon. — A stone beacon, 30 feet high and painted black and 
white in horizontal stripes, stands on the shore near the cable house, 
i mile eastward of Cape Jashk. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage, somewhat sheltered in westerly 
winds, close off the northwestern shore of the bay, in from 6 to 8 
fathoms. The bay is open to the southeastward, and there is 
generally a light surf on the beach, which becomes heavy during the 
southwest monsoon in the Indian Ocean, although there may be only 
a slightly perceptible ground swell. 

The anchorage is open to a winter easterly gale. In a shamal the 
wind is westerly, and the anchorage is said then to be good, but 
much swell rolls round the cape, making a vessel very uneasy. For 
telegraphic notice of a shamal. 

Near Cape Jashk a good position is with the stone beacon bearing 
286°, distant 1 mile, in about 5 fathoms water. 

Telegraph cables. — To avoid fouling the telegraph cables on 
the east side of Cape Jashk, vessels are cautioned not to anchor to the 
southward of the line of the beacon near the cable house, bearing 
270° ; nor eastward of the line of the same beacon in range with con- 
spicuous tree, bearing 46?. 

Landing. — The best landing place is on the sandy beach between 
the beacon and the cliffs to the eastward! 



GWADAK HEAD TO RAS AL KUH. 191 

Cape Jashk (Maksa) is low and projecting; there is a small 
tomb, 15 feet above high water, on its extremity. 

Jashk Bay. — ^The coast from Cape Jashk trends northward ^ 
mile, when.it turns east-northeastward and northward 3^ miles to 
the entrance of Jashk Creek, and is sand hills from 10 to 20 feet 
high ; it then trends northwestward 4 miles, and is sand hills. 

The bay northward of Cape Jashk affords shelter from easterly 
winds northwestward of the telegraph buildings in any required 
deptl), partially sheltered from southerly winds by the flat extending 
from the cape apd by Mason Shoal. 

Light. — A fixed white light is exhibited from the southern tower 
of the telegraph buildings, and should be seen from a distance of 
12 miles. The light is visible over an arc of 225°, but it will be 
directed to the eastward or westward as required, when arranged for 
by signal or telegraph to the superintendent of telegraphs, Jashk. 

Shoals. — A flat, 1 mile broad, with depths of 2J and 3 fathoms, 
extends 2 miles west-northwestward from Cape Jashk (lat. 25° 38', 
long. 57° 46'), and affords some slight shelter to the anchorage. 

Buoy. — A red can buoy, surmounted by a cage, is moored on the 
northern side of the flat. 

Clearing marks. — ^The south tower of the telegraph buildings 
just open westward of the north tower, 149°, leads eastward of the 
northern part of the flat. These marks lead to the inner anchorage. 

Mason Shoal^ 3 miles west-southwestward of Cape Jashk, is 1,600 
yards long north and south and i mile .broad, within the 3-f athom 
curve; it has a least depth of 2f fathoms, coarse sand and shells; 
there are depths of from 8 to 10 fathoms close to its southern side. 
There is a channel IJ miles wide, with from 3J to 7 fathoms, between 
it and Cape Jashk flat. 

Anchorages. — There is convenient anchorage, but open to sha- 
mals, for vessels of not more than 16 feet draft in 3^ fathoms water, 
with Cape Jashk bearing 175°, and a conspicuous tree 85°, 1,800 
yards from the beacon ; and farther out in 4J fathoms with the cape 
.bearing 156°, 2J miles. 

Warning of the approach of a shamal can often be obtained at 
the telegraph office, where information is received at the beginning 
of ^ shamal at Abu Shahr (Bushire) ; it may be expected at Jashk 
about three days later. 

Directions. — From the southward and eastward, bring Cape 
Jashk to bear 0°, 1^ miles, then steer 312° until the cape bears 109°, 
then steer 0° until a conspicuous tree, about 2 miles northeastward 
of the telegraph building, bears 96° ; then steer westward, passing 
northward of the buoy, to the anchorage required. This route has 
a least depth of 3f fathoms. 



192 JASHK VILLAGE. 

The western extremity of Jabal Dangiya, bearing 354°, is said to 
lead between the shoals off Cape Jashk and Mason SUoal. 

Tides.^ — ^It is high water, full and change, in Jashk Bay at 9 h. 
30 m. ; springs rise 9 feet. The tidal currents oflf the coast between 
Cape Jashk and Eas al Kuh set westward during the rising and 
eastward during the ebb tide; the currents are weak near Cape 
Jashk, but the velocity increases toward E-as al Kuh. 

Sotmdings. — ^The 100-fathom curve is 2^ miles southward of 
Cape Jashk, and the 10-fathom curve is about IJ miles from the 
cape. 

Jashk Vmage (lat. 25° 38', long. 57° 46'), which is of consider- 
able size, extends 1 mile northeastward along the shore of the bay 
from i mile northeastward of the cape. 

The telegraph buildings, about 80() yards northeastward of the 
cape, are three fine flat-roofed blocks, the north and south blocks 
having conspicuous square towers ; a flag is flown from the flagstaff, 
80 feet high, near the office, and a vessel's blue light at night would 
be answered. 

The British India Steam Navigation Co.'s office arid flagstaff are 
between the telegraph buildings and a fort, 600 yards northeast- 
ward. 

Landing. — ^There is good landing within a rocky point (lat. 25° 
38', long. 57° 46') northward of the telegraph buildings. 

Supplies. — ^The best water is from wells about 1 mile northeast- 
ward of the telegraph buildings and near some conspicuous date 
groves; the larger water tank, erected on posts near the well and 
roofed in, is noticeable. There is a supply of rain water stored in 
reservoirs near the telegraph buildings. 

Bread and meat can be obtained, but no vegetables; fish is plen- 
tiful. There is no coal. 

Communication. — The vessels of the British India Steam Navi- 
gation Co.'s subsidiary mail service between Bombay and Basra 
call at Jashk fortnightly, both on the passage to and from the gulf. 
"Lloyd^s signal station. — There is a Lloyd's signal station at 
Jashk; it is under the direction of the Indo-European Telegraph 
Co. Communication can be made by the International code. No 
lookout, however, is kept and vessels desiring to communicate must 
attract attention by steam siren or otherwise. 

Telegraph. — There is telegraphic communication with all parts 
and at all hours. • ^ 

Jashk Creek. — Dry sands extend nearly 4 mife off the mouth of 
this creek, but there is a channel with IJ feet water through them ; 
the water is deeper inside and the creek, which has a winding course 
of about 4 miles, is used by native boats; the land in the vicinity 
is a mangrove swamp. 



COAST OF MAKRAN. 193 

Jashk fort, 6| miles northward of the small tomb, is in a ruinous 
state, with a few houses and date trees near it, and a range of white 
sandhills to the southeastward. It stands 1 mile inland, and is not 
noticeable from seaward. There are about 200 men here, all culti- 
vators and herdsmen. 

The coast from about 4 miles northwestward of Jashk Creek 
trends westward 24 miles to Ras al Kuh ; it is low sand, with tufts of 
gra^ and several shallow creeks, connecting at times with the sea, 
and mangrove swamps inside. At some distance inland are many 
date groves. ' ^ 

Khur Hamad, the most imJ)ortant of the creeks, 8 miles eastward 
of -Ras al Kuh, is used by native boats ; it leads into Gangan River. 

Aspect. — Several prominent mountains and hills in this locality 
are visible from seaward long before the coast. Jabal Dangiya 
(Quoin Hill), 12i miles, 348°, from Cape Jashk, is 1,630 feet high, 
and isolated; its western side is a great bluff, which shows well 
against the land behind, except on easterly bearings, when it is less 
conspicuous; there is a great valley between it and Kuh Ushadan. 
Jabal Bahmadi, the summit of which, situated 7 miles northwest- 
ward of Jabal Dangiya, is 3,100 feet high, is separated from Jabal 
Dangiya by a gap with precipitous sides ; it has a long westerly slope 
and a very serrated outline. On its southern slope, 3f miles west- 
northwestward of Jabal Dangiya, is a natural pillar of rock. From 
Jabal Bahmadi the moulitains trend north-northwestward, with a 
valley between them and the coast ranges. 

Jabal Khur Hamad, 9 miles westward of Jabal Dangiya, and 4 
miles inland, is a ridge extending 2 miles westward, about 300 feet 
high, with cliflFs on its southern side: 

Soundings. — ^The 100-f athom curve is about 14 miles off the coast 
about midway between Cape Jashk and Ras al Kuh, but southward 
of Ras al Kuh it is distant 6J miles: 

The water is shoal off the coast, the 3-f athom curve being about 
IJ miles distant from it. 

Oahha shoal (lat. 25° 42', long. 57° 28'), a small IJ-f athom 
patch, with soft bottom and 13 fathoms around, lies 3 miles off- 
shore, and 16 J miles, 285°, from Cape Jashk. 

A patch, with 10 fathoms water, lies 2 miles, 169°, from the shoal. 
When navigating between Cape Jashk and Ras al Kuh, do not de- 
crease the depth to less than 27 fathoms in the vicinity of Gahha 
shoal. 

Caution. — From the extreme shallowness of the water bordering 
this coast, as well as the presence of Gahha Shoal, great caution is 
necessary when near it, the land being so low that an error in judg- 
ing distance from it is both possible and probable. 



•1 
.« 



194 HAS AL KUH. 

Bas al Kuh (Kuh) (lat 25° 47', long. 57° 19') is very low, and 
the 3-fathom curve is about i mile oflF it; here the coast turns north- 
ward. The coast is a sand beach with tufts of grass, and the country 
immediately inside it is swamply for several miles. A small creek, 
the entrance to which is close northwestward of the ras, and has 
dry sands 600 yards off it, is frequented by boats. Mugmalam, a 
small village, with a date grove, is about 3 miles to the northeast- 
ward. 

Anchorage. — -There is anchorage 1 mile southeastward of the ras 
and from i to } mile offshore, in from 6 to 10 fathoms, but there is 
no shelter from a shamal, which- blows here from a little northward 
of west. 



CHAPTER IX. 

ENTRANCE TO PERSIAN GULF, EASTERN AND 

NORTHERN SHORES. / 

RAS AL KUH TO RAS BISTANA. 

a.at. 25° 47', l-'iig. 57** 19'. to lat. 26' 30', fong. 54° S8'.) 

The coast. — Ranges of high mountains extend along, and at mod- 
erate distances from the coast between Eas al Kuh>and Has Bist*ina, 
and are good marks. There are a few villages and towiis along 
the coast, with a mixed population, the fishermen or seaf*«ring por- 
tion being Arabians and the cultivators, etc., chiefly Persians. There 
are date groves and some cultivation near most of the towns : other 
trees are scarce and small, except a banyan tree occasionally. 

From Bas al Kuh to Guru, 50 miles north-northwestward, the 
coast is very low, with a plain of varying width extending to the 
mountains. It is imperfectly know^n, and must be approached with 
great caution. There is deep water generally a short distance off 
the coast, so that soundings are but little guide when approaching it. 
The coast is visible from but a short distance. In estimati'ig the 
distance from it, guard against being deceived by the appearaarc of 
the high land in the background. There is no shelter in a shamal 
and anchorage is bad. 

No supplies can be obtained. 

The coast from Eas al Kuh trends northward 9 jniles and then 
turns northwestward 6 miles to Eas ash Shir. 

Kuh i Mubarak (lat. 25° 50', long. 57° 19'), 3i miles northward 
of Ras al Kuh, and about 1 mile inland in the swampy plain, is 338 
feet high, very remarkable, precipitous, iwcky, cylindrical in shape, 
and of light color, standing quite isolated; there is a small hole in 
its upper eastern corner, which is open on northwesterly and south- 
easterly bearings. It is conspicuous except when seen against the 
light-colored hills behind. When on northwesterly or southeasterly 
bearings, with the low land not in sight, it looks like an outlying 
rock. 

The Bluffy about 4^ miles north-northeastward of Kuh i Mubarak, 
i« 720 feet high, and White Pillar Rock stands up conspicuously on 
its western side. 

195 



196 JABAL BIS, 

Proserpine Kock^ close to the coast, nearly 10 miles northward of 
Eas al Kuh, about 70 feet high, and quoin-shaped, the bluff being to 
the westward. The 3-fathom curve is about f mile off the coast 
from 2 miles northward to Ras al Kuh to Proserpine Rock. 

There is a tower on the coast about IJ miles northward of Pros- 
erpine Rock, and northward of the tower is a small khur, with depths 
of 2 to 4 feet water. Sarocan Village is situated at the head of the 
khur; it has a population of about 60 under a chief, who were quite 
friendly when visited by a British naval vessel in 1908. 

Ras ash Shir is very low, with one or two huts on it, and dries oflF 
nearly ^ mile. Quoin Hill, about 3J miles eastward of the ras and 
IJ miles inland, is a peak 720 feet high, part of a light-colored ridge, 
trending parallel to the coast, which decreases in height to the south- 
ward, and ends about 3 miles northeastward of Kuh i Mubarak. 
Tujak, 2 mites northeastward of the ras,- is a small village. 

Caution. — ^A flat of sand and mud, with less than 3 fathoms water, 
extends 3 miles off Ras ash Shir, and the water over it is discolored. 
There are depths of 20 fathoms 1 to IJ miles from the 3-fathom 
curve, toward which the soundings decrease rapidly; therefore give 
the point a wide berth, especially at night. 

Bank. — ^A depth of 9^ fathoms was found on a bank situated in 
the fairway of the gulf, in lat. 26° 09% long. 56° 51'. approx., with 
depths of 40 fathoms around (1917). There is probably less water. 

Biyaban (Biy&ban) is the coastal country between Cape Jashk 
and Khur Minau, whilst Bashakird is the jnountainous district 
farther inland, from Ras Jagin to Khur Minau. 

The coast from Ras ash Shir trends northward 12 miles to 
Kunari Point, which is very low and partially covered at high 
water; here there are many mangroves. The flat of sand and mud 
extending off Ras ash Shir continues off the coast to the northward, 
decreasing in width to about 1| miles off Kunari Point; the coast 
should not be approached at night, nor in thick weather. 

Shoal.— A detached patch (lat. 26° 11', long. 57° 07'), with 4 
fathoms water, lies 2^ miles west-southwestward of Kunari Point, 
with 14 fathoms close westward of it. 

Jabal Earya^ 11 miles north-northeastward of Ras ash Shir, is a 
remarkable peak, 1,910 feet high, of light color, part of the second 
ridge of hills from the coast ; from the westward it has a jagged out- 
line, but from the northwestward or southward it appears a fine 
peak with almost precipitous sides. 

Jabal Bis (lat. 26° 12', long. 57° 33'), 14^ miles eastward of Jabal 
Karya, is a peak, 4,600 feet high, and conspicuous except from close 
inshore, where it is obscured by lower intervening ranges ; from the 
northward or southward it is conical. There is a valley between it 
and the Karya Range. 



ENTRANCE TO PERSIAN GULF. 197 

The coast from Kunari Point trends north-northwestward and 
northward 23 jniles to Guru village, and between it and Musandam 
Island on the western side, is the narrowest part of the entrance to 
the Persian Gulf. The coast is low to Turu, about 3 miles southward 
of Guru, where sandhills begin and extend some distance northward. 

The 3-fathom curve is from 1 to 2J miles off the coast, and a 
sounding of 2 fathoms has been obtained If miles off the coast 5 miles 
northward of Kunari Point. 

Kunari River entrance is about 6 miles northwestward of Kunari 
Point, and there was a depth of about 4 feet over the bar in 1909, 
and about 14 feet inside. The river, which runs northward, has been 
ascended by boats about 3^ miles; it then appeared to divide into 
two branches, one trending northeastward, and the other north- 
northwestward. The banks of the river are low and covered with 
mangroves. Curlew and oyster catchers can be procured; herons, 
cranes, and other birds abound. Firewood is plentiful, and easily 
obtained. There are no signs of habitation. Kunari town is said to 
be about 11 miles from the mouth of the river. ^ 

Gaz river, about 12 miles northward of Kunari River, appears to 
be deep enough to admit coasting craft; it can not be distinguished 
from seaward. 

About 14 miles northward of Kunari River is a sandy point, with 
Bandar Sirik, a small backwater which is used by dhows, near it; 
Sirik village is some distance inland ; landing can be effected about a 
quarter of a mile northward of Bandar Sirik. 

Turu is a small village, with many date trees. 

Guru (Girau) is a small village and fort with a date grove, about 
J mile inland. The fort is white, and not noticeable, being situated 
in a date grove. The sand hills here are 30 or 40 feet high, with a gap, 
which serves to mark the village ; the country inside them seems to be 
well cultivated. The people appear to be almost entirely agricul- 
tural, but they possess a few fishing boats, which are hauled up in a 
little creek formed by a watercourse. 

Guru is westward of the middle and nearest part of a range of 
hills, about 3 miles inland, and running north-northwest and south- 
southeast; they are of irregular outline, but with no remarkable 
peaks. There are 3 fathoms water If miles offshore at Guru, and 6 
fathoms 3 miles. 

Tides and tidal currents. — ^It is high water, full and change, at 
Guru (lat. 26° 35', long. 57° 06'), about 9 h. 30 m. The tidal current 
is said to set northward from 3 hours before until 3 hours after high 
water, and southward from 3 hours after high water until 3 hours 
before the next high water. 



198 KUHISTAK VILLAGE, 

The currents are weak eastward of Has al Kuh, round which, how- 
ever, and along the shore to the northward, they are strong, attaining 
a rate of 2 knots at springs. 

Directions. — In entering the Persian Gulf from the eastward 
avoid Mason Shoal and do not approach Gahha Shoal to less than 
27 fathoms; a wide berth should be given to these shoals, and Eas 
al Kuh, off which the water is deep, at night or in thick weather. 

Northward of Eas al Kuh, do not stand into less than 35 fathoms 
until northward of Kunari Point, when stand into not less than 
10 fathoms by day, or 15 fathoms at night, northward and westward 
td JeziVat Hormuz. A depth of 40 fathoms leads about 11 miles 
eastward, and nearly 7 miles northeastward of the Salama wa 
Binataha, but there are depths of 48 to 57 fathoms near those islets. 

A sailing vessel should not approach the coast near Guru nor 
between it and Hormuz if a shamal is likely to set in, as, in this 
locality, that wind blows from west-south westward, and raises a very 
bad sea, rendering it dangerous to become embayed between Guru 
and Khur Minau. No native vessels visit the coast except such as can 
either be hauled up or get into the creeks. For larger vessels 
Hormuz is then the only available place of shelter, unless far enough 
to windward to fetch into Kishm Eoad. 

The coast from Guru trends north-northwestward 28 miles and 
then northwestward 8 miles to Khur Minau, and, except for some 
5 miles northward of Guru, and also about 8 miles northward of 
Guru, where a low spur of the coast range approaches the sea 
near Kalla village, it is low and swampy, with mangroves in places. 

About 15 miles northward of Guru, the hills recede from the sea, 
leaving a level district from 10 to 20 miles or more in width, parts of 
which are fertile. Inland, there are very high mountains, on which 
snow lies for months. The coast is seldom visited by Europeans. 

The 3-fathom curve is from i to If miles, and the 10-fathom 
curve from '3 to 4| miles off the coast northward to Kuhistak. North- 
westward of the vicinity of Kuhistak, the soundings are scanty, the 
5-fathom curve appears to be about 4 miles off the coast; 5^ miles 
southward of Khur Minau, a sounding of 10 fathoms, and 4 miles 
southward of the khur, a sounding of 5 fathoms, were reported in 
1910; these depths are much less than those charted hereabouts. 
There are no outlying shoals. 

Kuhistak Village, on the coast about 14 miles north-northwest- 
ward of Guru, can be recognized by the fort, from 80 to I'OO feet 
high, standing on a little isolated hill just eastward of it; there are 
some date trees around if ; the inhabitants are chiefly fishermen. The 
nearest hills are about 2 miles from the coast, and thence they trend 
inland, the plain increasing in width to the northward. 



RAS AL KUH TO RAS BISTANA. 199 

Supplies. — Sheep, fowls, and eggs can be obtained in limited 
quantities at Kuhistak. 

Ehagun Village, on the coast, about 10 miles north-northwest- 
ward of Kuhistak, is small, containing about 150 men, chiefly fisher- 
men, and there are a few date trees. A creek on its northern side 
gives shelter to the boats. The coast is low and sandy, but the locality 
is marked by a turtle backed hillock and several date palms. 

Khur Minau (Min&b) is a salt water mangrove creek into which 
Minau (Minab) River flows; the bar nearly dries, and the creek is 
used by small craft of 20 tons and less, chiefly from Kishm and 
Bandar Abbas ; the bar is impracticable during a shamal, and some 
craft are occasionally lost on the bar. There are very similar creeks 
on both sides of Khur Minau, but the entrance to it can at present 
be recognized by two large mangrove trees close together a short 
distance southeastward. The middle of the bar is marked by a 
wooden post about 6 feet high. 

The khur trends northeastward about 1^ miles from the bar 
through sand and mud flats; the river then passes between banks 
covered with mangroves southeastward 2 miles, and then east-north- 
eastward 4 miles to the head; here is the Shahbandar, commonly 
known as Tiab or Customhouse, where the vessels unload. The banks 
are everywhere flooded at high water, and the river decreases in size 
until it is a mere ditch. The river, when swollen by winter rains, 
becomes a rushing torrent of considerable breadth. The Shahbandar 
is the only permanent building. Khur Minau is the port of Minau 
town, and at certain seasons as many as 20 boats arrive and leave in 
one day. Merchandise is carried between Shahbandar and Minau 
on camels and donkeys. 

Minau Town (Minab) (lat. 27° 09', long. 57° 05') lies 12 miles 
eastward of Shahbandar; the track for the first 2 miles crosses 
the mud flat surrounding Shahbandar, and then passes for some 
distance through date grooves and gardens, where there are sev- 
eral small scattered villages. Minau Fort is on a hill close to a 
small river and appears large and imposing^ though it is very 
dilapidated. 

The town is mat huts, and on its southern side are extensive gar- 
dens and plantations ; the bazaar is outside the fort and is well sup- 
plied. The district is governed by a Zabit, who is under the deputy 
governor of Bandar Abbas; the people are well disposed to Eu- 
ropeans. 

Trade. — ^The trade is considerable. The district produces dates, 
plantains, mangoes, wheat, henna, etc. The imports are rice and 
wheat ; the exports dates, henna, wool, and ghi. 

Mountains. — Overhanging peak, 10 miles east-southeastward 
of Minau Fort, is a sharp pinnacle about 3,000 feet high, which on 



200 JEZIRAT HORMUZ. 

north-northeasterly bearings shows two peaks; it is situated at the 
southern end of a level topped range which extends 6^ miles north- 
northwestward to Ragged Peak. 

Ragged Peak (lat. 27° 11', long. 57° 12') is about 3,000 feet high 
and of very jagged outline. 

Jabal Shimil (Shamil), 30 miles northward of Khur Minau 
entrance, is 8,500 feet high, and very conspicuous from the entrance 
to the gulf. The upper part of the western side of the mountains is 
a bluff, and eastward of it is a remarkable cone about 5,000 feet high. 

Jabal Ginao (Euh ainau)^ 16 miles north-northwestward of 
Bandar Abbas, is a detached mountain of irregular outline 7,690 feet 
high. 

Ja.bal Bakhun (Kuh Baklitin)^ 42 miles northward of Bandar 
Abbas, is 10,660 feet high, and is visible, in clear weather, through 
the great valley between Jabal Shimil and Ginao; Jabal Bakhun is 
covered with snow during winter. 

The coast from Khur Minau trends westward 26 miles to Bandar 
Abbas; it is low and swampy, the eastern part being covered with 
mangroves, and is bordered by a mud flat from about 1 to 2 miles 
broad, about 1 to 1^ miles outside which there are depths of from 3 
to 4 fathoms. 

Jezirat HormuZy If miles southward of the coast, 16 miles west- 
ward of Khur Minau, is circular in shape, with a long low point 
at the northern end, about 4 miles in diameter, and mostly hills 
about 300 feet high, with a very rugged outline and marked variety 
of colors, red, purple, etc.; in the middle a few white peaks resem- 
bling snow-covered hills rise high above the rest. Great White Peak, 
the summit, 690 feet high, near the center of the island, 2| miles 
south-southeastward from the fort, has a long slope eastward, and 
makes a very sharp peak. The hills, with the remarkable ex- 
ception of the white peaks, are chiefly of rock salt, with a thin in- 
crustation of various colored earths. Near the south and southeast 
coasts is a range not of salt. There are a few detached rocky hil- 
locks on the east coast. 

The old city stood on the plain, on the northern side of the island. 
The only remains now visible from seaward are the Portuguese fort 
(lat. 27° 6', long. 56° 27'), on the north point, in a dilapidated condi- 
tion, and said to have been damaged by an earthquake in 1902; its 
highest part is 45 feet high. There is a minaret 70 feet high about 
400 yards southward of the fort. 

• Hormuz Village, close southward of the fort, is about 250 to 300 
mat huts, and the island has approximately a population of about 
1,000 males, who are employed chiefly in fishing and collecting salt, 
but the plain is carefully cultivated and is evidently productive. 
The people own about 20 fishing boats, and a few larger craft which 



ENTRANCE TO PERSIAN GULF. 201 

trade to Maskat and Bandar Abbas, chiefly with salt and salt fish. 
There is a guard of a dozen men in the fort. In the hot weather 
during the southwest monsoon most of the inhabitants go to 
Minau, where they are employed in the date harvest. 

Shoals. — Shoal water of about 2f' fathoms extends 1,200 yards 
eastward of the Portuguese fort, and a flat, which dries, extends 700 
yards northward of the eastern part of the north coast, with shoal 
water of about 2f fathoms ^ mile farther northward. There are 
depths of 8 and 9 fathoms between^ these shoals. 

A shoal with 3^ fathoms water lies 65° 3 miles from the fort. 

The east and southeast coasts of the island are bordered by, ;i:eefs 
to the distance of from 400 to 1,200 yards. The south and southwest 
coasts are cliflFs; shoal water appears to extend about IJ miles from 
the west coast, and still farther south westward. 

Euphrates Patch. — In 1905 the steamship Euphrates touched on 
the 2-fathom patch off the southwestern extremity of iJezirat Hor- 
muz, which was subsequently examined by th^ British naral vessel 
Hermes; from the patch the northwest extremity of the island bears 
28° 3J miles. There is a depth of 5 fathoms about 100 yards north- 
ward, westward, southward, and eastward from it, the water in those 
directions deepening quickly to 10 fathoms, but a narrow shoal ridge 
connects it with the island reef to the northeastward. . j 

Anchorage. — ^There is anchorage at Hormuz on the northern side 
of the island, with the fort bearing about 236° distant \ mile, in 
from 7 to 8 fathoms, mud ; small vessels anchor closer to the village. 
It is sheltered except from the nashi, on the occurrence of which the 
native boats shift to the westward of the fort. 

The channel between the island and mud flat extending from the 
mainland is from IJ miles to 1,400 yards wide, with depths of from 
4^ to 12 fathoms ; the flat on the northern side is steep-to, the channel 
being close to the fort. There are from 2| to 4 fathoms in the 
channel, 2J miles northwestward of the fort (lat. 27° 6', long. 56° 
28'), over air extensive flat. 

Leading mark. — ^The ruin of a chapel, on the n6rth coast of 
Jezirat Hormuz, opens its own breadth northeastward of the high 
southeastern tower of the Portuguese fort, 125° leads, in 2| fathoms 
least water, through the channel northwestward of the fort. 

Soundings. — Nearly all round the island, except toward the 
Euphrates patch, there are depths of from 5 to 7 fathoms close to 
the fringing reef ; there are depths of from 13 to 9 fathoms from 2 to 
3 miles off the south and east coasts; there is deep water close south- 
westward and westward of Euphrates patch, and westward of the 
flat extending westward from the island. 

Shoal. — ^The depths in the western approach to the channel north- 
ward of Hormuz are reported to have shoaled considerably. 

173608**— 20 ^14 



202 BANDAB ABBAS. 

Directions. — From about 1 mile eastward of the eastern ex- 
tremity of the island steer about 325° till the Portuguese fort bears 
255°, then steer westward and approach with the fort bearing 236°, 
anchoring as above directed. To proceed northwestward from the 
anchorage, pass J mile northward of the fort and steer bring the 
mark above given bearing astern, following the deep-water channel 
as shown on the chart; when the high peak of Jazirat Larak bears 
188° steer westward. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, at Jezirat Hormuz at 
10 h. 45 m. ; springs rise 13 feet. 

Supplies can not be obtained at Hormuz ; there is water, but only 
in reservoirs, and generally in very small quantity. That coming 
down from the hills, even in rainy weather, is saturated with brine. 
There is good gazelle shooting in the island. 

Bandar Abbas is a large town, situated on the mainland coast, 
from 9 to 10 miles northwestward of the Portuguese fort of 
Jezirat Hormuz. It stands on the beach and has a frontage of IJ 
miles. It is a place of considerable and increasing trade, being the 
end of the caravan route from Kirman. During the hot season 
many of the inhabitants migrate to Minau, etc., but during the cold 
season there may be a population of about 10,000. The landing at 
low water is bad, as the beach dries off from 200 to 500 yards. It is 
in the midst of a bare sandy plain, which rises gradually to some 
hills about 100 feet high, 1 to 2 miles to the northward ; the country 
then becomes broken and reaches heights of from 500 to 700 feet. 
The town is fronted by a flat about IJ miles broad, with less than 
3 fathoms water, and the 5-fathom curve is about 4 miles southward 
of the beach. 

Buoy. — ^A red conical buoy is moored about 2 miles offshore, at a 
distance of 2.7 miles, 156°, from the flagstaff at the British consulate. 

Anchorage. — Vessels usually anchor in the vicinity of the red 
buoy, but smaller vessels can approach within 1 J miles of the town. 

Directions. — In approaching Bandar Abbas from the eastward, 
only small vessels should use the channiel between Hormuz and the 
mainland, as it is only 1,600 yards in width off the fort, and has not 
been properly surveyed. 

When passing between Larak and Hormuz, the former may be 
approached within i mile, but the latter should not be aproached 
nearer than 2^ miles until northward of Euphrates Patch, which is 
supposed to be steep-to. 

In passing between Kishm and Larak Islands from the southwest, 
it is advisable to keep over toward the latter to avoid the strong 
irregular currents and shoal patches off Kishm Point. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Bandar Abbas at 
10 h. 41 m. ; springs rise llj feet and neaps rise 8^ feet about datum 



RAS AL KUH TO HAS BISTANA. 203 

of soundings ; springs range 8| feet, neaps 4^ feet. The ebb current 
commences from 1 to 1^ hours after high water, and the flood current 
commences about half an hour after low water. The flood sets to the 
westward and the ebb to the eastward. 

Bandar Abbas Town is a squalid collection of houses extending 
about 1^ miles along the shore, and about ^ mile inland ; its people 
are poor and unprogressive. There are about 1,000 mud houses, 
many being two-storied. Except the main bazar, there are no streets, 
each house or group of houses standing in its own inclosure, and there 
is no wheeled traffic. There are a number of date, tamarisk, and other 
trees in the town. The negroid strain predominates among the lower 
orders and Baluch, Persian, and Arabian blood is also visible among 
all classes. There are about 100 Shikarpur Hindus here, in whose 
hands is probably about three-quarters of the trade of the port, and 
a small Khojah community. The official language is Persian, but the 
bulk of the people speak a patois almost unintelligible except to 
themselves. The town is the seat of a Persian deputy governor, who 
is subordinate to the governor of the gulf ports; he has authority 
over the districts of Minau (Minab) and Shimil (Shamil). 

The governor's house, once a Dutch factory (lat. 27° 11', long. 56® 
17'), is situated near the pier, and is surmounted by a cupola, but 
it is not conspicuous. 

Naband (Naiband) village, 1^ miles eastward of the British con- 
sulate, has a conspicuous date grove. ' 

The port is the entrepot for goods destined for the southeastern 
part of Persia, the two chief towns of which are Yazd and Kirman. 

The British consulate, a gray stone two-storied house with a flag- 
staff, standing alone and conspicuous, is about 1 mile east-northeast- 
ward of the pier. In winter, when the mountains to the northward 
are covered with snow, the air is dry, clear, and bracing. In summer, 
however, these rocky masses reflect heat on to the plain below, and 
the climate is damp, hot, and relaxing, but is not such as to render 
it by any means unsupportable to a European who is comfortably 
lodged. The prevailing diseases are malarial fever and diseases of 
the skin; other diseases seldom exist in epidemic form. Sanitation 
of even the most elementary description is unknown. 

Climate. — ^There is a cold season from November to April. The 
summer is very hot, but the land and sea breezes, which are then 
fairly regular, do much to mitigate the heat. 

Supplies. — ^Meat, bread, and vegetables, also cattle and rice, can 
be obtained. Drinking water is obtained from reservoirs, situated 
westward of the town, where the surface rain water is collected in 
masonry tanks, called '"birkehs"; these are covered by conspicuous 
dome-shaped roofs. It is also obtained from surface wells, sunk in 
the dry bed of a river at Naband; this is of bad quality, requiring 



204 BANDAR ABBAS TOWK — ^TRADB.' 

filtering; only a few tons can be supplied at a time; the water at 
Bandar Abbas is mainly obtained from shallow unbuilt wells and 
dirty rain-water reservoirs. The water elsewhere is braekish. There 
is no coal. Wood for fuel is brought in by road from the hills to the 
northward, and by boat from the mangrove swamps near Khamir. 
The bazaar is a rather good one. No coal is kept in stock. 

Pier — Landing. — ^There is a masonry pier, 100 yards long and 30 
yards wide, in front of the customhouse, and all goods are landed 
on it. The pier dries, and lighters can only go alongside from about 
3 hours before until 3 hours after high water. It is always encum- 
bered with merchandise. There is a flagstaff (lat. 27° 11', long. 56** 
17') on the pier. The beach is firm sand, and dries off some 150 to 
200 yards from high-water mark ; landing on it is bad at low water. 
Landing operations are liable to be hindered by the weather, as the 
surf on the beach is very heavy at times. 

Trade. — The principal imports are matches, candles, rice, sugar, 
tea, spices, iron, and cotton and woolen goods, and the exports, ghi, 
almonds and pistachios, raisins, currants, dates, asafetida, gum, wool, 
and carpets. 

Currency. — The coinage current in the district is nickel pieces of 
1 and 2 shahis; silver pieces of 1 (scarce), 2, and 5 (scarce) krans; 
Imperial Bank of Persia notes for 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, etc., tumans (very 
scarce). Indian rupees and notes of 5, 10, etc., rupees are plentiful, 
and freely used. Sovereigns are also used, and much sought aftei^, 
but are scarce. 

Weights and measures. — ^The following are in use: One mis- 
kal=0.0102 poimds, 1 Tabriz man=640 miskals- (6J pounds), 1 
Shah man=i:l,280 miskals (13 pounds), 1 Bandar Abbas man=24 
kiyas ("9 pounds), and 1 Shah guzi=lj Lar giiz (40 inches); the 
equivalents in pounds and inches are approximate. The British 
yard measure is also used in the sale of piece goods. 

Communications. — The vessels of the British India Steam Navi- 
gation Co.'s subsidiary mail service between Bombay and Basra call 
weekly on their passages both up and down the gulf. Vessels of 
the Bombay-Persia, Arab Steamers, Bucknall Steamship, Anglo- 
Algerian, and West Hartlepool also call occasionally. 

Bandar Abbas has telegraphic communication by cable with all 
parts, but there is no land line into the interior. Consequently 
messages for places in the interior are sent through Abu Shahr, and 
for India via Henjam, cable rates being charged. 

There is a British post and telegraphic office in the compound of 
the consulate. There is telephonic communication with Henjam. 

Goods are sent to the interior by camel, donkey, and also, but 
seldom, by mule caravan. 



ENTRANCE TO PERSIAN GULF. 205 

The coast from Bandar Abbas town trends southwestward 5 miles 
to a low sandy point on the northern side of the eastern entrance 
to Clarence Strait. Suru (Stiru), about 2 J miles southwestward of 
the pier, is a small village with a fort and date grove; there is a 
large, conspicuous white house near its northwestern end. 

Jezirat Larak^ 9^ miles south-southwestward of Jezii:at Hormuz, 
is 5 J miles long east-northeast and west-southwest, 3 J miles broad, 
and oval in shape, with a low sandy point projecting on the north- 
ern side. It is generally barren, with rugged hills ; the highest peak, 
IJ miles southward of the northern point, is 510 feet high, and 
square in shape. A conical peak, 450 feet high, 1 mile farther south- 
westward, shows best when bearing between south and east. 

On the north coast of Larak, nearly 2 miles eastward of the low 
point, is an old Dutch fort (lat. 26° 53', long. 56° 22') and a little 
village (Labtiyab) containing about 80 men of Ash Shuhiyin tribe, 
who are fishermen and exceedingly poor. In the interior of the 
island are about 40 wandering herdsmen. The villagers take their 
fish, ghi, etc., to Kishm for barter. There is but little "water in the 
reservoirs. The island is covered with stunted vegetation and a few 
small date trees near the village. 

Larak is steep-to, having 15 fathoms, generally, at the distance of 
i mile, and,, on the southern side, 40 fathoms close outside that dis- 
tance, but the shore reef extends 800 yards from the west coast. A 
bank extends 12 or 13 miles southwestward from the island, with 
from 25 to 30 fathoms between it and the coast of Kishm ; the least 
water on it is said to be 12 fathoms. 

Larak and Jtxormuz present a very similar appearance on north- 
westerly bearings at night. The soundings at similar distances south- 
eastward of Larak are deeper than those southeastward of Hormuz. 

Anchorage. — There is anchoi^age on the north coast of the island 
between the low point and the village, in 13 fathoms, about i mile 
oflF-shore, and 600 yards from the sands, which dry off some dis- 
tance; off the village the bottom is rock and the coast reef extends 
about 200 yards. The anchorage is sheltered only from the shamal, 
and is not recommended. 

Eishm Island (Jezirat at Tawila) . — Kishm, the largest island 
in the gulf, is 60 miles long east-northeast and west-southwest; its 
greatest breadth is 19 miles, but its western half is generally about 6 
miles broad, its eastern end is 9^ miles southwestward of Jezirat 
Hormuz, and the island lies nearly parallel with the coast, from 
which it is separated by Clarence Strait. 

It rises in light-colored table-topped hills, with precipitous broken- 
down sides, often remarkable in appearance. 



206 KISHM. 

The climate is exceedingly trying from May to October, inclusive. 
There are a few towns and numerous villages on the island, and its 
population was estimated, in 1901, at between 35,000 and 40,000. 

The population is for the most part poor, and only trade in the 
barest necessaries of life. 

There is^ much game on the island, wild goats, partridges, and 
rock pigeons in the hills, and abundance of small antelopes or 
gazelles on the plains. 

Eishm (lat. 26° 57', long. 56° 17'), on the northeastern point of 
the island, was a large and well-built Arab town, with several high 
wind towers (called bad-gir), which are peculiar to the Persian side 
of the gulf; recently, however, earthquakes have destroyed half the 
town and the wind towers. In 1901 it was estimated to consist of 
about 1,700 houses, with a population of about 6,000. Near the 
southern end is an old Portuguese fort, coul^ icuous from seaward ; 
the highest buildiiig in the town is from 50 to 60 feet high. 

There is a small date grove on either side of the town, and a 
s.*ort distance to the southward are several domed water reservoirs ; 
in dry •seasons these reservoirs fail, and, in extreme cases, the wells 
also. Water, which seems to be fairly plentiful in the island, has 
then to be brought to the town. 

The Shaikh of Kishm, subject to the deputy-governor of Bandar 
Abbas, exercises authority over all towns and villages on the island. 
■ The land behind the town, and to the southward of it, rises in a 
gradual slope, ending northwestward in precipitous broken ground. 
The highest part is a tableland, 560 feet high, 3 miles westward of the 
town. Much common . pottery is made here from the clay of the 
island. Many bagalas belong to the port. 

Shoals. — Eastward of the town are several banks of rock and 
sand, with 2 and 3 fathoms water, the outermost of which is IJ miles 
off-shore; this shoal is steep-to on' the outside, and has from 3 J to 
7 fathoms between it and the beach. There is a 2i-fathom rockv 
patch \ mile eastward of the, town, with 7 fathoms close-to, and 
also a 2i-fathom sand patch 1 mile southeastward of the town. 
Shoal water extends 1,200 yards off-shore, 1\ miles southward of the 
town. The shoals are marked by discolored water. 

Lghtbuoy. — A lightbuoy, exhibiting a flashing white light, is 
moored IJ miles eastward of Kishm fort. The lightbuoy is situated 
within the outermost shoal, the southern end of which has a depth 
of only 2 fathoms, at a distance of 350 yards, 135° from the light- 
buoy. 

Anchorage. — Vessels of moderate draft anchor with the fort 
bearing 180° distant about f mile, in 5 fathoms, mud ; approach this 
anchorage from the northward, passing over a flat with from 3J 
to 3i fathoms water, which extends apparently parallel to the shore 



RAS AL KUH TO HAS BISTANA. 207 

for some miles northwestward. The water shoals very quickly to- 
ward the flat off the town. Vessels of heavy draft anchor about 2 
miles off-shore in 6 fathoms, and there is anchorage anywhere north- 
ward to the bank bordering the mainland. 

Anchorage is prohibited between lines drawn north-northeast- 
ward from about 800 yards, and IJ miles northwestward of the 
fort (dotted lines on chail;). 

The anchorage near the town is well sheltered in a shamal, and 
tliere is no heavy sea with a nashi, but the tidal currents cause a 
vessel to lie broadside to the wind and to ride uneasily. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, at 
Kishm, at 9h. Om. ; springs rise 12 feet. The tidal currents off 
the town and over the shoal banks are strong, 2 knots at springs, 
with ripples; they are reported to turn about ^ hour before and 5 J 
hours after high water, slack water lasting about an hour. 

Directions. — Pass on either side of Larak, avoiding the shoal ex- 
tending 800 yards from its western side, and round the eastern end 
of Kishm Island at a distance of about 2J miles to clear the shoals 
off the town, until the fort bears 210°, when turn south westward 
and southward to the anchorage. Or, when Kishm fort flagstaff 
bears 292°, keep it so until abreast the lightbuoy; then steer north- 
westward and westward between the shoals to the anchorage, using 
the plan for the guide; caution is necessary. The coast southward 
of the town can be approached to a mile until near the outlying 
patches, but the water shoals quickly toward the coast reef. 

Supplies. — Meat, vegetables, and bread, also cattle, can be ob- 
tained. Fairly good water can be procured from wells. 

Pilots for Clarence Strait can be obtained here. 

The coast of JCishm Island, from Kishm town, trends southward 
1^ miles ; it then trends westward 5 miles and south westward 20 
miles to Ras Khargu. Westward of the tableland westward of 
Kishm a low plain extends several miles across the island. West- 
ward of the plain thtere are again table hills, which decrease in 
height toward Ras Khargu and are precipitous seaward; a square- 
shaped hill about 500 fe^t high, northwestward of Shuza, is the 
only one distinguishable. 

The shore of the deep bay, which is about 8 miles across, south- 
westward of the hills in the eastern part of the island, is low and 
sandy, but the coast farther southwestward is rocky in patches, with 
small sandy beaches between, as far as Ras Khargu. 

The coast is open to the sLamal, which here blows from between 
southwest and west-southwest. 

Depths. — There is a depth of 15 fathoms about 1 mile from this 
part of the island, which may be approached to that distance. 
Farther off-shore the water deepens. 



208 SHTTZA. 

Shoals. — Patrick Stewart Patch, of 18 fathoms, 8J miles, 151°, 
from Shuza, is small, with deeper water around. About 1,800 
yards, 200°, from Shuza is a shoal (lat. 26° 46', long. 56° 5') on 
which, toward low water, the sea breaks in moderate weather; its 
position has not been accurately fixed. 

Islet. — ^About 12 miles south westward of the eastern point of the 
island is a little flat rocky islet, with vertical sides, lying 600 yards 
ofl a rocky point; within the islet is a small bay with 1^ fathoms 
water, in which native boats shelter in shamals; 1 mile northeast- 
ward of the islet are two or three small rocks, about 800 yards oflf- 
shore, with foul ground inside them. 

Shuza (Suzeh) , on the coast, 2 miles southwestward of the islet 
just mentioned, is a village with a date grove and a population of 
about 500; it possesses about 40 trading dhows but sends no boats 
to the pearl fishery. Most of its population goes to Minau in the hot 
season. About | mile eastward of the village is a ruined tomb or 
mosque with a dome. 

Masan, a village with about^50 men, stands on the coast 6 miles 
southwestward of Shuza. There are date trees here, and an old 
mosque with ruins inland. 

Bas Khargu (Khargu) is low and rocky, rising in broken 
ground to the hills. A little eastward of the ras is a whitewashed 
cairn, 7 feet high. 

Shoal water of less than 3 fathoms extends 600 yards off the 
coast eastward of the ras, and rocky uneven ground, with less than 
3 fathoms to the southward. A shoal, with 3J fathoms least water, 
and 1,400 yards in extent, east and west, known as Maundrell Shoal, 
lies about IJ miles, 130°, from the ras. It is not advisable to pass 
inside this shoal. 

• The coast of Kishm Island trends west-northwestward f mile 
fom Ras Khargu, whence it turns northward and northwestward 3 
miles, and then westward and southwestward 8 miles to Ras Salak ; 
from near Ras Khargu to Ras Salak, the coast' is low and sandy. On 
the 5-fathom bank, on the outer part of which there are several 
shoal heads, with from 2^ to 3^ fathoms over them, extends about 
800 yards from the shore. Bevan Patch, with 2^ fathoms least water, 
lies about 1 J miles northwestward from the ras, and J mile from the 
Kishm Island shore. Deristan Bay lies between Ras Khargu and 
Ras Salak. 

Jezirat Henjam (Hanjam), nearly 1 mile southwestward of 
Ras Khargu, the channel between being known as Henjam Sound, is 
nearly 5 miles long north-northeast and south-southwest, 2J miles 
broad, barren, hilly, and covered with coarse grass and brushwood. 
Near the northern end is a remarkable table hill (lat. 26° 40', long. 



!/ 

i 

I 



ENTRANCE TO PERSIAN GULF. 209 

66** 64'), 350 feet high, which does not show well seen from the south- 
ward against the land; on its summit is an inconspicuous white- 
washed stone cairn 7 feet in height. 

On the summit, 241 feet high, of Jabal Mushi, about 800 yards 
north-northwestward of Table Hill Cairn, is an inconspicuous white- 
washed stone cairn 10 feet in height. The northwestern side of 
Jabal Mushi is a conspicuous cliff. 

The island is rather dark in color, and the hills, which are either 
rounded or of peaked shape, decrease in height toward the compara- 
tively low southern end of the island. 

There are two small ruined mosques near Ras al Mashia, the north 
point of the island ; the eastern is white, the other red. 

There are two whitewashed cairns, 5 feet high, on the island, 
about 2 miles and 1.3 miles southeastward of Ras al Mashia. 

There are two whitewashed marks, shown on the chart, on and near 
Ras Buser, westward of Ras al Mashia, which have been replaced by 
cairns 10 feet high. 

There is a village, about 30 houses with date groves, on the western 
side of the island, and a much larger Arab village near the southern 
point ; the male inhabitants of the island, who jiumber about 450, own 
some 40 pearl boats and keep goats. 

The coast is rocky points, with little cliffs, and sand beaches be- 
tween, except Ras al Mashia, which is low sand, and a shoal spit 
extends 160 yards northeastward of it, with 12 fathoms at the dis- 
tance of 200 yards. The 5-fathom curve is about 1,400 yards from 
the coast, IJ miles southeastward of Ras al Mashia. Shoal water 
extends about 1,400 yards off the northwestern part of the island, and 
about 400 yards elsewhere ; it is fairly steep-to. 

There are depths of 30 fathoms 1 mile off the south coast and 
from 5^ to 14 fathoms in the sound, but in the middle of the south- 
eastern entrance to the sound is a 5 J-f athom patch. The depths 
northward of the island are somewhat irregular, varying from 6 to 
20 fathoms; between the island and Ras Salak there are 6 and 7 
fathoms, the bottom being even. 

ShoaL — ^A shoal, known as Mushi Patch, about 200 yards in ex- 
tent, with 3 J fathoms water, sand bottom, lies 1 mile, 300*^. from Ras 
al Mashia. 

Light. — A fixed white light is exhibited, at 128 feet above high 
water, from the northeast corner of the telegraph office, situated 
about 750 yards southward of Ras al Mashia, and should be seen from 
a distance of 6 miles. For the arc of visibility, see Light List, and 

chart. 

Beacon off Ras al Mashia consists of three superimposed concrete 
blocks surmounted by a staff and triangle, supported by struts, 






^ 



210 BANDAR GHARBI ANCHORAGE. 

painted white, and 25 feet in height above the sand. It is proposed 
to establish a light on the beacon. 

Buoys. — There are two mooring buoys for the use of the Govern- 
ment launch, one on the eastern side of Ras al Mashia and the other 
on the western side. 

Anchorage. — Bandar Gharbi is the anchorage northwestward of 
Ras al Mashia. Anchorage in Bandar Gharbi, with Ras al Mashia 
Beacon (lat. 26° 41', long. 55° 54') bearing about 124°, distant about 
800 yards, in from 7 to 9 fathoms water, is generally preferable, the 
bottom being more regular; this anchorage is partly sheltered from 
the shamal^ which here blows from the southwestward. 

Vessels should not anchor in the locality of Bandi Sharki. 

It is unadvisable to anchor southwestward of a line drawn 303° 
from about 50 yards southwestward of Ras al Mashia beacon (pecked 
line on chart), nor on a line drawn east-northeastward from the 
ras to cable-house on Kishm Island. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, at 
Jezirat Henjam anchorage, at 9 h. 30 m. ; springs rise lOJ feet, neaps 
7 J feet. There is considerable diurnal inequality, which principally 
affects the low water of the inferior tide. 

During springs, the currents set westward from 4^ hours before 
till 1^ hours after high water, and eastward from IjTiours after high, 
water till 4| hours before the next high water, and attain a rate of 
from 2 to 3 knots. ^ 

It is high water, full and change, in Henjam Sound, at 9 h. 03 m. ; 
springs rise 9 feet and neaps rise 7 feet above datum of soundings. 
Springs range 7^ feet, neaps 3J feet. 

In Henjam Sound the current runs to the northwestward from 2 
hours before to 2 hours after high water at Maskat, and to the south- 
eastward from 4 hours after to 4 hours before high water. 

In the eastern entrance to the sound the currents are very strong. 

Directions. — ^The southeastern entrance to Henjam Sound is about 
600 yards wide between the 5- fathom curve on each side ; the beacon 
on Ras al Mashia, bearing 296°, leads in, but near the 5J-fathom 
patch in the fairway. When Table Hill bears 270°, steer 304° to the 
anchorage in Bandar Sharki. 

Avoid the detached patches about 1 mile west-northwestward of 
the cable-house on Kishm Island. The northwestern coast of Jezirat 
Henjam must not be approached nearer than about 1 mile, as the 
rocky flat extending off it has from 5 to 8 fathoms close-to, and 
the 5J-fathom shoal above mentioned must be avoided. The water 
shoals regularly in Deristan Bay. Ras Salak (lat. 26° 41'., long. 55° 
46') can be approached to i mile. In a shamal it is best to enter the 
anchorage from the eastward. 



RAS AL KUH TO RAS BIST AN A. 211 

When-entering Henjam Sound from the southeastward, it is recom- 
mended to keep well to the southward of Maundrell Shoal, and to 
enter with the cable-house in range with the left edge of the " Tall 
palms," bearing 340°, which is said to be a good mark, altering 
course in good time to the westward in order to avoid the foul ground 
southward of Eas Khargu. 

Caution. — ^The southeastern approach to Henjam Anchorage 
should be used with great caution by vessels of 20 feet draft and 
over. 

Lloyd's signal station. — There is a Lloyd's signal station at 
Henjam, with which vessels can communicate by the International 
code; no look-out, however, is kept, and vessels desiring to communi- 
cate must first attract attention by the steam siren or otherwise. 
The station is under the Indo-European Telegraph Co., and the 
British flag is shown here. 

A mast, 205 feet in height above the ground, is situated about 200 
yards, northwestward, from the flagstaff (British) at the telegraph 
station. There are two secondary masts near it. 

Supplies. — ^After rain some water can be* obtained from the ruined 
reservoir at the north end of the island, and there is a well of fairly 
good water about a quarter of a mile from the southeastern point 
of the island, near the village. Oysters can be taken from the rocks 
at low water. A small quantity of provisions might be obtained. 

Coniniunication. — The vessels of the British India Steam Navi- 
gation Co.'s subsidiary mail service between Bombay and Basra call 
at Henjam weekly, on their passages both up and down the gulf. 

Deristan^ on Kishm Island, 3^ miles northward of Bas Khargu 
and IJ miles inland, is a village with about 800 men, who possess a 
few boats; there are some date trees in the vicinity. Quoin hill, 
long and remarkable, extends eastward from the bluff, which is situ-, 
ated about 5 J miles westward of the village ; between it and the hills 
northward of Eas Khargu is a large swampy plain. 

Has Salak (Salagh) is sandy, with a rocky beach; the hills here 
are about 2 miles inland. 

The coast from Ras Salak trends west-southwestward 27 miles to 
Ras Dastakan, the southwestern point of Kishm Island. Westward 
of Ras Salak is a small bay on the shore of which, 2^ miles from the 
ras, is Salak fishing village, with about 30 men; here there are a 
few date trees and some wells. 

Bras Tarkun, 8 miles west-southwestward of Ras Salak, is rocky, 
and 7J miles farther west-southwestward is a point where the land 
rises steeply to the hills. 

Kishkuh, 4 miles west-northwestward of Ras Tarkun, is 1,300 feet 
high, with a small table top, and noticeable. A range of dark hills, 
largely composed of salt, runs north and south across the island 3 



212 * KAS DASTAKAN. 

miles westward of Kishkuh. There are extensive salt caves at 
Namakdan, the southern end of the range, and the brine from them 
runs out on to the plain between the caves and the sea, where, on 
evaporating, it leaves a large deposit of salt,- which is taken by 
boats to Linga and places on the Arabian coast. 

Bock. — ^A rock, with a depth of 5 feet, exists at about 1 mile 
eastward of Eas Tarkun. Position, lat. 26° 38', long. 55° 39'. 

The coast from Namakdan is hilly about 5 miles westward to 
Kawuni, a small village 1 mile inland, with a few date trees near, 
and a table hill, 550 feet high, 1 mile north-northwestward of it; 
thence to Eas Dastakan there is a plain between the hills and the 
coast, on which, about 1^ miles northeastward of the ras, is the 
small village Dastakan. There are two shallow bays within about 
4 miles east-northeastward of the ras. 

The HummockSy 2J miles north-northeastward of Ras Dastakan, 
and three remarkable hills. The western Hummock, 2 miles north- 
northwestward of the ras, is table-topped; the middle one has a 
rounded summit, and the eastern and highest (lat. 26° 35' long. 55® 
20'), 2| miles east-northeastward of the western, is 585 feet high, 
and table-topped; the southern sides of the Hummocks are pre- 
cipitious, and the eastern is nearly joined to a tableland, the south- 
ern side of which is precipitous, extending 4 miles east-northeast- 
ward, and ending in a bluff. 

Has Dastakan is low and rocky. The coast here turns northward, 
7i miles, to Basidu Point (lat. 26° 39', long. 55° 16') ; it is low, ex- 
cept near the Hummocks, where it rises to some broken rocky hills, 
and it is bordered by a flat of mud and sand, which, about 2 miles 
southward of Basidu Point, is 2 miles wide. 

Soundings. — ^The soundings from Hen jam to Namakdan are regu- 
lar, the 20- fathom curve being from 5 to 9 miles offshore; the 20- 
fathom curve is from 9 to 11^ miles off-shore between Namakdan 
and Eas Dastakan. 

The Flat (Basidu Flat) is a bank, with from 2 to 3 fathoms 
water, off the southwestern part of Kishm Island; it commences 
about 4 miles southward of Namakdan, and extends about 18 miles 
westward, and its outer edge is 9 miles off the south coast and 5^ 
miles off the west coast of the island. The 5-fathom curve from 
about 7 miles eastward of Namakdan trends southwestward, passing 
close southward of the 3-fathom curve of the bank, and thence turns 
west-northwestward toward Linga. The 20-fathom curve is from 
1 to 2^ miles outside the 5-fathom curve on the southeastern and 
southern sides of the bank, and from 5 to 8 miles outside it on the 
southwestern side. Discolored water extends some distance outside 
the bank. 



ENTKAKCE TO PERSIAN GULF. 213 

There is a narrow navigable channel between the Flat and Kishm 
Island ; it passes near the coast from Kawuni to Eas Dastakan, and 
thence southward of the tail of Beacon Shoal into the channel 
leading to Basidu anchorage; it appears to have a least depth of 
about 4 fathoms. Directions are given lat^r. 

MaxineF Shoal. — ^There is a least depth of 4 fathoms on this 
shoal, situated 7f miles, 321° from Jezirat Tanb Lighthouse, sur- 
rounded by uneven depths from 6 to 9 fathoms. It is advisable 
to avoid this locality .' 

Tidal currents. — On the Flat, clear of the island, the currents 
set west-southwestward from 3 hours before until 3 hours after high 
water, and east-southwestward from 3 hours after high water until 
3 hours before the next high water; tlie currents attain rates of 
from 1 to 2 knots. 

The set of the currents through the channel northward of the Flat 
is not known, but the currents appear to follow its direction. 

Southward of the Flat, and between it and Jezirat Tanb, the 
streams set eastward and westward, and attain a velocity of from 2 
to 3 knots at springs. 

Clarence Strait is the channel between Kishm Island and the 
main; it is navigable from the eastward for vessels of deep draft 
as far as Laft Point, but as the tides are strong and the channel is 
not buoyed it is inadvisable to attempt the passage without a local 
pilot. 

The western part of the strait, from Laft Point to Basidu, is not 
yet completely surveyed. - 

The north shore of Clarence Strait trends westward to Birkeh 
Band-i-ali, a conspicuous dome-shaped reservoir; Siru Spit, 4 miles 
southwestward of Bandar Abbas, forms an island at high water 1^ 
miles long and 8 feet high at its eastern point. The island is about 
li miles southwestward of Siru village. 

A bank of hard sand extends for 1 J miles parallel to the shore be- 
tween Siru and Chiju. 

The Keneh Surkh range of hills, about 5 miles from the coast 
rises gradually from the westward to a height of about 1,500 feet. 

From Birkeh Band-i-ali, past the village of Khun Surkh, the coast 
trends southwestward for 3 miles, to a sandy point off Khor Kanari, 
a small river which dries at low water; thence it runs southwest- 
ward to Bustaneh Point, which is low, and not easily distinguished, 
although it has a hillock about 20 feet high on its eastern corner. 

Bustaneh is a thriving village of some importance, and there is 
good anchorage off it for large vessels, protection being afforded by 
the east and west Bustaneh banks. Throughout this reach the hold-, 
ing ground is good, being mostly of sand and mud. 



/ 



214 PAUL VILLAGE. 

The low line eastward of the village dries from J mile to 1,500 
wards and is fairly steep. 

The Koh-i-Namak Sar range of hills lies from about ^ to 3 miles 
northward of Bustaneh Point, and is a confused mass of irregular 
and precipitous peaks ; the summit of the range is 930 feet in height, 
and th^e is a peak behind of 1,230 feet. 

The high line from Bustaneh Point, westward, for many miles is 
indefinable, and the sea overflows the extensive mud flats at spring 
tides. 

Pul or Puhal Point, 13 miles westward of Bustaneh Point, is a low 
projection only IJ miles from the Kishm shore, on the other side 
of the strait ; on it are some ruined birkels or water tanks, and about 
500 yards to the northeastward is a conspicuous tree, which forms 
a range mark for vessels approaching through the narrows. On the 
eastern side of the point, 2 milfes distant, Rud-i-kul River, the water 
of which is extremely salt, flows into the strait over the mud flats, and 
is navigable only for small craft. 

There is completely sheltered anchorage off Pul Point, which has a 
frontage of 350 yards, and vessels can, apparently, lie in 5 fathoms 
near the shore, but the tidal currents are said to attain a rate of 2J 
knots, and the holding ground is bad. 

Paul, or Puhal, village (lat. 25° 58', long. 55® 45'), situated some 
2 miles northward of Pul Point, is a number of scattered group of 
houses extending in an east and west direction across the plain. 
There are about 150 houses, but in September, 1913, they were prac- 
tically all deserted, and the few remaining inhabitants were living 
in small reed huts and tending date plantations. 

This part of the country appears to be subject to raids during the 
cold season, when the inhabitants cross to Kishm Island for safety. 

The south shore'of the strait from the eastern end of Kishm Island 
trends to the west-northwestward for 4 miles, to a point which rises 
to a table hill about 100 feet high, and off which a sand spit dries 
out to a distance of 600 yards. From the 100-foot hill the coast 
trends westward and west-southwestward for 19 miles. 

Khor Tawala, on the western side of the 100-foot hill, is a small 
backwater running into the lowlands northward of Kishm Great 
Table hiU, where the native boats are hauled up. 

Tbe two small Dukuhak islets, 80 and 100 feet high, are on the 
western side of the entrance of Khor Tawala. 

Two miles westward of the Khor near the coast, is a conspicuous 
peaked precipitous hill, called Jebel Salsul, 430 feet high; f mile 
north-northwestward of Jebel Salsul is Milne head, a bold promon- 
tory 225 feet high. 



HAS AL KUH TO RAS BISTANA. 215 

\ • 

About 6 J miles westward of the Table hill (100 feet) point is a 
remarkable quoin hill 454 feet high, with a small tree on its summit, 
known as Jebel Horton, the bluff of which faces southward. 

Between Kohr Tawala and Jebel Horton the shore is fringe'd by a 
shoal with from 6 feet to 2 fathoms of water, and steep-to; its 
eastern part extends 2 miles off-shore, but near Jebel Horton it is 
only about ^ mile-off. 

Bandar Salsul, between the low point and Jebel Horton, is a 
slightly receding shallow bay where boats anchor in a northeast 
wind. 

Darguwan, about IJ miles southwestward of Jebel HortoUj is a 
small village inhabited by fishermen, and there are a few date palms 
in the vicinity. The coast from Darguwan trends west-southwest - 
ward for 5 miles, to a well-defined point called Kuwai, upon which 
there is a hill 50 feet high ; there is a small cove on the east side of 
the hill. 

The village of Kuwai lies a mile eastward of Kuwai Point; there 
is a date grove near the village, and a birkeh and a ruined mosque 
near the shore. 

About 1^ miles southwestward of Kuwai Point, where the small 
village of Mughara lies, is Zainubi Point, the eastern end of a plateau 
180 feet high. 

Zainubi Village stands in a thick date grove 1^ miles inland, and 
3 miles southwestward of Kuwai. 

The great tableland of Zainubi, If miles southward of Kuwai, is 4 
mlies in length, with a gap in its western portion, and is from 300 to 
500 feet in height. 

Biscoe Bay. — From Kuwai Point to Alia Mulk Point, a distance 
of 17 miles, the coast recedes into a long bay in which the low line 
dries from 500 yards to i mile ; the western end of this bay is flanked 
by Alia Mulk Reef and a rocky bank extends from it for 9 miles, 
which lies from J mile to 1 mile from the shore; there is a very 
narrow passage between this reef and the shore, fit only for native 
craft. Paipusht is a village with about 100 men belonging to it, 
chiefly boatbuilders who work at Kishm ; it is built on the northern 
slope of the Biscoe Rari^e, at about 1^ miles from the coast. 

It shows up well when the sun is shining on it, but at other times 
is difficult to see. 

Biscoe Bange. — ^This range extends from Paipusht Village in a 
curve southward and westward for about 8 miles ; it has several good 
summits, useful as landmarks. Jebel Biscoe, 965 feet high, is the 
highest, and has a fine sloped summit ; Finger Peak, 902 feet high, is 
conspicuous by its finger-shaped summit. 



216 LAFT POINT. 

Coastal range. — ^To the westward of Paipusht is a coastal range 
from i to 1 mile from the coast; it is broken up into irregular 
masses, and a series of detached quoin-shaped hills. 

Close to- the beach there are no conspicuous summits except a 
conical hill, 360 feet high, toward the western end 'of the range, 
called Sugar-loaf, and another small hill, 186 feet high, named 
Jebel Arab, nearer the coast and a little farther westward of Sugar- 
loaf Hill. 

Alia Mulk Point is at the western end of Biscoe Bay ; it runs down 
from a rocky plateau 110 feet in height. The village of Alia Mulk, 
comprising a small fort and a few trees, lies just southward of the 
plateau, and f mile to the southeastward there is a date plantation 
with a small house. The coast from Alia Mulk Point runs in a 
westerly direction for about IJ miles to Laft Kedim Point, and then 
curves round in a west-southwesterly direction to Laft Point. 

Between Alia Mulk Point and Laft Kedim Point are the villages 
of Kahura and Geshirn; t^iere is a small mosque just eastward of 
Laft Kedim Point, and close to the beach just northward of it is a 
birkeh, both of which are fairly conspicuous. There is also a date 
plantation. 

Laft Point. — About 2 miles west-southwestward of Laft Kedim 
Point there is a low hill just inside the point; its summit forms a 
good mark for anchoring. 

About J mile northeastward of the point is a rocky plateau, the 
northeast corner of which is 63 feet high. There is a well-protected 
anchorage off the point, the bottom being, in places, of mutj and sand, 
with depths of 3^ to 4 fathoms within 400 yards of the point. 

Tidal currents run through the strait at this point at the rate of 
about 2 knots at springs. 

At Laft Point the strait divides into two channels; the eastern 
branch, narrow and devious, flows southward, the other, continuing 
to the westward for 3 miles, turns abruptly to the south'Westward, 
the two reuniting off the village of Guran. 

Meherhuni Hill, 685 feet high, 2J miles southward of Alia Mulk 
Point, is conspicuous from the eastward. 

Shaik Musa, 270 feet high, about 1 mile southward of Alia Mulk 
Point, is conspicuous; its eastern perpendicular face is a good 
range mark coming through the strait from the eastward. 

Middle Grounds — Bustaneh Banks. — ^These banks extend for 
8J miles, and lie from 2 to 3 miles off the Bustaneh shore ; the west 
bank dries in a small patch about 4 feet high at springs, and the east 
bank is sometimes just awash. 

Fishing ground. — About 2 miles northeastward of Kuwai Point 
is a small shoal area of hard sand, with a least depth of 4J fathoms 
over it, which is the principal fishing ground in the strait. 



ENTRANCE TO PERSIAN GULF. ^ 217 

Middle Banks. — ^These banks, which dry in patches, extend for 
8 miles at from 1^ to 2 miles off the Kishm shore, commencing west- 
northwestward of Kuwai Point to the northward of Jebel Arab. 
There is a deep channel northward of these banks, but it is narrow 
and intricate, and should npt be attempted. 

Alia Mulk Reef. — ^A reef a little over i mile in length, which 
dries 4 feet, lies about 600 yards from the shore 1 mile east-south- 
eastward of Alia Mulk Point. 

From the reef a narrow rocky bank, with the less than 3 fathoms on 
it, extends for 9 miles, east-southeastward close to the shore of 
Biscoe Bay. 

Alia Shoals. — Two rocky patches lie about IJ miles northwest- 
ward of Alia Mulk Point ; the northern one has a least depth of 3 j 
fathoms over it, while the southern one has 3^ fathoms. 

Pul, or Putal Patch, 1,300 yards east-southeastward of Pul 
Point, is a small rocky patch with 3f fathoms over it. 

Low Point. — ^The bank of this point dries for ^ mile in a north- 
easterly direction, and shoal water continues for a further J mile. 
The navigable channel of Clarence Strait lies northward of Bandar 
Salsul Flat, where there are depths of from 6J to 13 fathoms. 
Hereabout the channel is 3 miles wide, and commences to contract at 
the Bustaneh Banks. 

The Bustaneh and Middle Banks commence to the northward of 
Kuwai Plateau, and between there is a pass IJ miles wide. The 
depth along the southern edge of Bustaneh Banks is about 6 fath- 
oms ; the waters to the northward are navigable, but very intricate. 

Mountains. — On the mainland side of Clarence Strait is the 
great chain of mountains which terminates eastward in Jabal Ginao 
(lat. 27° 24', long. 56° 8'). 

A mountain, 5,120 feet high, with two great steps or notches on its 
western side, is situated 18 miles west-southwestward of Jabal Ginao ; 
and a peak of the same range, 9,200 feet high, and covered with snow 
in winter, is situated 55 miles westward of Jabal Ginao, and is visible 
over the other mountains from seaward ; from the southward it shows 
three little peaks. Between this loftj^ range and the sea a range of 
mountains, about 1,000 feet high, extends about 20 miles westward 
from Bandar Abbas. 

A mountain range commences 11^ miles northeastward from 
Khamir town, and runs westward; there is a great valley between 
this range and the range running westward from Bandar Abbas. 
Khamir Peak, 8 miles northeastward of Khamir Town, is 3,700 feet 
high and pointed ; West Peak, of the same range, 13 miles to the west- 
ward, is' much higher, but not conspicuous in shape ; a spur of the 
range extends southeastward from it. 

ITSeOS**— 20 15 






218 KHAMIR TOWN. 

A range commences 10 miles northward of Basidu Point, and 
trends a great distance westward. There is a wide valley between 
this and the Khamir Range, where the land bordering the strait is 
low and swampy, with a great growth of mangroves, probably the 
delta of a small river. 

The north shore from Pul Point trends west-southwestward 
some 10 iniles. About 3J miles westward of Pul Point is the eastern 
end of a low island, which is 2^ miles long, and about ^ mile offshore, 
with deep water close to the south coast, but no passage to the north- 
ward. . 

There is said to be a narrow channel, with not less than 4 fathoms 
water, about 600 to 800 yards southward of the island, leading into 
Khamir backwater, which appears to have more water than charted, 
soundings of 6 fathoms having been obtained in it. Anchorage has 
been obtained about i mile southeastward of the shore at Khamir in 
3J fathoms water. A small creek leads into the backwater from the 
southward. 

Khamir Town (lat. 26° 57', long. 55° 36'), on the mainland 8J 
miles westward of Pul Point, has a fort with a high square tower; 
the town contains about 200 men and is outside the walls of the fort ; 
there is a date grove eastward of it. The town lies J. mile inland, 
and there is a building on the shore. The chief export is " gatch," a 
kind of fine white plaster ; millstones also are exported. The sulphur 
mines are in small hills near the foot of the mountains, about 3 miles 
westward of the town, and some years ago were said to be nearly ex- 
hausted ; they are not now worked. 

The shore from Khamir backwater trends generally south -south- 
westward 12^ miles, then westward 6 miles, and then northwestward 
4 miles to the northeastern part of a shallow bay; it has not been 
traced, and is extensive mangrove swamps, intersected by numerous 
creeks, fronted by mud-flats and shoals. There are two pyramidal 
hills about 150 feet high in the plain, 2 and 3 miles west-southwest- 
ward from Khamir town, and a short distance from the swamp. 

The northern shore of the shallow bay just mentioned rises steeply 
to mountains, 2,940 feet high, which are rugged, barren, and almost 
inaccessible; in the northwestern corner of the bay is a picturesque 
gorge in which are sulphur springs, and from it the west shore of the 
bay trends southward 3 miles to a low point situated 4f miles north- 
westward of Basidu Point. Birka Sifla (Birkeh Siflin), on the shore, 
1 mile southward of the sulphur springs, is a small village and date 
grove ; and there are date trees and many ruined tanks on the point. 

The south shore of the strait from Laft Kedim trends west- 
southwestward li miles to Laft Point, which is low, but the land to 
the southward rises gently to the height of about 60 feet. 



ENTRANCE TO PERSIAN GULF. 219 

There is anchorage off Laft Point, sheltered from all winds, the 
water being fairly deep close to the point, sand and shells bottom. 
The tidal currents here attain a rate of about 2 knots at springs. 

The coast of Kishm Island from Laft Point trends southeastward 
and southward . 7 miles, and then generally west-south westward, 
30 miles to Basidu Point. The strait is about 6 miles wide west- 
ward of Laft Point, but it is very much obstructed by banks of mud, 
sand, and mangrove swamps. There are two channels for about 15 
miles southwestward of Laft Ppint, which reunite westward of 
Guran village. 

Khur Guran, the eastern of the two navigable channels westward 
of Laft Point (lat. 26° 56', long. 55° 44'), is not less than 600 yards 
wide, excepf at the sharp turn from northwest to southwest in its 
southern part, where it is 400 yards wide; it is generally preferred 
by pilots, as there are not less than 5 fathoms throughout, and, ex- 
cept at the western entrance, the banks are well defined by the 
mangroves. Its course is tortuous, being southward 9 miles from 
Laft Point, passing about 2 miles westward of that town; thence 
northwestward 2^ miles ; then turning sharply southwestward 5 miles 
and south-southwestward 2 miles to Guran Village, whence it trends 
west-southwestward 2 miles into Khur Masaga. The last reach is 
the most difficult part of the passage as it is very narrow, and several 
large bagalas are sometimes moored off the village ; the banks cover 
at high water, and they are not marked by mangroves. 

Fishing stakes extend half way across the channel extending 
southwestward between the two mangrove islands northward of 
Guran. 

Laft, 3 miles southeastward of Laft Point, is a town with about 
800 or 900 men. It lies at the foot of a hill, 200 feet high, rising 
from the beach to cliffs ;, there is a ruined fort witlj three towers at 
the southern end of the town. Laft has some trade ; much firewood 
is cut in the swamps and exported, and many bagalas from Linga, 
etc., are repaired and some are built. 

Laft Creek, in which native vessels lie, runs southeastward along 
the shore to the town. Its entrance is at the southern end of Hinda- 
rabi, a low islet^ which has a small white tomb on its northern end, 
1 mile southward of Laft Point. The creek is narrow, and there 
are mud banks with mangrove bushes between it and Khur Guran. 

There is a remarkable hill, from 500 to 600 feet high, 1 mile east- 
northeast of Laft town, which is said to have ruins of reservoirs, etc., 
on its summit. 

Supplies.^ — There is fresh water at Laft, but only in reservoirs; 
a few cattle and some poultry can sometimes be obtained. Good fish 
are caught here and at other places in the strait, much of which is 
salted and exported. 



220 KHXTB MASAGA. 

Guran is a small village resorted to by manj' bagalas for firewood, 
which is exported to all parts of the gulf; large quantities are 
stacked ready for shipment. 

Khur Masaga is the western branch of Clarence Strait; it is 
seldom used by pilots, though it is wider than Khur Guran, but the 
banks on either side are often steep-to, and, being covered, do not 
show in the muddy water. In places the navigable channel is but 
800 yards wide ; the least water in the fairway is said to be 5 fathoms, 
but, in January, a British naval vessel was taken through this chan- 
nel by a pilot from Kishm, and the least water found was 3^ fathoms ; 
the pilot appeared to use range marks. A pilot stated in 1912 that 
this channel has silted up, and can only be used by small bagalas. 
The direction of the khur from abreast of Pul Point is westward 5^ 
miles, and then south-south westward 14 miles to the entrance to Khur 
Guran. 

Southward of the low island, 3^ miles westward of Pul Point, with 
a channel i mile wide between, is a mud flat or shoal about 6 miles 
long. Caution is necessary to avoid the northeastern extremity of 
the shoal when proceeding westward from Pul Point. 

Clarence Strait, from westward of Guran to Basidu, is called Khur 
Jafuri by the natives. It trends west-southwestward and westward 
16 miles to Basidu Point. 

Villages. — ^There are several villages between Guran and Basidu, 
all of which have date groves and are a short distance inland. Chahu 
is about 7 miles westward of Guran; Dulu and Tersai are 3 miles 
and Kunar Siya (Siyah) 4 miles farther westward; they are small 
and inhabited chiefly by fishermen, and are not visible from the 
strait, but a white tomb near Chahu can be seen. 

Diraku is If miles west-southwestward from Kunar Siya and 
stands on rising* ground; Nacconas Point slightly projects between 
these villages and is low. Guri, 2 miles west-southwestward from 
Diraku, is large, with extensive date groves and much cultivation, 
and a pass leads from it through the hills to the south coast of 
Kishm. The inhabitants of these two villages, being. agricultural, 
supply Basidu with fruit and vegetables; both villages are visible 
from the' strait. 

The shore from Guri is low and barren to Kalat Hajji Karitu, a 
ruined fort on a small, rocky mound close to the strait, 3 miles west- 
ward. Nakhlistan, or Old Basidu, lies southwestward of this mound ; 
here there is a large date plantation with a few houses and some wells 
of good water. 

Flat. — ^A mud flat, which nearly all dries, commences at Guran 
and extends from 400 yards to 1 mile from the southern shore in 
places, westward to Basidu Point, a distance of 18 miles. A middle 



KAS AL KUH TO RAS BISTANA. 221 

ground extends from 1} miles northward of the shore IJ miles west- 
ward of Diraku (lat. 26° 39', long. 55° 24'), westward 4 miles, apd 
has from IJ to 3 f a ' oms water; the navigable channel, here about 1 
Ldle wide, lies northward of it. 

Bank. — On the northern side of the navigable channel an exten- 
sive sand bank trends westward from 2f miles northwestward of 
Guran ; its distance from the south shore varies from 1 J miles north- 
ward to Chahu to 2 miles northward of Basidu, where it'turns south- 
westward and joins North Bank; it has from 2 feet to 2 fathoms 
water. 

Directions. — ^A pilot can be obtained at Kishm, but one would 
probably have to be sent for if starting from Basidu. 

It is said that the detached sand banks in the strait are red sand 
and easily distinguished, although they may have a depth of 3 
fathoms, when the water over them is a yellowish green color, and 
also that the sand banks extending from the shore are usually white 
sand and do not show as well as the red. 

Entering Clarence Strait from the eastward it is necessary to 
stand sufficiently far to the northward so as to avoid the bank ex- 
tending northward from Kishm Island, between Table Hill Point and 
Jebel Horton or Quoin Hill. When ^westward of the meridian of 
Quoin Hill and clear of the west end of the bank a course may be 
set to pass Kuwai Point at a distance of 700 yards, and when Kuwai 
Point bears 182° steer 255° for Jebel Arab, keeping the perpendicular 
face of Shaik Musa a little open on the starboard bow. Keep on 
this course (having regard to the fact that the ebb tide generally 
sets toward the middle banks) until Sugar-loaf Hill opens out from 
behind the 320-feet bluff; then alter course to 297° direct for the 
conspicuous tree on Pul Point. This course will take a vessel toward 
an anchorage of Pul Point ; if proceeding to Laf t Point, Pul, Alia, 
and Ked shoals, off which strong eddies and overfalls may be ex- 
pected at springs, must be avoided. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Kuwai at 11 h. 10 m. ; 
springs rise 13 feet 2 inches, neaps 11 feet 2 inches. 

At Laft Point it is high water at 12 h. 02 m. ; springs rise- 13J 
feet, neaps 10^ feet. The datum is respectively 3 feet and 1 foot 6 
mches below mean low- water springs. 

In February, 1910, a British naval vessel proceeded westward 
through the strait to Laft Point without a pilot. After passing 
Kuwai the northern vertical bluff of the quoin-shaped hill southward 
of Ala Mulk bearing 262° led southward of the second middle ground 
until the conspicuous tree on Pul Point bore 293°, yv^hich bearing led 
through the strait until northward of Ala Mulk. 
_ From off Ala Mulk pass about ^ mile off Laft Kedim, and then 
round Laft Point at a distance of about 600 yards. The bottom 



222 BASIDU POINT. 

between Ala Mulk and Laft Point is rocky, and anchorage in this 
locality should be avoided if possible ; southward of Laft Point it is 
generally mud. 

From Laft Point proceed by Khur Guran, where the banks are 
everywhere-a guide; the eastern banks are kept aboard. The most 
difficult places are the very sharp turn from northwest to southwest 
leading into the direct reach for Guran, sometimes called Acute 
Bend; oflF Guran (lat. 26° 44', long. 55° 36'), where the channel is 
narrow and several large bagalas are moored in the middle, and at 
the entrance westward of Guran, where the banks of the khur are 
covered and not marked by mangroves. The channel westward of 
Guran is narrow, and the banks are very steep-to. There are fishing 
stakes on the edge of the southern banks, and they extend westward 
to the Khur Masaga ; they are only just visible at high water. This 
part of the channel should be navigated at low water when the banks 
can be seen. 

From about 3 miles westward of Guran keep in the fairway of the 
channel, at distances of from about 1 J miles to f mile oflF the south 
shore till northward of Kunar Siya; then cross over to the north 
bank and run along its southern side in 5 fathoms, until past the 
middle ground northeastward of Basidu, whence steer southwest- 
ward to Basidu anchorage. 

Basidu Point (Basidu) (lat. 26° 39', long. 55° 16'), the north- 
western point of Kishm Island, on which the village is situated, is 
cliff, 20 feet high, level on the top, with a few small buildings and 
some date trees. The point is bordered to the distance of about 400 
yards by shoal water of less than 3 fathoms, and a rocky patch which 
nearly dries and has 2^ fathoms water close outside it extends 150 
yards northwestward from close off the pier. About 300 yards north- 
westward of the 3-fathom curve off the point, the Gut, about 200 
yards wide, with from 12 to 16 fathoms water, trends northeastward. 

Bacon Shoal extends from about 1,200 yards westward of Basidu 
point, southwestward 3^ miles, with a greatest width of about 800 
yards; the northwestern end is rocky, the rest is sand. The shoal 
for about 100 yards from the northwestern end, and also a large patch 
about 2 miles father southwestward, dries, and the remainder is cov- 
ered. A sand spit, also covered, extends 3 J miles southward from the 
shoal. Beacon shoal has from 7 to 10 fathoms close to its northwest- 
ern side. 

The shoal shelters the anchorage from the shamal, which here blows 
from the southwestward. There is a narrow channel, with from 6 
to 11 fathoms w^ter in places, between Beacon Shoal and the mud 
and sand flat extending off the west coast of Kishm Island, but it is 
not navigable. 



I 



ENTRA.NCE TO PERSIAN GULF. 223 

Beacon. — A mast, surmounted by a cask, about 40 feet high, 
stands on the northeast extremity of Beacon Shoal. 

North Bank is a continuation of the shoal extending westward 
on the north shore of Clarence Strait, and it extends about 6 miles 
southwestward from 2f miles northwestward of Basidu Point, with 
a breadth of about 1 mile, and depths of from 2 to 3 fathoms. Its 
southwestern extremity is 6 miles west-southwestward of Basidu 
Point. 

Basidu, southwest approach — Depths. — The approach to Ba- 
sidu anchorage is between North Bank, on the northwest, and the 
Flat and Beacon Shoal on the southeast; there is a least depth of 
about 3^ fathoms in the fairway westward of the Flat, deepening to 
6 and 9 fathoms off Beacon Shoal. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage is just southeastward of the Gut, 
about 600 yards northwestward of the pier, or further northeast- 
ward, in from 7 to 5 fathoms water, clay bottom, and good holding 
ground. Avoid anchoring in the Gut. 

It is advisable to moor with the anchors northeast and southwest, 
as when the wind is strong arid opposes the tidal current a vessel 
at single anchor lies very uneasily and i« apt to foul her anchor. 

Tides and tidal current. — It is high water, full and change, at 
Basidu anchorage at h. m. ; springs rise 10 feet. The tidal cur- 
rent in the western part of Clarence Strait and Basidu anchorage sets 
westward from about 1 hour before till about 5 hours after high 
wat^r, and eastward from about 5 hours after high water until 1 hour 
before the next high water, at a greatest velocity of about 3 knots 
at springs. Between Ras Dastakan and Ras Kharyu the' east going 
current sets northwestward^ northward, and northeastward, con- 
verging to Basidu anchorage; the west going current sets south- 
westward arid westward. 

Directions — Basidu anchorage is not recommended for vessels 
of more than 20 feet draft, and a vessel of more than 17 feet draft 
should not enter before half flood. 

From the eastward, in a steam vessel, pass about 2 miles north- 
ward of Jezirat Tanb, avoiding Coote Rock (lat. 26° 17', long. 55° 
25'), from the southward pass on either side of Jezirat Nabiyu Tanb. 
Then bring Jezirat Nabiyu Tanb about 169° astern and Grubb's 
Notch, 2,950 feet high, will be ahead, bearing 349°, which leads some 
5 miles westward of Mariner Shoal and of the 3-f athom curve 
of the Flat. When the eastern Hummock bears 72° keep Khamir 
Peak bearing 45°, which leads in and northwestward of Beacon Shoal ; 
round the beacon at a distance of about i mile and anchor as already 
directed. The least water on this track is about 3^ fathoms. Grubb's 
Notch and the Hummocks are good marks. 



224 BASIDU. 

At night pass about 2 miles northward of Jezirat Tanb and steer 
westward until the light bears 120°, when steer 300° with the light 
astern until past Mariner Shoal; then steer north-northwestward 
and anchor in about 6 fathoms water till daylight; bear in mind 
that the tidal currents set east and west between Jezirat Tanb and 
the Flat at a velocity of from 2 to 3 knots at springs. 

By day the Flat and Mariner Shoal are indicated by discolored 
water. Jezirat Tanb and Nabiyu Tanb are good marks. Fishing 
boats often anchor outside and near the Flat. 

From the westward, and about 3 miles southward of Ras Kharyu 
(lat. 26° 31', long. 54° 51') steer east-northeastward until Khamir 
Peak bears 45°, and then as above directed; attention to the tidal 
currents is necessary. 

At night anchor near the Flat and wait till daylight. 

Inner Passage. — ^To proceed between Kishm Island and the Flat 
pass about 1 mile southward of the point westward of Namakdan, 
and steer westward until that point bears 73°; keep this bearing 
which leads through the narrow part of the channel, on astern until 
the eastern Hummock bears 315°, when gradually bring the point to 
bear 71°. Keep this bearing on till J mile southward of Eas Dasta- 
kan, and then steer with the table-topped hill, near Al Buza, ahead, 
bearing 293°; when the mountain, 1,330 feet high, on the mainland 
northwestward of Basidu, bears 336°, keep this bearing on until 
Khamir Peak bears 45°, and then as above directed. A British naval 
vessel passed through this channel in 1912, and the least water ob- 
tained was 4| fathoms. Caution is necessary in using it, and it will 
be noticed that 3^ and 4 fathoms are the least depths charted. 

Basidu (B&sfdti)^ a British possession, is a village on Basidu 
Point with a population of about 50 in the British concession, and 
about 300 in the Persian part, most of whom are in a condition of 
poverty. A small chapel and a hospital on the point are ruins. 
There are several wells with plenty of water, and three Government 
reservoirs. About J mile southward of the point is a building 
known as the Officers' House, with a flagstaflF where the British flag 
is hoisted when any vessels are in the anchorage, a scattered village 
and a small bazaar ; most of the buildings ai'e in a state of decay. 

No supplies can be obtained. 

Pier. — A stone pier extends 200 feet northwestward from the 
shore 200 yards northeastward of Basidu Point; it is about 12 feet 
wide, 4 feet high, and the water around it dries, the outer end being 
awash at low water; there are rough steps at the end and on both 
sides. Eocky patch off the pier. 

Jezirat Tanb (Tunb), 15 miles southward of Ras Dastakan and 
8 miles from the Flat, is 2J miles in extent, 165 feet high, of brown 
color, and lever outline. There is a little peaked hummock near the 



ENTRANCE TO PERSIAN GULF. 225 

northeastern point, which shows well on northeasterly or south- 
easterly bearings. 

The east coast is low rocky cliff, except at its northern and south- 
ern ends, where there is sandy beach. The beach extends about 1 mile 
northward from the southeast point, in a bay, where there are 
depths of from 3 to 4 fathoms about 400 yards offshore; the water 
deepens to 9 fathoms about 1 mile offshore, and then the depth in- 
creases rapidly to over 25 fathoms. The southeast point is a sandy 
pit, almost steep-to, with depths of 2| fathoms 40 yards distant. 

There are a few permanent inhabitants, who live in a village of 
some five well-built houses, with cultivated gardens and wells, a little 
way inland from the south coast, and there are some huts near the 
beach used occasionally by fishermen. The island is covered with 
coarse grass and shrubs, and there are a considerable number of 
goats and some cattle ; fine oysters can be obtained. 

The island belongs to the Principality of Sharjah; there is a rep- 
resentative of the Shaikh at the village, and the Shaikh's flag is 
hoisted at a flagstaff near the landing place there on a vessel's 
approach. 

Light. — ^A flashing white light, 229 feet above high water, visible 
21 miles, is exhibited from a white iron pile tower, 71 feet high, on 
the summit of Jezirat Tanb (lat. 26° 16', long. 55° 19'. 

Shoals. — ^The soundings around Jezirat Tanb are irregular. In 
1889, a steamer reported having struck a rock or shoal on the north- 
em side of the island, which should therefore be approached with 
caution. 

A heavy tide rip has been seen 2J miles northward of the light- 
house, and may be due to shoaler water than charted. 

Foul ground extends a short distance off the southwestern pj,rt of 
the island. 

Clive Rock, on which the E. I. C. S. Clive struck in 1835, is 
situated with the southwestern point of the island, bearing 112° 
800 yards ; it is detached and dries 4 feet. There are about 5 fathoms 
close around. 

Do not decrease the water to less than 15 fathoms when rounding 
the southwestern point of the island. 

Anchorage. — ^The best anchorage for a steamer is in about 7^ 
to 10 fathoms water on the east coast of the island. There is also 
anchorage on the southern side of the island in 6 or 7 fathoms, off a 
banyan tree, but the tidal currents here run strongly east and west. 
The currents are not so strong at the anchorage on the east coast, 
which is sheltered from the shamal, but open to the nashi. 

A rocky flat with overfalls extends 5 miles southward from Jezirat 
Tanb ; on its southern part, 5 miles, 156°, from the lighthouse, is a 



226 JEZIRAT ABU MUSA. 

7-fathom patch with from 10 to 17 fathoms around. Southward of 
the fiat, the water deepens rapidly to 40 fathoms, and 3^ miles from 
the patch there are 82 fathomi?, the deepest water in the gulf. 

Landing. — ^The best landing is on the beach in the.bay northward 
of the southeast point, except during a nashi; there is also a land- 
ing place at the village. 

Tides and tidal currents. — At Jezirat Tanb springs rise 8 feet. 
The current has been observed to set westward from 3 to 1^ hours 
before until 3 to 4^ hours after high water, and eastward from 3 
to 4^ hours after high water until 3 to IJ hours before the next high 
water, at a velocity of from 2 to 3 knots ; the currents* are much in- 
fluenced by the prevailing winds. 

Coote Rock (lat. 26° 17', long. 55° 25'), 6 miles, 80^ from Jezirat 
Tanb lighthouse, is a patch, about 400 yards in extent, with 4J 
fathoms water, and depths of less than 10 fathoms, rock bottom, 
about i mile around, whence the water deepens to from 25 to 40 
fathoms. 

The tidal currents, which attain a rate of from 2 to 3 knots at 
springs, cause strong ripples over the rock. 

Jezirat Nabiyu Tanb (Tunb), 7 miles, 260°, from Jezirat Tanb, 
is triangular in shape, 1 mile long northwest and southeast, and 5 
mile broad at the southeastern end. There is a dark hill on its 
northwestern point, with two little peaks 116 feet high. It is bar- 
ren, uninhabited, and without water. 

The island is steep-to, except on its northeastern side, where a 
reef extends 400 yards, and there are from 30 to 50 fathoms within 
1 mile. 

Jezirat Abu Musa (Bu Musa), 25 miles, about 212°, from 
Jezirat Tanb, is triangular in shape, each side being about 2^ miles 
long ; it is mostly low, with numerous hillocks, some of which, being 
iron oxide, are dark chocolate in color. A small chain of hills in the 
western part of the island attains a height of 234 feet. Jabal 
Halwa, in the northern part of the island, rises abruptly to the 
height of 362 feet, is of a light pinkish color, and is conspicuous. 

Two rocks, on which the sea breaks in moderate weather, lie 600 
yards off the northern part of the east coast. Near the southern end 
of the east coast there is good anchorage, sheltered from the shamal, 
in 7 fathoms, sand. 

The southeast point ends in a sand spit, steep to on its eastern side, 
but foul to the southward. The flag of the Shaikh of Sharjah 
(white with a red center) is sometimes hoisted at a flagstaff on the 

beach. 

The south coast of the island is divided into three parts by two 
rocky points, with sand between. Both the eastern parts are foul, 
with rocks, which dry, and it is unadvisable to approach this locality 



KAS Air KUH TO RAS BISTANA. 227 

within 1| miles. The western of the two points terminates in a con- 
spicuous black rock, and there is a small village near where the 
Shaikh's flag is flown. A rocky shoal, with 2f fathoms water, lies 
i mile westward of this point ; it is steep-to, and there is good an- 
chorage northward of it in 6 fathoms, sand, sheltered from the kaus. 

The western point of the island is the end of a range of hills, with 
a steep coast, and four off-lying islets, the largest of which is con- 
nected to the coast at low water. 

The northwest coast is rocky, with two islets, and a shoal between 
them, lying off the entrance to a sandy bay; it is unadvisable to 
approach this coast within a mile, the 5-fathom curve being some 
distance off it. 

The northern point (lat. 25° 54', long. 55° 3') of the island rises 
to a conspicuous hill, 153 feet high, with two summits, and bright 
red in color. 

There is a small date grove in the northeastern part of the island, 
near which is a large house, the residence of the Shaikh, who visits 
the island in the summer. 

There is a large quantity of iron oxide on the island ; it is shipped 
in dhows to Abu Shahr and other gulf ports, and thence to England. 
Steam vessels have occasionally called at the island to load with 
oxide. 

Supplies are not obtainable. A few goats and other domestic ani- 
mals are kept by the natives, and water is obtained from wells. 

Soundings. — Between the Jezair Abu Musa and Nabiyu Tanb 
there are from 30 to 58 fathoms ; 6 miles northward of Abu Musa is a 
small 15-fathom bank. 

Jezirat Abu Musa is 32 miles, west-northwestward from Umm al 
Kaiwain, the nearest part of the Arab coast, and the soundings 
towards it from the mainland, in that direction, are from 8 to 20 
fathoms over the Great Pearl Bank until within 11 miles of the 
island, when the water deepens to from 25 to 35 fathoms, but 6 miles 
south-southeastward of the island is a depth of 16 fathoms. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Jezirat Abu Musa at 
Ohi 9m.; springs rise 7 feet. The tidal current sets south westward 
from 3 hours before until 3 hours after high water, and northeast- 
ward from 3 hours after high water until 3 hours before the next 
high water, at a velocity of about 1 knot at springs. 

This tidal information is approximate only. 

The mainland — Mountains. — From the rounded mountain, 
2,940 feet high, 10 miles northward of Basidu, a mountainous range 
trends westward, and at the distance of 14 miles is Grubb's notch, 
a saddle, 2,950 feet high, on the ridge. The range continues west- 
ward, and 12 miles farther is Linga Peak, 3,900 feet high, and 
conspicuous; between the peak and Jabal Bistana, 9 miles west-north- 



228 BAS ASH SHAWABI. 

westward of Kas Kharyu, the land rises gently from the coast to a 
height of about 300 feet, ending northward'in cliffs, between which 
and the mountains is an extensive low plain, swampy after rain. 

The coast from the low point northwestward of Basidu trends 
southwestward 25 miles to Kas Kharyu. The land near the point 
is low, but it rises to a mountain (lat. 26° 44', long. 55° 8'), 1,330 
feet high, 5^ ladles to the westward, the western side of which falls 
to a plain; the outline of ^he mountain is very irregular, and the 
eastern part is of a light color, the western dark and apparently 
volcanic. 

On the southwestern side of the plain just mentioned, which is 
about 4 miles wide, the land again becomes hilly ; these hills extend 
7 miles westward from the coast with a breadth of about 4 miles, and 
there is an extensive plain, very low and swampy, between them and 
Grubb's notch mountains. The northeastern part of the hills is a 
long light-colored ridge, 960 feet high, with a very jagged outline, 
rather remarkable on west-northwesterly bearings ; the remainder are 
dark and volcanic, and a flat-topped hill, 620 feet high, near the 
shore, 4J miles northeastward of Kung, is conspicuous from the 
eastward. Al J3uza, f mile eastward of the last-mentioned hill, is a 
similar but smaller hiU. 

Kale (Kaleh) Lashtan, 4J miles west-northwestward of Kung, is a 
hill, about 600 feet high, with a sloping top and precipitous sides; 
on the summit is a ruined fort, which is not visible from seaward. 
The hill, which is detached from and shows over the land between it 
and the sea, is conspicuous on westerly and west-northwesterly bear- 
ings, when it appears quoin-shaped. 

A hill, 400 "eet high, lies 4^ miles west-horthwestward of Linga ; 
its top is quoin-shaped and conspicuous from the eastward. 

Soundings. — Shoal water appears to extend about f to If miles 
off the coast from the low point northwestward of Basidu to Has 
Kliaryu, but it has been only partially examined. Outside the shoal 
water is a gut or khur, from J to 1 mile wide, with from about 6 
to 13 fathoms water, running generally parallel with the coast, 
southwestward to Linga, a distance of about 20 miles. Between the 
khur and North bank there are depths of from 3J to 4^ fathoms. 

Caution. — ^When standing toward the coast, it is extremely dan- 
gerous to shoal the water on the inshore side of the khur. 

Has ash Shawari, 11 miles southwestwaM of the low point north- 
westward of Basidu, is low, sandy, and approached closely by the 
deep water of the khur. Bandar Hamairan is a bay northeastward 
of the ras, and about 3 miles from the ras is a shoal bank, IJ miles 
off-shore, with 4 fathoms water inside it, the deep khur being just 
outside. Native vessels anchor inside the bank, and bagales are laid 
up here. 



ENTRANCE TO PERSIAN GULF. 229 

Bandar Muallim (Mu'allim) village is situated in a date grove 
about 1 mile northward of the ras. 

The coast from Ras ash Shawari trends west-southwestward 2 
miles to Al Buza, and then turns southwestward, with an inshore 
bend, 5 miles to Kung; there are two date groves on it. 

Eung (lat. 26° 35', long. 54° 57') is a fishing village extending ^ 
mile along the sandy shore, and is chiefly mat huts, with a popula- 
tion from 2,000 to 3,000, who own many boats. Much pottery is 
a common description is made here. At the southwestern end of 
the village is a large white ruined factory, and on the beach off it, 
where it covers at high water, is a round fort. There is a large date 
grove and much cultivation behind the village ; a few supplies might 
be obtained. The landing is bad at low water, as the sandy beach 
dries off about J mile in ridges, with 1 or 2 feet water in the spaces 
between. There is a date plantation on the coast about 2 miles south- 
westward of the village. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage in 5 fathoms, mud, IJ miles off 
Kung, from which shoal water extends 1 mile to the depth of 2^ 
fathoms, whence it deepens quickly to 4^ fathoms; the anchorage is 
sheltered except from the suhaili. Just outside the anchorage is the 
khur already mentioned, in which here there are 8 fathoms water. 
The 5-fathom curve trends northeastward and eastward from 3J 
miles southward of Kung, and the depth gradually decreases east- 
ward to 3 fathoms on the western side of the flat. At 8 miles south- 
ward of Kung the water deepens to 10 fathoms. 

Idnga (Lingeh), 3^ miles southwestward of Kung, is a flourish- 
ing town, with many well-built houses, extending in a narrow strip 
1 mile along the coast, with a cluster of houses a little way inland ; 
its population is estimated at 8,000 during the summer, and 12,000 
in the winter after the return of the pearling fleet. It has a pleasing 
appearance from seaward, with date trees behind it, and shows up 
well in the forenoon. The deputy governor's house in the front of 
the town is conspicuous, and the flag is flown from a tall white flag- 
staff near it; his guard consists of about 40 irregular troops, and 
he is entitled to a salute of five guns. There are two old muzzle- 
loading guns near the governor's house for saluting purposes. The 
tull minaret at the southwestern end of the town is very noticeable ; 
its upper part, built of gray and green bricks, with the roof painted 
dark green, shows well against the light-colored land behind. 

The town is partially defended on the land side by an insignificant 
wall with towers, outside of which are many circular doomed reser- 
voirs, which are filled by the rain in winter. The customhouse is 
in front of the town, and on either side of it there are two basins, 
which dry, wherein small craft shelter. Bagalas and smaller native 



230 L.INGA — ^ANCHORAGE — ^TIDES, 

craft are built here. Upward of 100 bagalas belong to Linga ; some 
of them trade to India, etc., and about 40 boats go to the pearl fishery. 

The population consists of Arabs, Persians, and Swahili negroes 
of the Sunni and Shiah sects. Persian and Arabic are both generally 
known at Lingua ; either, or English, can be used in commercial cor- 
respondence. 

Linga, and the district immediately around, are under the juris- 
diction of a deputy of the governor general of the Persian Gulf 
ports, and a small detachment of Persian troops is stationed here. 

The British vice-consulate is situated about 300 yards northwest- 
ward of the governor's flaCgstaff. 

There are about 70 British subjects, including the troops forming 
the consular guard ; the vice consul, the port medical officer (an Eng- 
lishman), and a Belgian (custom's official) are the only whites. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage is abreast of the governor's flag- 
staff, which also is the most convenient position for boat work be- 
tween the ship and the shore. 

There is anchorage f mile offshore, in 5 fathoms, clay bottom, and 
good holding ground, and for small craft, 600 yards further in, in 
about 4 fathoms ; it is sheltered except from the suhaili, which sends 
in a heavy sea, but this wind is always of short duration. Close 
outside the anchorage there are depths of 7 and 8 fathoms in the 
khur, and it again shoals to 5| fathoms 1^ miles offshore. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, at 
Linga, at h. m. The tidal rise is 7^ feet at ordinary springs. Off 
Linga the current sets to the southwestward from two hours to six 
hours after high water, and to the northeastward from five hours 
before to one hour after high water at Maskat, at a rate of J to | 
knot. 

Landing. — The best landing place is the basin northeastward of 
the customhouse. 

Supplies. — Beef of poor quality, mutton, and vegetables can be 
obtained. Fowls, eggs, and fish are plentiful and usually cheap. 
Duck, bustard, and grouse can be shot during the winter months, but 
it is necessarv to travel some miles inland to get them. 

Recreations. — There is a tennis court near the governor's flag- 
staff, placed at the disposal of officers by the port medical officer 
and vice consul ; there is a ground suitable for football near by the 
tennis court. For two rupees one can hire a boat with three or four 
divers for about five hours, with a 20 per cent interest in any pearls 
that may be recovered. 

Kadio. — There is a radio station at Lingeh. It is open to the pub- 
lic, and the office hours are from 9.45 a. m. to 7.45 p. m., Greenwich 
mean time. The call letters are V T L. There are two masts, each 
156 feet high. 



RAS AL KTJH TO RAS BISTANA. 231 

Communicatioixs. — The subsidiary steamers of the British India 
Co. call once a fortnight. 

The customs launch from Bandar Abbas calls at irregular inter- 
vals, and a dhow conveys mails to and from Hen jam weekly. 

Repairs. — Linga is probably the best place in the gulf to get any 
ironwork made, or repairs executed, but the work is very roughly 
done. It is also the best place for boat building. 

Trade. — Linga is chiefly noted for its pearl trade. ' The principal 
imports are cotton goods and twist, dates, fruits, grain, metals, oil, 
pearls, sugar, and tobacco, and the exports cattle, cotton piece goods, 
drugs, grain and pulse, oil, pearls, fish (fresh and salted),' ghi, specie, 
and tobacco. 

The facilities for landing and shipping cargo are good. 

Currency. — The Persian shahis, kran, and tuman; Indian rupees 
and currency notes of all values are plentiful, and sovereigns are 
freely circulated; 

Copper money is seldom seen at Linga, the 1 and 2 shahi nickel 
pieces being preferred. 

Weights and measures. — The weights and measures are gener- 
ally similar to those at Bandar Abbas, but the Linga man=900 
miskals (91 pounds), and the Linga gaz=18J inches. 

Communications. — The vessels of the British India Steam Navi- 
gation Co.'s subsidiary mail service between Bombay and Basra, call 
at Linga weekly on their passage from Bombay, and fortnightly on 
their passage to Bombay. 

Vessels of the Bombaj^-Persia, Arab Steamers, Anglo- Algerian, 
Bucknall Steamship call occasionally. 

There is an Indian post office, but no communication by telegraph. 

Pilots for the Shatt al Arab can sometimes be obtained at Linga, 
an(i they expect to be landed there on the return voyage. 

Jisha (Jisheh) (lat. 26° 32', long. 54° 52'), about 2 miles south- 
westward of Linga, and 1 mile northeastward of Has Kharyu, is a 
small village in which there are two towers; there are date trees in 
its vicinity. The people are of Al Jowasim tribe, and are fishermen 
and agriculturists; ther6 may be from 100 to 200 men. Water is 
obtainable. 

Shoal water extends about f mile off Jisha. 

!Ras Kharyu is low and sandy, with a rocky beach ; a spit with 
IJ fathoms water extends 900 yards southeastward round the ras, 
and a rocky 2^-f athom patch lies about f mile southward of it. There 
is a depth of 14 fathoms close southeastward of the spit ; the water 
then shoals to 7 fathoms, and again deepens to 10 fathoms about 
3 miles southward from the ras. 



232 BIST AN A VILLAGE. 

The coast from Ras Kharyu trends westward and south westward 
3J miles to Ras ash Shinas. Shinas Bay, between these points, is 
bordered by shoal water of less than 3 fathoms for about J mile ; 
it aflFords good anchorage in from 5 to 7 fathoms water, sheltered from 
the shamal. ' In a nashi, the sea is not great, as it is broken by the 
Flat and Kishum Island. 

Shinas (Shanas), on the western side of the bay and } mile 
inland, is a small village, obscured from seaward by a thick grove 
of date trees; the population, from 200 to 300 men of Al Jowasim 
tribe, are both agricultural and fishermen. A white ruined tomb 
nearly 2 miles northward of the ras is visible from seaward, but 
it is not noticeable, except when the suii shines on it ; at the eastern 
end of the date grove in front of the village is a large banyan tree, 
which is very conspicuous, showing dark against the date palms. 

Has ash Shinas (lat. 26° 30', long. 54° 48') is very low and 
sandy, with shoal water about J mile off it, outside 'which the depth 
increases to 13 fathoms; there is a depth of 10 fathoms 1 mile, and 
20 fathoms 5 miles, to the southward of the ras. 

Tidal currents. — The tidal currents off Ras Kharyu and Ras ash 
Shinas attain a rate of IJ knots, and cause a discoloration of the 
water. 

The coast from Ras ash Shinas trends westward 9 miles, with a 
slight bend northward, to Ras Bistana; it is low and sandy, with 
rocky beach, the ground rising in a gentle slope to the foot of Jabal 
Bistana, except some white sand hills, about 30 feet high, close 
to the sea 1 mile westward of Ras ash Shinas. 

There is a grove of date trees, with four wells, near the shore 
2J miles westward of Ras ash Shinas, and here the sand beach affords 
good landing. A domed white reservoir, 1 mile farther westward, 
and J mile inland, is a good mark. 

Anchorage off this coast, from which shoal water of less than 
3 fathoms, extend about J mile in places, is not sheltered in a shamal, 
but is well sheltered in a nashi. 

Bistana Village (Bustdneh) (lat. 26° 31', long. 54° 40'), 2 
miles eastward of Ras Bistana, is small ; there is a round tower in it, 
and a domed reservoir on the rising ground behind. There is a date 
grove at the village, and another between it and the ras. The popu- 
lation are chiefly fishermen of the Bani Marazik Tribe. 

Boats anchor in 4 fathoms close to the shore nearly 1 mile west- 
ward of the village, and are "partly sheltered from shamals, which 
here blow from the westward ; larger vessels can not get close enough 
in to obtain much shelter. 

Jabal Bistana is a remarkable isolated group of dark volcanic 
hills of very irregular outline, about 3^ miles in extent ; the highest 



ENTBANCE TO PERSIAN GULF. 233 

part near the middle is a ridge, near the southern end of which, and 
situated 4f miles northeastward of Ras Bistana, is a little peak, 
1,750 feet high, resembling a tower, conspicuous, especially from the 
eastward or westward. The southwestern part of the group, 3 miles 
from Has Bistana, has been mistaken for the ras, when the lowland 
has not been visible. The land rises gradually to the foot of the 
hills, which are from 200 to- 300 feet high. 

Kas Bistana is low and brown in color. There are three little 
date trees 600 yards westward of the ras. Shoal water of less than 
3 fathoms extends J mile off the southwestern side of the ras. 

Shoal. — A shoal patch, with 3J fathoms water, and from 6 to 22 
fathoms around, lies If miles southwestward of Eas Bistana. 

Soundings. — There are depths of 12 fathoms about 1 mile, and of 
20 fathoms about 5 miles, southward of Ras Bistana. 

173608°— 20 16 



CHAPTER X. ^ 

PERSIAN GULF, NORTHEASTERN SHORE. 

HAS BISTANA TO, AND INCLUDING, ABU SHAHR (BUSHIRE). 

Lat. 26° 30', long. 54° 38', to lat. 29° 05', long. 50° 40'. 

The coast of Persia from Ras Bistana to Abu Shahr (Bushire) is 
bold, with ranges of mountains along its whole extent, rising in 
places from close to the sea ; there are many towns and villages on 
it, where small supplies of cattle and poultry can be obtained. The 
maritime population of the towns is Arab; the agricultural, either 
Persian or a mixed race of the two. The country, with the islands 
adjacent, belongs to the Persian Government, who receive tribute 
from the chiefs of the principal towns, to whom the government of 
their own districts is left. 

Jezirat Sirri (lat. 25° 55^ long. 54° 32'), 34 miles, 187° from Ras 
Bistana, is somewhat triangular in shape, 3 miles long east and west, 
and 2J miles broad at its eastern end; it is low, with many small 
isolated dark hills, none of which exceed 50 feet in height. There 
are several rocks above water on its northwest coast, and one is i 
mile off the northwestern point ; the east coast and southeastern low 
sandy point are steep-to, but elsewhere foul ground extends J mile 
from the island. 

There are depths of from 30 to 44 fathoms about 1 mile around 
the island, and the lead is no guide in approaching it. 

Sirri village, on the south coast, about li miles from the south- 
eastern point, has about 60 houses and a population of about 600, 
mostly engaged in the pearl fishery, to which they send about 40 
boats. A flagstaff stands near the village, where there are also sev- 
eral large and conspicuous trees. On the northern part of the island 
are several houses and small date groves. Cattle and goats are sent 
over from the mainland to graze here. A little fruit and vegetables 
might be procured, and perhaps a few cattle. Water can be ob- 
tained from wells near Sirri Village, but the landing is bad. 

The ownership of the island is disputed between the Persian Gov- 
ernment and the Shaikh of Sharja. 

Anchorage off the island is very indifferent; the best is about ^ 
mile off-shore between the wells near Sirri Village and the south- 
eastern point, in about 8 fathoms, rocky bottom; here there is 
234 



JEZIRAT FARUR. 235 

partial shelter from the shamal and nashi, but the holding ground 
is bad. 

Soundings. — ^There are depths of 45 and 50 fathoms between 
Jezirat Sirri and the vicinity of Jezirat Nabiyu Farur. 

Jezirat Nabiyu Farur, 12 miles north-northwestward of Sirri, is 
about i mile in extent, with a remarkable dark-colored saddle-hill, 
120 feet high, on its eastern side. 

A rocky reef, partly above water, extends ^ mile northwestward 
from the island ; some authorities state that this reef extends 1 mile 
and that the sea has been seen breaking heavily on it at that dibtance. 
A narrow reef borders the west and south coasts. A bank with 8 
fathoms, hard bottom, lies IJ miles south-southwestward from the 
islet; it has not been examined and there may be less water. There 
is a depth of 10 fathoms with the saddle hill bearing 270°, distant 
1,200 yards. With these exceptions the water is deep around the 
island and the lead is no guide in approaching it. 

Soundings. — There are depths of from 43 to 52 fathoms between 
Jezair Nabiyu Farur and Farur. 

Jezirat Farur, 8J miles north-northeastward of Jezirat Nabiyu 
Farur, is 4 miles long north and south, 2^ miles broad, and rises in 
dark volcanic hills to a table-topped conical peak 465 feet high. The 
east coast is fringed by a rocky reef 400 yards wide and steep-to. A 
rocky flat, with some detached rocks above water, extends 200 yards 
from the west coast; there are 6 fathoms water close off it. Else- 
where the coast is steep-to with 40 fathoms water 600 yards from 
the cliffs. 

Anchorage has been obtained in 20 fathoms water with a village 
on the eastern side of the island, bearing about 257°. There are 
about 50 people ; cattle are brought from Mughu to graze, and 
jBrewood is obtainable. In a ravine on the eastern side are a few 
date trees, with some wells containing a little water. 

From its height, dark color, and the deep water near it, the island 
is sometimes made at night, in thick weather, or during the haze of a 
summer shamal ; caution, however, is necessary, as the tidal currents 
set strongly past it, and the lead is no guide when approaching it. 

Farur Shoal (lat. 26° 26', long. 54° 33'), the shoalest part of 
which, 2i fathoms, at its eastern end, lies 7 miles, 16° from Jezirat 
Farur, and 5^ miles, 226° from Eas Bistana, is a patch of rock 
and sand; the shoal, with less than 5 fathoms water, extends west- 
ward about 3 miles. There are depths of from 11 to 16 fathoms 
around the shoal, but the 20- fathom curve passes close southward 
of it. The tidal currents set strongly over the shoal and cause rip- 
plings, with much discoloration of the water. It is frequented by 
fishermen. 



286 PERSIAN GULF, NORTHEASTBRIT SHORE, 

Soundings. — There are depths of from 25 to 44 fathoms between 
Jezirat Farur and Farur Shoal, but a British naval veissel obtained 
soundings of from 8 to 11 fathoms, sand, on a bank about 1^ miles 
in extent, situated with the north point of Jezirat Farur bearing 
237°, 6 miles. 

The passage between Farur Shoal and the Sf-fathom patch off 
Ras Bistana, is 3 miles wide, with from 11 to 22 fathoms water, rock 
bottom, and overfalls. 

Directions. — The passages on either side of the islands just men- 
tioned are navigable, and by day, unless very hazy, there is no 
difficulty. From the eastward or westward, the passage southward 
of Farur Shoal is preferable. The 25-fathom curve, except over 
the 8-fathom bank, passes southward of Farur shoal; and Jezirat 
Farur generally shows well at night. 

Tidal currents. — ^The tidal currents are strong off Ras Bistana,. 
and are felt along the coast to the westward; the currents set west- 
ward from 3 hours before until 3 hours after high water, and east- 
ward from 3 hours after high water until 3 hours before the next 
high water; but, apparently, little dependence can be placed on the 
times of their turning. The currents attain a rate of from 1 to 2 
knots between the islands to the southward of the ras. 

Mughu Bay. — The shore of Mughu (Mughu) Bay from Ras 
Bistana trends north-northwestward 7 miles, and then turns west- 
ward 7 miles to Ras Yarid ; it is low and sandy, with a rocky beach 
near Ras Bistana, and the land rises gradually to the bases of Jabal 
Bistana and Jabal Yarid, between which and about 2^ miles inland 
is precipitous broken ground. The shores appear to be fringed with 
shoal water, extending off from about i mile to 1 mile. 

There is good shelter from kaus on the eastern shore of the bay. 
but it is a dangerous anchorage in a shamal. For shelter, even from 
easterly winds, anchor near Mughu, or farther out, with Ras Bistana 
bearing about 103°, so as to be able to get to sea should a shamal 
set in.- The bay is open to the suhaili. The depth is less than 10 
fathoms, and the bottom is generally mud, good holding ground. 

Shoal. — A patch, with 2 J fathoms, or possibly less, water, lies 
3f miles, 234°, from Mughu Village. 

Duan Village (lat. 26° 35', long. 64° 34'), on the shore 6 miles 
north-northwestward of Ras Bistana, is small; it has a small fort 
with two white towers, and a date grove behind and on each side 
of it. Good water is obtainable here, but scarcely anything else. 
It is a poor place, with perhaps 100 men, who send a few boats to 
the pearl fishery. There is a depth of 5 fathoms about ^ mile off- 
shore here. 

Mughu Village lies 3 miles westward of Duan and about 1 mile 
eastward of the foot of Jabal Yarid ; there are several round towers 



CHARAK BAY. 287 

in the village, a large fort immediately behind it, and a date grove 
behind and westward of it; eastward, for about 2 miles, are low 
sandhills. It contains about 600 men of the Bani Marazik tribe, 
and sends 20 boats to the pearl fishery. The Shaikh of Mughu has 
authority over Hasina village, in Charak Bay. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage close off the village, and there 
is a depth of 4 fathoms, clay, nearly 1 mile off-shore; the shamal 
blows here from the westward, so unless near the shore there is then 
very little shelter. When in 4 fathoms the Yarid flat breaks the sea. 
but some swells roll in, making a vessel uneasy. The depth decreases 
regularly to the anchorage, and native vessels there are usually a 
guide. In a suhaili there must be a heayy sea, but the holding 
ground is good. 

Supplies. — ^Water can be obtained here, also cattle and a few 
vegetables. 

Mountains. — Between Jabal Bistana and the range of which 
Linga Peak is one of the summits, is a plain extending westward to 
Charak. There are several dark mountains on its northern side; 
of these one, hay CQpk-sh aped, and about 1,500 feet high, about 12 
miles northward of Duan, is conspicuous. 

!Eas Yarid (Yurd) is low and broad, the coast bending round 
gradually; the southwestern extremity lies 12^ miles west-north- 
westward, of Ras Bistana. Jabal Yarid (lat. 26° 38'. long. 54° 26'), 
about 2i miles northward of the ras, is a rugged group of dark 
colored volcanic hills about 1,200 feet high, which commences to rise 
J mile inland, and has a jagged outline but no marked peak. From 
the westward the northern bluff is conspicuous. 

A flat, with less than -3 fathoms water, .extends 2 miles southward 
and westward from Ras Yarid, with 7 fathoms close-to and 12 
fathoms within i mile. By day the flat is marked by discoloration 
of the water. 

Charak Bay. — The shore of Charak Bay from Ras Yarid trends 
northwestward 10 miles to Charak town, and then westward 4 miles 
to Ras Tawana ; the depths in the bay are less than 10 fathoms, and 
regular. Hasina (Hasineh) , a fishing village, is about 4 miles north- 
westward of Ras Yarid ; there is a conspicuous roimd tower at both 
its southeastern and northwestern ends, and a large fort on the shore 
westward of the village ; the land rises gradually to the base of Jabal 
Yarid. Anchorage off it is open to shamals. 

The shore from Hasina to Charak is low and sandy, and can be 
approached to 1 mile. 

Charak (lat. 26° 44', long. 54° 17') is a town with several towers 
and a grove of date trees behind it, and on a hillock some 90 feet 
high, about 800 yards northward of the shore, is a small fort in 
ruins. Charak has a clean appearance, and the inhabitants are 



238 HAS BISTANA TO, AND INCLUDING, ABU SHAHR. 

usually friendly and civil, but were hostile in 1912 when a British 
naval vessel visited the place; the population was then estimated at 
about 2,000. There is said to be a good pass into the interior. The 
Shaikh pays tribute to the Persian Government, and has authority 
over Jazirat Kais ; his house is near the middle of the town. Charak 
sends about 100 boats to the pearl fishery; some bagalas also belong 
to it. There is a Persian customhouse here. 

The sandy beach in front of the town dries off 400 yards in ridges, 
making landing bad at low water. 

A mile eastward of the shaikh's house is a creek, into which a 
large watercourse flows; boats are hauled up here. A small village 
stands on its western bank. ' 

Jabal Hamar, IJ miles westward of the shaikh's house, is 370 feet 
high, and appears quoin-shaped from the southwestward ; there is a 
conspicuous hive-shaped tank on its southern side. 

There are two rocky points, about 2 and 3 miles, respectively, 
westward of Charak, with sandy bays between; the shore between 
these points and westward of Kas Tawana is bordered by foul 
ground to the distance of about 800 yards. 

Ancliorage. — There is good anchorage off Charak, sheltered from 
the prevailing winds, but open to the suhaili, in 4 fathoms, mud, with 
Ras Tawana bearing 267°, and the fort about 5°. Some swell is felt 
here in shamals, which blow from the westward, therefore anchor 
as close in as the draft permits. There is good shelter from easterly 
winds. 

Supplies. — Cattle, sheep, goats, fish, fruit, and water can be ob- 
tained at Charak; also firewood in small quantities, but dear. 
, Tawana (Tavuneh) is a small village on JRas Tawana; the ras 
is about 28 feet high, with a rocky spit extending 700 yards off it. 
There are a few date trees here, four towers, and a castle on a rocky 
hillock at the ras. The village has a population of about 100 men.- 
Good water is obtainable. 

Anchorage. — Small vessels anchor ^ mile offshore, with the tower 
on Eas Tawana bearing about 295°, about | mile, sheltered from 
shamals by the spit. 

The coast from Ras Tawana trends westward 13 miles to Jirza 
and is steep-to. The plain between the mountains and sea is less 
than 1 mile wide at Tawana, and its width decreases to the west- 
ward. There is a noticeable peak about 8 miles west-northwestward 
of Ras Tawana, and 2 miles inland. The inner mountain range ex- 
tends, apparently with gaps in it, west-northwestward from the 
peak, 2,940 feet high, northward of Basidu. 

Jabal Turanja (Turanjeh) (lat. 26° 57', long. 54° 07'), 15 miles 
north-northwestward of Ras Tawana, is of a flattened dome shape, 



JEZIRAT KAIS. 239 

and light in' color, with a small hummock on the summit, 5,150 feet 
high; it is conspicuous seaward from Basidu until on an easterly 
bearing, but is obscured by a lower, range when nearer than about 
10 miles to the coast. The mountain is part of the range just men- 
tioned, which continues some distance farther westward. 

The coast range, from 2,000 to 3,000 feet in height, commences 
northward of Charak, and extends to about 15 miles west-northwest- 

» 

ward of Chiru, leaving a great valley between it and the Turanja 
range. 

Jezirat Kais, about 10 miles southward of the coast, 13 miles 
westward of Ras Tawana, is oval in shape, 8J miles long east and 
west, 4^ miles broad, and of even convex outline, rising to a level 
tract -about 120 feet high, which, being light brown in color, is diffi- 
cult to see at night. The coast of the island are low and the beach 
sandy with rocky points; the eastern and western extremities are 
/ low cliffs. There are many trees on the island, and several villages 
on its northern side; it is under the Shaikh of Charak, and sends 
about 50 boats to the pearl fishery. Reefs, nowhere extending a mile 
off-shore, surround, the island, with deep water close off them, but 
shallower water than was supposed to exist has been reported on the 
south coast ; until this has been examined, give that coast a berth of 
at least \\ miles. 

The northeast point is low and sandy. Mashi (Masheh) village, 
with about 500 men of Al Ali tribe, chiefly employed in the pearl 
fishery, extend about 1 mile along the coast southward of the point; 
in it are two square forts, a round tower, a well, and some date and 
banyan trees. 

Lightship. — A lightship is moored about 9J miles westward of 
Jezirat Kais ; it is painted red, and marked " Kais Island " in white 
on each side, and carries a fore and jigger mast, with a central lan- 
tern tower, painted white, between them, from which a light is 
shown at an elevation of 32 feet. 

Mashi Fort, on the point, has two towers, from the northern of 
which a flag is flown, and is conspicuous. 

The east point, nearly 3 miles southeastward of the northeast point, 
is a cliff about 6 feet high, with a conspicuous tower on it, and thence 
the coast trends southward about \ mile, whence it curves gradually 
westward to the west point ; there' are one or two small date clumps 
on the south coast of the island. 

From the northeast point (lat. 26° 33', long. 54° 02'), the coast 
trends westward 4 miles to the north point, which is cliffs about 15 
feet high ; Dih, \\ miles from the northeast point, is a small village, 
with date plantations and gardens, and halfway between it and the 



240 PERSIAN GULF, NORTHERN SHORE. 

north point are the ruins of the ancient Muhammadan town of 
Harira. 

From the north point the coast trends southwestward 3^ miles to 
the west point, which is rocky and a few feet high. Safil, f mile 
westward of the north point, is a small village with about 200 men, 
mainly fishermen and cultivators; landing is bad at low water owing 
to a neef which dries off about J mile. The interior of the island 
is cultivated in parts and has many flocks and herds. Water can be 
obtained by digging wells almost anywhere near ^ the coast, but it 
would probably be brackish after a long drought. 

A sandy spit extends 1,300 yards north-northeastward from the 
northeast point, with less than 3 fathoms water for 600 yards from 
the point, 3^ fathoms on the outer part, and deep water close outside. 
In Mashi Bay there are 6 fathoms 600 yards eastward of the. north- 
east point and of the northern part of the village, deepening regu- 
larly from the shore; foul ground extends 1,400 yards northward 
from the east point. 

Foul ground extends about J mile off the south and west coasts 
of Kais with 6 and 8 fathoms closeto and thence deepei^iing rapidly. 
On the north coast a reef with less than 3 fathoms water commences 
at the northeast point where it is about 600 yards wide, and widens 
to the westward; off Safil it is 1,400 yards wide, and between that 
place and the west point nearly 1 mile. There is a depth of 20 
fathoms about 2 miles northward of Harira, and also about 3 miles 
northwestward of the island; from this depth toward the island it 
shoals quickly to 13 fathoms. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage is off the northern part ol 
Mashi, eastward of the northeast point of the island. In summer^ 
when easterly winds are not experienced and shelter is often required 
from shamals, anchor in from 8 to 9 fathoms mud, with Mashi Fort 
on the northeast point bearing between 283° and 294°. In winter 
anchor in the above position or about ^ mile northward of the north- 
east point in 10 fathoms mud, with Mashi Fort bearing about 180°, a 
position partly sheltered from shamals, which in this locality blow 
from the westward ; here a sailing vessel could weight if an easterly 
gale came on. 

There is anchorage IJ miles northward of Harira in 8 fathoms, 
open to the prevailing winds. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, at 
Mashi, at h. 30 m. ; springs rise 7^ feet. The tidal currents are 
strong in the channel between the island and the mainland, but are 
weak in the deeper water to the southward. 

Directions. — In the passage northward Jezirat Kais do not close 
the island to a distange less than 2 miles, unless for anchorage. 



KAIiAT AL ABEID. 241 

At night it is diflSciilt to see the island, and caution is required in 
passing southward of it, there being a depth of 40 fathoms within 
3 miles ; on the northern side there is a greatest depth of 36 fathoms 
in about mid-channel. The passage northward of the island is not 
recommended at night unless the island is seen. 

Supplies. — Cattle, vegetables, and water are procurable at Mashi. 
The natives keep large herds of cattle and flocks of goats. 

The coast.— Jirza (Qurzeh) (lat. 26° 44', long. 53° 58'), on the 
mainland, about 13J miles westward of Ras Tawana, is a small vil- 
lage with a tower and date grove. It is situated on the north shore 
of a bay, where anchorage, sheltered from shamals, can be obtained 
close to the shore ; on both sides of Jirza the coast is fairly steep-to, 
with 20 fathoms 1 mile from the beach. 

Kalat al Abeid (Ealat), on the coast 4| miles west-southwest- 
ward from Jirza, is a village and fort with a round tower 250 feet 
about the sea; there are a few date trees. The fort and tower are 
situated on a hill at the back of the village. There are a number 
of date grooves eastward of the village. There are two towers in 
the village, one round and the other square. Below the fort is a 
tomb on a hillock about 150 feet high ; about 1 mile eastward of the 
village are several water reservoirs with dome-shaped roofs, where 
water can generally be obtained. The population of the village is 
about 150 men of the Bani Hamadi Tribe, mostly fishermen. 

There is a depth of 5 fathoms 1,600 yards southward of the fort. 
A spit projects, apparently about J mile, from the point about 1 
mile westward of the village, and the sea breaks on it. 

Landing is bad at the village and often impracticable. 

There is anchorage, close to the shore, with the western extremity 
of the point bearing 260° in 4 fathoms water, sand bottom (but there 
may be less water here), sheltered from shamals, and partially from 
nashis. About f mile offshore there is but little shelter. 

The coast from Kalat al Abeid trends westward 7^ miles, and 
then curves southward 1^ miles to Chiru Point, and some 4 miles 
westward of Kalat al Abeid a small range of hills about 200 feet 
high rises steeply from the coast. A spit extends ^ mile offshore 
about 3 miles westward of Kalat al Abeid, and a flat with less than 
3 fathoms water extends 700 yards off the shore eastward of Chiru 
Village. 

Chiru, about 1,800 yards north-northeastward of Chiru Point, is a 
village with a large date grove. It has a population of about 200 
men of the Obaidli tribe, chiefly fishermen. The Shaikh of Chiru 
has authority over Jezirat Hindarabi. A few cattle and a small 
quantity of water might be obtained here. 



/ 



242 PERSIAN GULF, NOBTHERN SHORE. 

Anchorage. — There is good anchorage off Chiru in about 8 fath- 
oms of water ; it is easy of access in shamals, but open to easterly 
winds. 

Chiru Point (lat. 26° 42', long. 53° 45') is a low projection; there 
is deep water southward of it. 

The coast from Chiru Point trends northwestward 14J miles to 
Ras Nakhilu; it rises steeply to hills, which decrease in height to- 
ward, and terminate near, the ras. A table-topped hummock, 2,536 
feet high approximately, 7^ miles north-northwestward from Chiru 
Point and 4 miles inland, is rather remarkable from the southward. 
All the mountains in this locality are light in color. 

Flat. — A sand flat, with 2 fathoms water, extends about 1 mile off 
the coast for about 3 miles northwestward of Chiru Point, and 
there is a depth of 16 fathoms close outside it. By day it is marked 
by discolored water, but the passage between it and Jezirat Hin- 
darabi Reef, being only 1 mile wide, requires caution in its naviga- 
tion. The tidal currents are strong, and, with opposing wind, there 
is broken water along the edge of the flat. 

Bandar Mansuri is an anchorage, on the flat 2 to 3 miles westward 
of Chiru Point, used by native vessels ; it affords indifferent shelter 
to such craft from easterly winds. 

Tides and tidal currents. — The time of high •water, full and 
change, on this coast is very imperfectly known, but it is probably 
between 1 h. m. and 3 h. m. The currents are strong in the pas- 
sages between the islands and the mainland, but weak in the deep 
water outside. 

Sambarun, 7J miles 175° from Chiru Point, is a rocky bank about 
1 mile in extent, with 6 fathoms water and from 17 to 33 fathoms 
close around. 

Jezirat Hindarabi^ about 3 miles west-southwestward of Chiru 
Point, is 4 miles long east and west, 2 miles broad, and rises grad- 
ually to a height of about 100 feet; it is brown in color, and dif- 
ficult to see at night. A large banyan tree stands on the south- 
eastern point of the island; the east and west points are low cliffs, 
and about 50 yards off the west point is a flat detached rock, some 
10 feet high. There is a walled village near the middle of the north 
coast, with a few trees, some cultivation, and some wells, but the 
water is brackish in summer. The inhabitants, Obaidli Arabs, about 
150 men, are fishermen and cultivators, and possess some flocks. 

The island is fringed by a reef i mile broad on the north coast, and 
the landing at the village is bad at low water ; off the northeast and 
east coasts the reef is a little broader and steep-to ; on the south coast 
it probably extends 1 mile and is steep-to, with 30 fathoms close out- 
side. Some detached patches extend about 4 i^^ile oft' the. west point* 



JEZIRAT SHEIKH SHUAIB. 243 

and a flat, with from 5 to 9 fathoms water and 20 fathoms close to, 2 
to 3 miles farther westward. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage off the village in from 6 to 8 
fathoms, rocky bottom, but open to shamals; there is said to be not 
much sea here during easteriy winds; a fresh breeze opposing the 
stream would render a vessel uneasy. 

Caution. — A current is said sometimes to set toward Hindarabi 
and the coast in its vicinity ; this should be guarded against at night. 

Villages. — Machahi (Makahil), a small village on the coast, 12 
miles northwestward of Chiru Point, and Jazza (Jazeh) (Gazeh), 
a village nearly 1 mile farther northwestward, are under the Shaikh 
of Kalat al Abeid ; both have towers and a few trees near them. The 
inhabitants are fishermen. Anchorage off the village is open, and 
there is a depth of 20 fathoms 1^ miles offshore, and deep water 
close in. 

Has NakhilU; IJ miles northwestward of Jazza, is low and ill 
defined, with high sand hills just northward of it ; here the coast turns 
northward. A bank extends about 1,600 yards from the ras; a 
depth of 3 fathoms water has been obtained on the bank, which is 
probably steep-to. 

Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib (Shaikh Shu'aib), the eastern end of 
which is about 6 miles west-south westward of Ras Nakhilu (lat. 26° 
50', long. 53° 30'), is 13 miles long east and west, with a general 
breadth of about 2^ miles. It is brown in color, and rises gradually 
to a height of 120 feet in the middle, the eastern and western parts 
being low plains 1 to 2 miles from the extremities. A single large 
round conspicuous tree stands on the summit, 5^ miles from the 
western end ; there is also a tree 2^ miles southeastward of the west 

point. 

The east point of the island is low sand. The southeast point of 
the island is a cliff about 20 feet high, and from it the coast trends 
westward 4f miles to a sandy point. Korat (Kurat), a village with 
about 100 men, on this point, has a tower arid large grove of date 
and other trees. Westward of Korat the coast, nearly all rocky 
cliff, turns gradually northwestward to the west point, which is also 
rocky, and from 6 to 10 feet high. 

From the west point the north coast trends eastward 2 miles, where 
a small bight affords good landing for boats, and then eastward and 
southeastward to the east point ; it is cliff, with one or two little 
sandy bights. Ras, a village with a round tower and a few trees, is 
situated 1 mile eastward of the west point. Daku (Dekhun) Village 
is about 8^ miles eastward of the west point, and Laza Village, 1 
mile farther eastward, has a tower; there are some 30 or 40 men in 
each of these villages. 



244 RAS BISTANA TO, AND INCLUDING, ABU SHAHR. 

m 

Laz, the principal village on the island, stands on a small rocky 
point on the north coast, nearly 1 mile from the eastern end ; it has 
a high square tower and about 150 men. There are many large 
round trees and a few date palms southward of it. In the middle 
of the island is a valley containing four villages, each having from 
30 to 50 men. 

The inhabitants of the villages are chiefly fishermen, but some 
cultivation is carried on ; the adult male population amounts to about 
500, and they send 25 boats to the pearl fishery. 

Shoals. — ^A narrow spit extends northeastward from the east point 
of the island, with 2 fathoms water at the distance of ^ mile, whence 
the depth increases gradually. The south coast is fringed by a reef 
about 200 yards wide, and there are depths of from 35 to 45 fathoms 
about 1 mile off it. A flat, with 4 fathoms water, extends about 1 
mile from the west point di the island, about 3 miles west-north- 
westward from which the water deepens to 10 fathoms. The north 
coast is fringed by a reef from 200 to 400 yards wide, with from 
9 to 13 fathoms at the distance of 1 mile. 

Jezirat Shitwar (Shatvar) (lat. 26° 47', long. 53° 25'), 1,400 
yards east-southeastward from the east point of Jezirat Sheikh 
Shuaib, is 1 mile long east and west, ^ mile broad, and low; it ap- 
pears to be bordered by reefs to the distance of 300 yards. The 
20-fathom curve is 1^ miles eastward and 3 miles southward of 
the island; a 9-fathom bank, apparently hard sand, about 1 mile 
in extent, lies 3J miles east-southeastward, and a 4-fathom bank 
1,600 yards southeastward from it. 

There is a depth of 2^ fathoms in the fairway of the channel be- 
tween the Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib and Shitwar, and the best course 
through is said to be from about 600 yards off the southeast point of 
Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib to about J mile northwestward of Jezirat 
Shitwar, but caution is necessary, as the channel has not been exam- 
ined. 

Anchorage. — In southeasterly winds shelter might be obtained 
northeastward of Laz Village (lat. 26° 48', long. 53° 23'), i mile 
offshore, in from 4 to 7 fathoms, sand and rock, but it would be 
necessary to weigh on the approach of a shamal, which blows from 
the west-northwestward. Shelter can be obtained from shamals be- 
tween Shitwar and Korat, in 8 fathoms, from 600 yards to ^ mile 
offshore, but this locality has been only partially examined. 

There is good anchorage in Shitwar Channel in 3 fathoms, sand 
and rock, well sheltered from shamals, and to some extent from 
easterly winds. Enter the channel from the southward and anchor 
rather toward the western side, with Laz Tower in line with the low 
eastern point. 



SHAH ALLUM SHOAL, 245 

The channel between the islands and the mainland is about 4 
miles wide at the eastern end, but the width increases to about 11 
miles at the western end. The tidal currents are felt across the chan- 
nel, and also strongly between the Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib and 
Shitwar, causing a ripple on the spit off the east point of Jezirat 
Sheikh Shuaib. The soundings between Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib and 
the mainland are generally from 17 to 20 fathoms, which depths 
reach about 2 miles from either shore. 

Directions. — Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib is exceedingly difficult to see 
at night or in hazy weather, and the lead is of little use when ap- 
proaching it from seaward. The coast in the vicinity of Ras Nak-. 
hilu should not be approached to less than 15 fathoms. 

Tides and tidal <iUrrents. — It is said to be high water, full and 
change, at the eastern end of Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib, at about 3 h. 
15 m. ; springs rise 6 feet. The west-going tidal current has bteen 
observed to begin about 1^ hours before high water about 3 miles 
northwestward of the east point of Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib. The tidal 
currents are said to set north-northeastward through the channel 
between Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib and Shitwar from 5 hours before till 
one hour after high water, and soUth-southwestward from one hour 
after high water till 5 hours before the next high water. This tidal 
information must not be depended upon. The tidal currents are 
strong between the island and the mainland, but weak in the deep 
water to the southward. 

Supplies. — Cattle, vegetables, and fruit in small quantities can be 
obtained at the principal villages, but any supply of water is un- 
certain. 

Stifle Bank, about 25 miles 180°, from the western point of 
Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib, is about 4 miles in extent north and south, 
and 2| miles east and west, with depths of from 15 to 19 fathoms, 
and from 30 to 40 fathoms around. The bank is stated to be about 
2 miles westward of the position above given. 

Shah Allum Shoal (lat. 26° 26', long. 52° 30') is a rocky patch, 
about 600 yards in extent, in the fairway of the gulf, situated with 
the west point of Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib bearing 55° 43 miles, and 
Halul Island bearing 186° 45 miles, with 2^ fathoms least water. 
A bank, with less than 20 fathoms water, extends 2 miles southward 
from the shoal. The shoal and bank are steep-to, with depths of 
about 35 fathoms a mile distant. The water is not discolored and 
the shoal can not be seen from aloft ; some white birds are generally 
hovering over it. 

Cable Bank, 35 miles, 261°, from the western end of Jezirat 
Sheikh Shuaib, is about 3 miles in extent, with 14 fathoms or perhaps 
less water. It was passed over by the vessels laying the telegraph 
cable in 1885. 



246 PERSIAN GULF, NORTHEASTERN SHORE. 

The coast from Ras Nakhilu trends northward about 8 miles and 
then west-northwestward 25 miles to a small bay at the foot of 
Shahin Kuh, whence it trends northwestward 28 miles to Ras Na- 
band. 

Mountains. — ^The range extending westward from Jabal Turanja, 
on the northern side of a valley, approaches the coast near Magam, 
and then, continuing along the coast, it ends at Ras Naband in low 
hills. A fall or dip in the summit, 7 miles north-northeastward of 
Ras Nakhilu, is remarkable. The summits of a range, from 4,000 to 
5,000 feet high, running parallel to the coast about 12 miles inland, 
. are visible over the coast range. 

Nakhilu Village, 3 miles northward of Ras Nakhilu, has a large 
grove of date and other trees ; its population is from 200 to 300 men 
of Al Jowasim tribe, and it is under the Shaikh of Char ak. Anchor- 
age off this village and along the coast to the northward is well shel- 
tered in easterly winds, but open to shamals. 

Magam (Mugam), 4^ miles northward of Nakhilu, is a large 
village with a large square fort. There is a conspicuous triangular 
cliff, about 165 feet high, 1.4 miles northwestward of the fort. Shoal 
water of less than 3 fathoms extends to 1,600 yards off the shore. 
There is anchorage in 6 fathoms, with the fort bearing 58° 1.4 miles. 

Bandar Basatin (lat. 27'' 00', long. 53° 24') is a little bay about 
4^ miles west-northwestward of Magam Fort. The small western 
point of the bay, from which a spit extends ^ mile, is low and pro- 
jects from rocky hills just westward of it ; there are some water cis- 
terns near the point. A low, jagged, light-colored ridge of rock 
in range with a peak, 4,870 feet high, 33°, leads to the point. 

There is anchorage about ^ mile eastward of the point, but it 
affords little shelter from shamals, which here blow from the west- 
ward or west-northwestward. Small vessels might anchor with the 
point about 270°; larger vessels as close in as the draft permits. 
There is a depth of 10 fathoms about 1 mile from the shore. 

The coast from Bandar Basatin trends west-northwestward 13 
miles to Shiwu, and rises steeply to a ridge of precipitous hills from 
200 to 300 feet high. There is a somewhat remarkable saddle hill, 
about 400 feet high, on the ridge, 2^ miles eastward of Shiwu. 

Shiwu Village (Shivuh) has three large banyan trees; the pop- 
pulation, judging from the number of huts, appears to be about 
1,000 men. The village belongs to Shaikh Mazkur of Gaobandi. 
* About i mile southeastward of the village is a peaked hill from 
200 to 300 feet high. A large flat black rock projecting in front of 
the village forms a small boat harbor, and the best landing place. 
Westward of this is a shallow sandy bay, 1 mile wide, in which, 
900 yards, 295°, from the flat rock, is a small rock above water, is 
nearly steep-to, and there is a depth of 5 fathoms close to it. 



BANDAR KALLATU. 247 

Anchorage. — The anchorage at Shiwu, in 5 fathoms, sand, about 
i mile oflp the black rock, is said to be tolerably sheltered from 
shamals, but there would probably be considerable swell. 

This anchorage was found by the British navel vessel Philomel 
in 1911 to be a good one when a shamal was blowing; although there 
was a swell, which rendered landing impossible, it was much less 
than at other open anchorages. The tj,dal currents are weak, and 
the vessel lay with her head to the wind. There is a depth of 15 
fathoms 1 mile offshore, and the water shoals from 10 fathoms 
.to 5 fathoms in the dist&,nce of 200 yards. 

Supplies. — Cattle can be obtained here; also some good water 
from wells close to the beach. 

Bandar Kallatu (Kalg.tu). — A rocky point, with hills rising 
steeply from it, lies 2 miles west-northwestward of Shiwu; Bandar 
Kallatu, westward of the point, is a bay affording good shelter to 
small native vessels in shamals. A vessel of moderate size can obtain 
better shelter here thaja at Shiwu, about J mile from the point, and 
as far in the bay as the draft permits. 

The coast from Bandar Kallatu, mostly cliff with little sandy 
bays, trends west-northwestward about 5 miles to Bustanu Village, 
with hills rising steeply from it. There are many boat anchor- 
ages, sheltered from shamals, close off the foast, which is steep-to, 
there being 25 fathoms at the distance of about 1 mile. There is a 
village on the coast about 1^ miles westward of Bandar Kallatu. 

Bustanu Village is situated at the head of a small bay, which is 
probably one of the best of the anchorages; the anchorage bears 
about 161° from the summit of Shahin kuh. 'A ridge of gray-colored 
rock, about 100 feet high, runs down to the shore just eastward of 
the village, and has a tower on its southern end. 

The village consists of about 50 houses on the side of a low sandy 
hill, and has five conspicuous trees. At the back of the village the 
hills rise to a height of about 100 feet, and there is a conspicuous 
square tower on them about 300 yards southward of the village. 
There is a small creek northward of the village, which will accom- 
modate dhows. 

Shahin kuh (Shahin ktih) (lat- 27° 09', long. 52^ 58'), S miles 
west-northwestward of Shiwu and about 1 mile inland, is remark- 
able, flat-topped, and slopes slightly to the northward, with pre- 
cipitous sides ; its southern bluff is 1,100 feet high. 

The coast from Bustanu Village trends northwestward 28 miles 
to Ras Naband ; it is bold and rocky,, with low cliffs, devoid of an- 
chorages or shelter, and is steep-to at the distance of 200 yards. 

Bandar Tibben lies in a small bay and has one square hut visible 
from seaward. About 1 mile northward of the village is a small 
bay, where dhows usually anchor. 



248 PERSIAN GULF, NOBTHEASTEBK SHOBB. 

The village is the only one known on this coast, lies abont 12 
miles northwestward of Shahin kuh ; it is scarcely noticeable from 
seaward. Here a bight, some 6 miles in length, appears to extend 
about 2 miles to the eastward, but it not shown on the chart. A small 
creek, open to the southeastward, in which two dhows were seen at 
anchor, lies about 1^ miles northwestward of the village; it is not 
visible from seaward. 

The coastal district between Shahin kuh and Bas Naband is named 
Asban. 

Ras Naband (Naband) is a broad projecting rocky cliflF about 
10 feet high; the land rising gradually from it to the southeastward. 
About i mile inland is a large date grove, and 3 miles southeastward 
is a single conspicuous tree on some high tableland. 

Shoal water extends about i mile northward of Has Naband, and 
2^ miles northeastward from it, and 1| miles northwestward from 
Naband Village, there is a depth of only 2^ fathoms. ^ 

The western side of the ras is steep-to, and the water deepens 
gradually to 30 fathoms 3 miles westward. 

Pearls are fished for off Bas Naband, and it is the only place near 
the Persian coast where any have been found; none of much value 
i^ave been obtained here. 

Tidal currexits. — ^The tidal currents are scarcely perceptible be- 
tween Shiwu and Kas Naband, nor are they much felt to the north- 
ward until near Bas al Mutaf. The currents in Naband Bay are 
weak. 

Naband Bay, on the northern side of Bas Naband (lat. 27° 23', 
long. 52° 35'), is 3 mifes a ride in the entrance, and recedes 5 niiles 
to its head. There is a depth of about 10 fathoms in the entrance, 
whence it gradually decreases and becomes shallow toward the head, 
there being but three fathoms, mud, 2 miles from the shore. The 
mountainous range lying northeastward of the valley behind the 
Asban coast continues northwestward within Naband Bay. On the 
range, 20 miles, 100°, from Bas Naband, is a bluff 3,600 feet high, 
which is conspicuous from the northwestward. 

The shore of the bay from Bas Naband trends eastward 4^ miles ; 
it then bends round northward and westward to the northern point 
of the bay, which is situated 4J miles north-northeastward of. the 
ras. The ruins of Kassad, a large village whence a date plantation 
lines the shore to the head of the bay, are about 1 mile eastward of 
the ras. The southern shore of the bay is low and rocky, the land 
behind rising to a moderate height; the shore at the head is low, 
sandy, and swampy in places. A great valley where a small river 
appears to have its mouth commences here. A few miles eastward 
of the head of the bay is a pass into the interior, said to be practi- 
cable for carts. 



BANDAR BAID KHAN. 249 

^ Naband, a village, with two round towers, one square fort at its 

I western end, and several conspicuous trees on either side of the 

\ village, stands on the southern shore of the bay 2^ miles within the 

point; its population is about 250 men of Al Haram tribe. Wheat 
! and barley are exported, principally to Bahrein. The shore reef ex- 

' tends about J mile off the village; the native boats pass over the 

reef and anchor close to the beach. 

The following small villages lie between Naband and Nakhl 
Takki : Haleh, Basateen, Akhan, Bazbaz, Charaif , Baid Kahn, and 
Aslu. 

Nakhl Hashiniy IJ miles eastward of Naband village, is a small 
village; arreef extends about ^ mile off the point projecting between 
these places, and here boats anchor close in," sheltered from shamals. 

Bandar Baid E^haii (Baidheh Khan) . — On the northern shore 
of the bay, bearing 19° from Naband village, is a sandy point from 
which a reef extends 200 yards; small craft anchor eastward of the 
point, in shamals, in 2^ fathoms or less water, with very indifferent 
shelter; the shore for about 2 miles eastward of the point is low, 
swampy, and intersected by mangrove creeks. Water, not good, is 
obtained by digging in the sand on the point. The bandar is fre- 
quented by fishermen from Aslu, who use large seines, and haul their 
boast up on the point. 

Baid Khan village is about 1 mile inland, and nearly hidden in a 
grove of date and other trees; a little stream of water is used for 
irrigation. The north point of the bay (lat. 27° 28', long. 52° 37'), 
IJ miles west-northwestward from the western point of Bandar Baid 
Khan, is low, and a reef extends J mile off it. Date groves begin 
close northwestward of the point and extend past Aslu Town. 

Shoal. — A small rocky patch, with 3 fathoms water, lies about IJ 
miles, 212°, from the north point of Naband Bay; it is steep-to, and 
does not show well. 

Anchorages. — ^There is anchorage in 6 fathoms with Naband 
Village bearing from 135° to 180° distant 1 mile, but the holding 
ground is said to be bad. Naband Bay affords no shelter in shamals, 
except for boats. 

There is anchorage in 3 fathoms, good holding ground, with a 
square house westward of Baid Khan Village bearing 19°, and a 
tower, 2^ miles southeastward of the village, 86°; it is said to be 
partially sheltered in shamals. 

Directions. — ^Anchorage anywhere in Naband Bay is sheltered in 
kaus, but open to shamals, and a heavy sea then' rolls into the bay. 
The passage between the 3- fathom shoal, 1^ miles off the north point 
of the bay, and the reef off the point is about 1 mile wide, but should 
not be used ; the passage between the shoal and the reef off Naband 

173608^—20 17 



250 RAS BISTANA TO, AND INCLUDING, ABU SHAHB. 

village is 2 miles wide and by far the better. The reef oflf Aslu should 
not be approached to less than 7 fathoms. 

Supplies. — Fish, cattle, and vegetables can be obtained in Naband 
Bay. 

The coast from the north point of Naband Bay trends northwest- 
ward 37 miles to Kangmi, and a range of mountains extends along it, 
the seaward face of which appears to be precipitous; the fires of char- 
coal burners are sometimes seen at a height on the mountains. 

Jabal Siri Yafal (Sir i Talfal) (Aslu notch), 6 miles north- 
ward of the north point of Naband Bay, on the summit of the range, 
is 4,870 feet high, and shows as a great step, except from the west- 
ward, when it appears a sharp notch. 

Jabal Siri Ayenat (Siri ^Ayanat) (Bam Hill), 26 miles 
northwestward of Jabal Siri Yafal and 5 miles inland, is a most con- 
spicuous barn-shaped peak, 4,660 feet high, on a long level-toped 
part of the range, which terminates in the Fall, a great step, 17 miles 
further northwestward ; the peak is small on easterly bearings. Siri 
Ayenat is obscured from near the coast by a lower coast range, 
which, commencing near Barak, continues increasing in height, 
northwestward past Kangun. 

Aslu ('Asalu), 1 mile northwestward of the north point of 
Naband Bay, is an independent town with a population of about 
1,000 men of Al Haram Tribe ; it extends ^ mile along the coast, and 
there is a large date grove behind. The people possess many small 
boats, and take part in the pearl fishery. 

A conspicuous round tower, now partially destroyed, stands on 
11 small hillock about midway between Aslu and Nakhl Takki. Ves- 
sels should approach both these villages with caution, on account 
of the reef which here extends from the shore, as mentioned in 
the Pilot. 

A reef extends over | mile off the coast for 3^ miles northwest- 
ward of the north point of Naband Bay, and there are depths of 
5 and 6 fathoms close outside it. Boats pass over the reef and shelter 
close to Aslu town, in rather more water than there is on the reef. 
Anchorage off the town is open to shamals. 

Supplies. — Cattle might be obtained here. 

Nakhl Takki (Tagi), 2 miles northwestward of Aslue, is a small 
village, with a fort and tower; there are some date trees near, and 
two or three large round trees between it and Aslu. A reef extends 
about i mile off-shore here, and there are depths of about 8 fathoms 
close outside it. The 20-fathom curve is about 1 mile off the coast 
from Nakhl Takki to Tahiri, 17 miles northwestward; the bottom 
is mud. 

Barak (Banak), 13 miles northwestward of Nakhl Takki is a 
small village, with a fort, a square tower, and a date grove. There 



TAHIEI VILLAGE. 251 

is a small village, with a square tower, 2^ miles southeastward of it. 
The coast between Nakhl Takki and Barak rises steeply to hills ; it is 
nearly steep-to, with little or no reef. 

Shoal. — Off Barak Village boats are partly sheltered in shamals 

- by a low projecting point, on which are date groves, 2 miles westward 

of it ; from this point, which is the southeastern point of Tahiri Bay, 

a shoal, with from 2 to 3J fathoms water, extends about 1 mile 

south-southeastward, and is steep-to. 

Tahiri (Tahiri) (lat. 27° 40', long. 52° 20'), 2 miles northwest- 
ward of the point just mentioned, is a village, chiefly mud houses, 
on the shore of the small Tahiri Bay, and extends partly up the 
side of hills, about 700 feet high, rising from the head of ^^he bay. A 
fort stands at the eastern end of the village, ^ mile eastward of 
which are three large round conspicuous trees. In the middle of the 
village are two white mosques about 300 yards apart, and on a small 
hill westward of the village are the ruins of a mosque. The popula- 
tion of the village is from 200 to 300 men, all fishermen. 

The northwestern point of the bay, 1 mile westward of the village, 
is low and on it are date groves; it is almost steep-to. There are 
depths of about 8 fathoms i mile off the shore of the bay, whence 
it shoals gradually. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage close to the shore in about 6 
fathoms, with the western point bearing about 284° partially 
sheltered in shamals, but there is little or no shelter from kaus. The 
holding ground is good. 

Supplies. — A few cattle and some vegetables can be obtained; 
water is plentiful and good. 

The coast lietween Tahiri and Kangun, 17^ miles northwest- 
ward, is fairly steep-to, and can be approached to about ^ mile. 

Shilu (lat. 27° 41', long. 52° 16'), 4 miles northwestward of Ta- 
hiri, is a small village with a tower, in ruins. Eas Akhtar, 2 miles 
west-northwesjbward of Shilu, slightly projects, and northwestward 
of it is a bight where boats can anchor, sheltered by Ras Aswat^ 
which is farther northwestward, and small. 

Ayenat (^Ay&n&t), about 9 miles northwestward of Tahiri, is a 
village, with a few trees interspersed among the houses; there is a 
small square tower and also date groves at either end, and a large 
square house at the western end. There is anchorage off it in 10 
fathoms, which is said to be tolerably- good in shamals ; a small reef 
of rocks off the village forms a boat harbor. About 4 miles north- 
westward of Ayenat is Mayalu (Miyalu), a little village. 

Tumbaky a village of about 100 l^ouses, is situated about IJ miles 
northwestward from Ayenat. There are two round conspicuous 
towers at the back of the village, each on top of a small round sand 
hill and about ^ mile apart. There is a conspicuous round tower at 



252 PEBSIAN GTTLFf SGBTHEASTEKN SHORE. 

the western end of the village, and several square towers among the 
houses. There are large date groves on both sides of the village 
and many trees in the village itself. 

The water shoals gradually toward the village and the sea breaks 
against some rocks situated about ^ mile off-shore. Dhows anchor 
inside these rocks. 

There is good anchorage in 5 fathoms f mile from the village, and 
the landing is good. 

Kan^un (Kangtm) is a town with a population of about 500. 
It has one square tower at the southern end of the village. A large 
date grove lies i mile northwestward from the village. The Chief 
is subject to the Persian Government, to whom he pays a yearly 
tribute; all the villages from Barak to Shiwu, not including Aslu 
town, are under his authority, as is also Banak, a small village about 
3 miles northwestward of Kangun. At the town the beach is sandy, 
but from Ras al Marrar, which is 2 miles to the southeastward and 
low, rocks extend about 200 yards. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage in 5 fathoms from about i to f 
mile off-shore, a little sheltered from shamals which blow from the 
northwestward, but some swell rolls in from the west-south westward ; 
there is no shelter from the kaus. There is much better shelter from 
shamals off Dayir, about 8 miles farther westward. 

Supplies. — ^A few cattle and some vegetables might be obtained; 
there is good water in wells. 

The coast from Kangun (lat. 27° 50', long. 52° 03') trends west- 
ward 25 miles, and then turns northwestward 19 miles to Ras al 
Khan; off the southwestern part lies Ras al Mutaf, a great shoal, 
the outer edge of which is distant 8 to 10 miles. 

Mountains. — Two remarkable castle-shaped mountains, with ver- 
tical sides, and projections resembling bastions, lie 8 and 11 miles 
northwestward of the Fall; and 23 miles northwestward from the 
Fall is a round mountain about 4,000 feet high, which, from the salt 
deposits, glistens white in streaks when the sun shines on it; the 
range then trends northward toward Kuh Khormuj. 

A detached group of mountains, of which Jabal Direng is the 
summit, lies between the ranges just mentioned and the coast, a 
valley separating them. Near Kangun, the coast range is from 
2,000 to 3,000 feet high ; from a distance it appears to form part of 
the back range, which, however, becomes obscured by it when close 
inshore; these mountains are rugged, precipitous, and of very irregu- 
lar outline. It is said that, in some of the passes, ropes are re- 
quired in ascending the most difficult parts; without ropes they are 
inaccessible. 

Jabal Direng, 3,270 feet high, is at the northern end of the 
detached group of mountains, and 27° from Mukhaila, from which 



DAYIE TOWN. 258 

the middle hummock is distant 18^ miles ; it appears of even height, 
and either with one peak, or with from three to five hummocks on 
the top, according to its bearing. On northeasterly bearings they 
are in range, and the mountain shows one peak, with a great bluff on 
the northern side. Northward of it is an extensive low swampy 
plain. 

This group decreases in height to the southward. Funnel hill, 
14 miles, 165°, from the middle of Direng, is table-topped and about 
800 feet high, with a small natural pillar on it, which is a good mark. 

This coast is under the Chief of Dashti. 

The coast from Kangun is low and sandy to Dayir, 8 miles to the 
westward, and is at the mouth of a great valley separating the 
mountain ranges ; Dayir is near the southeastern end of the Direng 
range. 

Bardistan (BardistanX^ 7 miles westward of Kangun and 2 
miles inland, is a town with a tall bad-gir or wind tower ; it is near 
a khur, the mouth of which is about 2J miles southeastward. Dur- 
ing rains the khur becomes a water course, and drains the valley, 

Dayir (Daiylr) is a small town with a population of about 400, 
chiefly Persian and agricultural; it has a square fort with two towers, 
and some round trees; eastward of it is a large date grove. The 
shaikh's house is near the fort; it is a white two-storied building 
with a small flagstaff, from which the flag is flown. A reef extends 
from 200 to 400 yards offshore at Dayir, making landing difficult 
unless the boats can cross it. i 

The 20-fathom curve from 6 miles southward of Dayir trends 
southward about 10 miles, and then turns southwestward and west- 
ward. 

Anchorage. — There is excellent anchorage off Dayir in shamals, 
but open to kaus, in 4 fathoms, with the fort bearing 0°, ^ mile; 
large vessels should anchor farther out in from 8 to 10 fathoms, 
mud. This anchorage is much used by bagalas for shelter during 
sumi^er shamals. 

Tidal currents. — The tidal currents attain a rate of from 1 to 2 
knots along the coast off Dayir at springs. 

Supplies. — Water, provisions in moderate quantities, and possibly 
a few cattle can be obtained at Dayir; vegetables are scarce; some 
firewood could be got from the interior in a few days. 

Bocks. — There is a small rocky point of low cliff 2^ miles west- 
ward of Dayir, and 200 yards off the point are some sunken rocks; 
inside them, where a village, named Auli, was formerly situated, is 
a landing place. The Direng hills rise from the coast here, and for 
about 7 miles to the westward. 

There is anchorage in about 6 fathoms ^ mile off the point, and 
good spring water can be obtained. 



254 PERSIAX GULF, XORTHEASTERX SHORE. 

Batuna (Batfineh) (lat. 27° 50', long. 51° 46'), 8 miles westward 
of Dayir, is a small coastal villaore with about 30 men. Sheep, 
poultry, and vej^etables can be obtained in small quantities. The 
anchorage off the village is open both to shamals and kaus. 

The coast from Batuna trends westward about 10 miles to Bas 
TJmm al Kuram, and thence northwestward about 35 miles to Lawar 
village. There are several date groves along it, but there is no 
village near it northwestward to Lawar. The coast, which can not 
be approached owing to the extensive shoals off it, is imperfectly 
delineated, but it skirts the western side of the Direng hills. 

Jezirat Umiii al Kuram (Qurma), about 1 mile off Ras Umm al 
Kuram, is low, and less than 1 mile in extent. Unmi Sila, about 
1 miles northwestward of it, is a low sandy island. 

Mukhaila (Nakhllu), about 6 miles, 258°, from Ras Umm al 
Kuram, and at the northwestern end qf Ras al Mutaf shoals, is a 
low circular islet 800 yards in diameter, with the Shaikh's grave, a 
square building of loose stones, in the middle, and a cairn, about 5 
feet high, on its northwestern extremity. There is a well of slightly 
brackish water on the island. Some date groves on the coast can just 
be seen from close off Mukhaila. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Mukhaila, at 7 h. 
30 m. ; springs rise 8 feet. 

Ras al Mutaf is the southwestern extremity of the shoal extend- 
ing southeastward and eastward 18 miles from Mukhaila Islet. The 
shoal appears to be sand on a rocky base, and it is almost dry for 
many miles from its northwestern end, whence it deepens a little 
to its eastern end. 

When surveyed in 1821-1829, its northwestern extremity was 700 
yards outside Mukhaila, and its southwestern point, 11 miles, 139°, 
from that islet, but according to soundings obtained by a British 
naval vessel in 1892, the bank has altered, and probably extended 
both westward and southward. Its southwestern side, at the survey, 
was steep-to, there being 10 fathoms within the distance of i mile; 
on the southern side, the water shoaled gradually toward it from 10 
fathoms at a distance of about 3 miles. Its eastern extremity was 
situated 7 miles, 169°, from Batuna, and from it a flat with 4 and 5 
fathoms water extended 5 miles eastward and southeastward, with 
10 fathoms water at a distance of 7 miles, whence the water gradu- 
ally deepened to 20 and 35 fathoms. 

In 1912 a sounding of 2 fathoms was obtained, with Funnel Hill 
bearing 348°, 13J miles, and the shoal appears to be extending south- 
ward in this locality ; there were soundings of 8 fathoms close south- 
ward of the 2-fathom sounding. 

Khur Ayaz, inside Mutaf Shoal, is a channel with from 4 to 9 
fathoms water, and its principal entrance is northward of the east- 



JEZIRAT JABRIK. 255 

ern end of the shoal ; it trends westward and northwestward between 
the shoal and the mainland, continuing 7 miles beyond Mukhaila 
Islet, but there is no outlet at its northwestern end. The khurNs 
used by small native craft, which leave it by a channel cilose north- 
ward of Mukhaila (lat. 27° 49', long. 51° 28'), in which there are 
2 fathoms at high water; the cairn and the shaikh's grave in range 
lead through. 

Shoals extend from 2 to 3 miles from the mainland shore of Khur 
Ayaz, but a khur, said to have a depth of 10 fathoms, leads westward 
through them and passes inside Jesirat Umm al Kuram. 

Shoal water has been reported in latitude 27° 33', longitude 51° 
13' approximate. The bottom was plainly visible (1917). 

Anchorage. — ^There is anchorage in 4 to 5 fathoms oflf the eastern 
end of Eas al Mutaf Shoal, sheltered from shamals, which here blow ' 
from the northwestward, but opeh to kaus, with Funnel Hill 330°, 
and Jabal Siri Ayenat 73°. As there is no good shelter from shamals 
between this anchorage and Abu Shahr, it is resorted to by vessels 
caught by a northwesterly gale in this locality. 

Bank. — ^A bank with 8 fathoms water and from 12 to 17 fathoms 
around, lies with Funnel Hill bearing 39°, 22 miles. 

Tidal currents.— The tidal currents are said to set west and east 
over the shoal, and appear to set northwest and southeast southwest- 
ward of it ; the west-going current running from about 4 hours after 
high water until 2 hours before the next high water, and the east- 
going current from about 2 hours before until 4 hours after high 
water; the currents attain a rate of 2 knots at springs. This in- 
formation can not be depended on. The currents are strong through 
Khur Ayaz, as well as in the khur behind, and along tjie outer side 
of Eas al Mutaf Shoal. 

Directions. — Funnel Hill bearing 328° leads northeastward of 
Eas al Mutaf Shoal; the Fall 30° leads southeastward; Jabal Siri 
Ayenat 67° leads southward, and here the soundings are a guide. In 
rounding the shoal do not go into less than from 12 to 11 fathoms ; 
but in thick weather, or at night, this shoal should not be approached 
to less than 15 fathoms. ^By day the discoloration of the water, which 
extends some miles off the shoal into deep water, is a good guide. 

Jezirat Jabrin (Jabrin), the southeastern end of which is 
situated If miles northwestward of Mukhaila, is a narrow low strip 
of sand, with tufts of grass, extending northwestward 6 miles to Eas 
Jabrin, to which it is connected ; it is uninhabited, but frequented by 
flamingoes, pelicans, and curlews. Between its southeastern end and 
Mukhaila is the boat channel into Khur Ayaz, above mentioned. 
- Inside Jezirat Jabrin is an extensive swamp intersected by deep 
khurs, the mainland being distant about 5 miles; this swamp con- 
tinues northward nearly to Lawar. 



266 BAS BISTANA to, and iiTCJLtJDING, ABtJ SfiAffll. 

Jezirat Jabrin is known to the natives as Tahmadu, and the south- 
ern extremity of the island as Ras Tahmadu. 

Ras al Khan (lat. 28° 02', long. 51° 19'), 15 miles northwestward 
of Mukhaila, is the southern end of a very low sandy ridge, almost 
covered at high water ; it, with the coast some 10 miles to the north- 
ward, projects considerably, and is part of the great valley north- 
ward of Jabal Direng. Inside the ras are extensive swamps, with 
many creeks, and this locality is probably the delta of the Mund 
Kiver. In the valley is Burdekhun town, where the chief of the 
Dashti resides. ^ 

Southward of Ras al Khan is a small bay where native craft ob- 
tain indifferent shelter from shamals, in from 2 to 2^ fathoms water. 

Khur Ziyarat is a small creek, with low banks, 7 miles northward 
of Ras al Khan; it can be entered by boats at high water, but the 
entrance from which Jabal Direng peak bears 98°, is open north- 
westward ; there is a depth of about 4 feet on the bar, and of 9 feet 
in the channel for 2 miles inside. The khur is the mouth of the 
Mund River, the ancient Sitagon, which flows from near Shiraz, 
and, after rains, discharges a large quantity of water. Imam Ziyarat 
Village is in a date grove about 5 miles from the coast, but not on 
the bank of the khur. Quantities of grain from the country are 
shipped at landing places in the khur. There is open anchorage 
about 1^ miles off the entrance in 4 fathoms, mud, to which the water 
shoals gradually. 

'Caution.^As the coast from Mukhaila to a little northward of 
Khur Ziyarat is extremely low, caution is necessary when in its 
vicinity, esp^jcially at night or during thick weather, when the water 
should not be shoaled to less than 14 fathoms. 

Soundings. — ^The 10-fathom curve is about 2J to 5 miles and the 
20-fathom curve 11 to 15 miles seaward of Mukhaila, Jezirat Jabrin, 
and the coast northward to Ras al Khan ; toward Khur Ziyarat the 
10-fathom curve is only 1 mile from the dry sandy ridge, and the 
20-fathom curve 7 miles off-shore. 

The coast from Khur Ziyarat trends north-northwestward 41 
miles to the Abu Shahr Peninsula. The coast is swampy a little 
northward of Khur Ziyarat ; it then becomes sandy, with small rocky 
points, and is steep-to at the distance of 200 yards ; the plain seaward 
of the hills is from 1 to 2 miles wide. 

Mountains. — ^A range of mountains (Kuh i Mund) , with a rugged 
outline, commences about 3 miles northward of Khur Ziyarat, and 
continues about 36 miles along the coast, when it falls to the plain 
inland of Abu Shahr. Bu Riyal ( A^^es' Ears) Peak, 2,500 feet high, 
one of the summits, about 10 miles northward of La war village, is 
two pinnacles close together with a smaller one on the northern side; 



BAHAKl. 257 

it is conspicuous. There are other peaks on the range, two of which, 
situated about 2 and 3 miles northward of Bu Riyal, and higher than 
that peak, form a saddle or notch on southeasterly bearings. 

Kuh Khormuj (Khurmfij) (lat. 28° 43', long. 51° 28'), about 21 
miles northeastward of Bu Riyal, is 6,500 feet high, and visible 
over all the coast ranges until close inshore; on northeasterly bear- 
ings it appears a long convex ridge, but on east-southeasterly bear- 
ings the ridge is end on, and shows a fine peak, with a long rounded 
slope to the northward. From it the back range trends south- 
eastward. 

Tidal currents. — ^The tidal currents are weak and often imper- 
ceptible off the coast from Eas al Khan to Abu Sahr. 

Villages. — ^Lawar (Lavar), 17 miles northward of Ras al Khan, 
is a small coast village and fort. Kogan, a mile northward of La- 
war, and Karri, 7 miles farther northward, are similar villages; 
there are large date groves and much cultivation at all of them. 

Karri is the southernmost village in Tangistan. Good anchorage 
can be found in 4 fathoms at 1,600 yards from the village. 

Baraki (Baraki) is the name of a district comprising several 
villages, each with a population of about 100 men, chiefly agricul- 
tural. Omari ('Omari) is 6 miles northward of Karri; Bulkhair, 
with a round tower near its north end, is 1 mile, and Gahi, on the 
south side of a low sandy point, 2J miles northward of Omari 
Rustani, about 1 mile northward of the low sandy point, has a 
square mosque, with a tower on its south side, near its north end- 
There are a few date trees and some cultivation on the narrow plain 
between the hills and the coast. A little southward of these vil- 
lages is the saman, or boundary, between the territories of the 
chiefs of Dashti and Tangistan. 

Landing can generally be effected on the coast in this locality; 
there are several small points which afford protection from north- 
westerly winds. 

The coast from Rustani trends northward 16 miles to the head of 
Halila Bay; 2 miles northward of Rustani is a rather conspicuous 
tree on a little cliff, and from 2 miles northward of this tree low 
cliffs extend some distance along the coast. 

Bashi^ 6 miles northward of Rustani, is a village with a large 
round tower and date grove. Here the Bu Riyal range bends in- 
land, and ends a few miles to the northward, and the great plain 
within Abu Shahr commences. 

Madumari (Nargiszar) and Dilwar (Dilbar), about 3 and 6 miles, 
respectively, northward of Bashi, are moderate-sized villages sur- 
rounded by date groves; Dilwar is the principal village of Tan- 
gistan* 



258 PERSIAN GULF, NORTHEASTERN^ SHORE. 

Halila Bay lies between Bashi and Ras Halila, the southwestern 
extremity of Abu Sahr Peninsula, 14 miles northwestward, and its 
shores are low and sandy. There are less than 3 fathoms water 
within the bay, and less than 2 fathoms over its greater part,* that 
depth being 5 miles offshore at E3iur Khuweir ; the bottom is chiefly 
mud. 

Ehur Khuweir^ about 9 miles northward of Bashi and near the 
head of Halila Bay, is a small creek, the entrance to which dries; 
near the khur is a small fort and date grove. 

Soundings. — Between Khur Ziyarat and Omari (lat. 28° 30', 
long. 51° 06'), the coast can be approached by the lead, observing 
that between Khur Ziyarat and Lawar the water shoals quickly 
from 10 to 5 fathoms. There are depths of 10 fathoms 4 miles off- 
shore at Omari, and from Khur Ziyarat the 20- fathom curve is about 
10 miles distant off the coast northward to Abu Shahr. 

Banks. — A 7- fathom patch was found in 1903, about 10 miles 273° 
from Bashi, the position is doubtful and " P. D." has been placed 
against them on the charts. There is a patch of 10 fathoms, with 
about 18 fathoms around, about 11 miles, 194° from Eishahr Point. 
A sounding of 11 fathoms was obtained in 1890, 31 miles, 268° from 
Eishahr Point. As these patches were not closely examined, there 
mav be less water on them. 

Shoal. — A shoal, with 3 fathoms of water over it, lies 1 mile 254° 
from Eishahr Point. 

The coast. — About 2 miles northwestward of Khur Khuweir is 
the entrance to a large creek draining the great swampy plain in- 
land of Abu Shahr. Dry sands extend about i mile off its mouth, 
which nearly dries. 

From the creek the coast of the mainland trends north-northwest- 
ward; it is very low and ill-defined, and in heavy rains is swampy 
for a considerable distance beyond the parts reached by the tide. 
The Mashila, a large salt-water swamp, lies between it and Abu 
Shahr Peninsula. 

The coast of the peninsula from the creek trends westward about 
4 miles to Eas Halila; the eastern part of the peninsula is a sandy 
spit, some 5 feet high, covered with tufts of coarse grass, and 
increasing in width from about 50 yards at its eastern end to a mile. 

Has Halila (Halileh) (lat. 28° 50', long. 50° 54') is low, with n 
rocky spit extending 800 yards southwestward. JHalila village, 
about 1,400 yards north-northwestward of the ras, is small, with 
about 100 men, chiefly agriculturists; it has a large square tower. 

Anchorag^ew — There is good anchorage for small vessels during 
shamals, in 3 fathoms water, and about ^ mile offshore, with Eas 
Halila bearing 329°, or with the village tower and the ras in range. 



RISHAHR POINT. 259 

r 

Water can be obtained from wells about 1 mile eastward of the 
ras and 80 yards from the beach; the water is only 3 feet from the 
surface, and is better for shipping than any procurable near Abu 
Shahr. Close westward of the wells clumps of date trees extend 
across the peninsula. 

The coast from Ras Halila trends northwestward 5^ miles to 
Eishahr Point ; it is rocky with cliflfs, and reefs extend off about 400 
yards. There are two date clumps about a mile northward of Halila 
village, whence the ground rises to a table land about 150 feet high 
in the middle of the peninsula ; Imamzada, on its highest part, is a 
conspicuous domed mosque; it is in a little village about IJ miles 
eastward of Eishahr Point, which is celebrated for the fine grapes 
produced in its vicinity. The British country Residency, with its 
flagstaff, on about the highest part of the peninsula, ^ mile southward 
of Imamzada, is conspicuous. Rishahr (old) fort is a square or 
quadrangular space on the Rishahr mounds about 300 yards in extent, 
nearly i mile east-southeastward of Rishahr Point. 

Rishahr Point (Rishehr) . — Just eastward of Rishahr Point is 
a little bay with cliffs, on which is a white house ; there is indifferent 
landing in calm weather on the shore here, but it is impossible with 
any wind or swell. The telegraph buildings, with a flagstaff, about 
I mile north-northeastward of the point, are conspicuous, and the 
wireless masts, the central of which is about 200 feet high. 

Anchorage. — ^A British naval vessel anchored in 1911 in about 4 
fathoms water, 2 miles offshore, westward of the Telegraph buildings, 
and during a shamal the ship dragged her anchor ; while the north- 
west-going current was running a very heavy sea was experienced, 
and it became necessary to go to sea. Another naval vessel anchored 
here in 1908, and rode out a shamal which lasted three days without 
dragging. 

The depths in this anchorage were reported in 1907 to be from 3 
to 4 feet less than charted. 

Prohibited anchorage. — Anchorage is prohibited off Rishahr 
Point (lat. 28° 54', long. 50° 49') between lines drawn 220° and 
265° from the white • house on the point ; on the latter bearing 
Imamzada and the white house are in alignment. 

Lloyd^s signal station. — There is a Lloyd's signal and telegraph 
station, under the Indo-European Telegraph Co., at Rishahr Point ; 
communication can be made by International code arid messages sent 
to and received from all parts. No lookout, however, is kept, and 
vessels desiring to communicate must first attract attention by means 
of the steam siren, or otherwise. 

Time signal. — A time signal, direct from London, through Teh- 
ran, at 6 h. m. sec. a. m. Greenwich mean time, can be arranged, 
by the courtesy of the Indo-European Telegraph Co., daily. , 



2^0 RAS BISTANA TO, AND INCLUDING, ABTJ SHAHRr 

The coast from Kishahr Point trends north-northwestward 2 
miles to Ras ash Shaghab, which is the western part of a low wide 
sandy rounded projection. There is a small clump of date trees about 
i mile southward of the ras, where, close to the shore, is a well of 
good water. 

The coast from Eas ash Shaghab trends north-northeastward, and 
is low and sandy for 3J miles, when low cliflFs about 15 feet high con- 
tinue about i mile to the southern part of Abu Shahr (Bushire) 
town, which then extends to the northern point of the peninsula. 
The coast from Eishahr point to the town is fringed by a reef from 
200 yards to J mile broad, and in many places along its outer part 
rocky bowlders dry at half ebb. 

Mufka (Nuf ka'eh) , on the coast, 2 miles southward of the town, 
is a small fishing village, with a small boat harbor in the reef. A 
tower 40 feet high, intended for a lighthouse but never used, stands 
just northward of the village. The German consulate, at the 
southern end of the village, has high arched winaows, two towers, 
and a flagstaff, and is conspicuous. The Russian consulate, on the 
coast li miles north-northeastward of Mufka, has also two towers. 

Abu Shahr (Bushire) (Bushehr) (lat. 28° 59', long. 50° 50'), 
the principal seaport of Persia, is situated on the north low point 
of Abu Shahr peninsula, which is lOJ miles long from Ras Halila to 
the town, with a greatest breadth of 3 miles. 

From the north point of the peninsula, its northeastern coast, or 
the southwestern shore of Khur Sultani, trends southeastward nearly 
2 miles to Ras Fudar, which is about 30 feet high ; and thence the 
edge of the swamp trends south-southeastward nearly 5 miles to a low 
point. Along the land between the swamp and the rising ground 
toward Imamzada are groves of date trees and cultivated ground. 

Caravans cross the swamp about 1 mile northward of the low 
point. 

A little southward of the low point is Tangak Village, with a 
small fort, and from it the edge of the swamp trends southward. 

The breadth of the Mashila, here is from 3 to 4 miles. For many 
miles from the swamp, and also to the northward, eastward of the 
harbor, the mainland is very low. 

Muharrak Island, northeastward of Ras Fudar, and separated 
from it by the Khurs Sultani and Lashkari, is swampy, with some 
fishermen's huts on its western end, about 800 yards distant from 
Ras Fudar; thence it extends 1^ miles east-northeastward, and, be- 
ing nowhere more than about 3 feet high, it mostly covers at high 
water springs. 

Jezirat Sheikh Saad, on the eastern side of Abu Shahr harbor, is 
4 miles long north and south, and low. A large village and a small 



RAS ASH SHATT. 261 

tower, 50 feet high, stands on the north rocky point, which is about 
10 feet high. Many large boats belong to the village, and the in- 
habitants carry on the traffic between Abu Shahr and Shif . There 
is no fresh water here except after rain. 

There is a conspicuous single palm tree, 2i miles southward of the 
tower. The island is swampy, except a narrow strip along its north 
and west coasts; the southern end is separated from Muharrak by 
a channel ^ mile wide, which nearly dries. Bar Abbasak (lat. 29** 
01', long. 50° 52'), the quarantine station, is about 1 mile from the 
southern end of the island. 

Shif^ IJ miles eastward of *the tower on Sheikh Saad, is a rocky 
point, about 25 feet high, on which is a small house ; it is the only 
landing place on the mainland near Abu Shahr, and much of the 
supplies from the interior for that town are shipped here. Eastward 
of Shif the country is low, barren, and partly swampy for some miles, 
and there are extensive swamps northward of it to Euhilla. 

The north shore of the harbor from Shif to Ras ash Shatt, 12 miles 
to the westward, is extensive mud banks intersected by numerous 
large and deep khurs, the entrances to which are shallow ; there are 
some sand knolls on the mud banks, generally above water, but 
covered at high water springs. 

Sas ash Shatty 11 miles northwestward of the north point of Abu 
Shahr peninsula, is a narrow strip of sand scarcely above high water, 
inside which a swamp, intersected by numerous creeks, extends many 
miles; the creeks have fairly deep water inside, but only 2 feet at 
the entrance. The ras, with the banks off it, shelters the harbor of 
Abu "Shahr from shamals. 

Approacli — Depths. — The coast from Eas Halila to about 1 mile 
northward of Mufka is fringed by a rocky reef to a distance of 
from 200 yards to J mile, already mentioned. The 3-f athom curve, 
from about 800 yards off Rishahr Point, trends north-northwestward 
to about li miles off Eas ash Shatt, but a bight, the entrance to 
which is about 1 mile wide, with from 3f to 3J fathoms, extends 
northward to about 1,200 yards off Mufka. The 5-f athom curve from 
about 2J miles off Eishahr J^oint trends north-northwestward to a 
similar distance off Eas ash Shatt. The 20-f athom curve is about 
13 miles off Eas Halila and 9 miles off Eas ash Shatt. 

Westward of the town the 3-fathom curve is 3 miles offshore, and 
thenc§ a flat with depths of from 2f to 2J fathoms extends to Eakat 
as Safli, Eas al Marg, and Eakat al Aali; there are two 2- fathom 
patches about 1^ miles westward of the town. The flat extends 
southward to 1^ miles northwestward of Eas ash Shaghab. 

In less than 1^ fathoms water the bottom is hard sand ; it becomes 
8and and mud and softer in deeper water. 



262 PERSIAN GULF, NORTHEASTERN SHORE. 

Banks. — ^A series of shallow sand banks, drying in places, lies 
westward and northward of the town ; the outer edge, with 2 fathoms 
water, commences about 600 yards off the Bussian Consulate and 
trends north-northwestward 3 miles. 

Bakat as Safli, the part of the banks extending about 1 mile north- 
westward from the town, dries about 2 feet in patches. There are 
three small channels through it, which are used at high water by 
boats bound between Khur Sultani and the vessels in the outer 
anchorage. 

Bas al Marg (lat. 29° 01', long. 50° 48'), the northwestern part 
of the banks (beacon, below), is steep-to. It is reported to be ex- 
tending to the westward. 

Lafka sands, with from 2 to 3 feet water, extend eastward 1.3 
miles from Eas al, Marg to Bas al Jabri, their eastern end, and 
are on the southeastern side of the inner anchorage; the sea seldom 
breaks on the sands, except at very low water or during strong winds. 

Bakat al Aali, with less than 2 fathoms water, extends southward 
from the shore eastward of Bas ash Shatt to about 3 miles west- 
northwestward of the north point of Abu Shahr peninsula. 

Buoys. — A black buoy, with staff and flag, is moored in about 
3J fathoms northward of Bas al Marg, the western extremity of 
Lakf a Sands ; a red conical buoy is moored in the fairway to Khor 
Sultani, at IJ miles northward of Bushire, and a black and white 
vertically-striped buoy farther in, on the west side of Alafdan sand- 
bank, east side of entrance to the Khor. 

Lights. — Two lights, placed vertically, are exhibited from the 
British (town) Besidency flagstaff; one fixed white, 72 feet above 
high water, visible 13 miles ; the other, fixed red, 54 feet above high 
water, visible 11 miles. 

Lightbuoys. — A lightbuoy, exhibiting an occulting white light, 
is moored in the outer anchorage in 4f fathoms water, 4J miles west- 
ward from the British (town) Besidency. 

A lightbuoy, exhibiting an occulting red light, is moored, in 2f 
fathoms water, on the southeastern side of Bakat al Aali, and 2^ 
miles northwestward from the residency. 

These buoys are painted red. The outer buoy is surmounted by 
a black cage with a white horizontal band, the inner buoy by a 
black cage. 

Prohibited anchorage. — Anchorage is prohibited within a dis- 
tance of 600 yards from the outer lightbuoy. 

Outer anchorage.-^The outer anchorage, situated with the Brit- 
ish (town) Besidency flagstaff bearing about 81° from 4 to 4J miles, 
in from 4J to 5 fathoms water, is open to shamals and kaus. Ves- 
sels of too deep draft to enter the inner anchorage, anchor here, and 
boats can fetch off with the prevailing winds. 



ABU SHAHR — TIDES. 263 

In fine weather and for a short stay, a small steam vessel can 
anchor with the Residency flagstaff bearing 45°, distant about 1 
mile, in 2J fathoms water. Boats can land near the flagstaff. 

Inner anchorage. — The harbor or inner anchorage, called by the 
natives Khur Deira, is a channel from 600 yards to i mile wide, with 
from 3J to 3f fathoms water, mud, and good holding ground, extend- 
ing al;>out li miles northeastward between Eas al Marg and Rakat 
al Aali. There is a depth of 2^ fathoms over the flat in its approach, 
- and the bottom is everywhere soft mud ; steam vessels of 15 feet and 
less draft enter the anchorage at any time of tide unless a shamal 
is blowing, while steamers of 20 feet draft can generally enter on 
the higher tide of the day. The further northeastward in the an- 
chorage the better the shelter during a shamal. A good position is 
in about 3^ fathoms water, 800 yards north-northeastward of Ras 
al Marg beacon, with the flagstaff of the Persian Governor's house 
bearing 149°, and the solitary palm northward of Bar Abbasak 90°. 

The banks on both sides are hard sand. 

Small native vessels anchor under shelter of the Lakfa sands, in 
from 1 to IJ fathoms, southeastward of Ras al Jabri (lat. 29° 01', 
long, 50° 50') ; this anchorage is locally known as Bandar al Ghawi. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, at 
Abu Shahr at 7 h. 43 m. ; springs rise 6 feet, neaps 5 feet. The 
Tide Tables for Standard Ports give the times of high and low wa- 
ter, with the tidal rise, daily throughout the year. In summer the 
day tides, and in i^inter the night tides, are the highest, the rise of 
the lower tide being very small. 

The winds affect the tide considerably, the shamal making it later 
and lowering the general level of the water, sometimes as much as 
one foot, while the kaus raises the level of the water. 

The July spring tide is the highest in the year. 

The tidal currents in the ofling set up and down the coast, but 
are weak. 

In the entrance to the harbor the current sets northward during 
the flood tide, and near Rakat as Safli eastward, across it into Khur 
Sultani; the current sets in the reverse directions during the ebb 
tide. In the inner anchorage, the currents set from north-northeast 
to east-northeast and from south-southwest to west-southwest, at a. 
velocity of 1 knot at springs, and from i to J knot at neaps, the 
currents are weak on the shoal flats northward and eastward of the 
anchorage. 

The currents are very strong in Khur Sultani, off the town, and 
also round the northern end of Jezirat Sheikh Saad. 

Pilots. — A pilot will always come off to a vessel, weather permit- 
ting, and a vessel requiring one should wait in about 4 fathoms in 



264 HAS BISTANA TO, AKD INCLUDING, ABU SHAHB. 

the outer anchorage. A vessel of more than 15 feet draft must wait 
a flood tide. 

Pilots for the Shatt al Arab can usually be obtained here. 

Boat channel. — Small buoys are moored to mark the channel for 
boats proceeding from the landing place to vessels in the inner an- 
chorage. There is a least depth of 4 feet at low water in this chan- 
nel. 

Directions. — In clear weather, from a distance, bearings of Gisa- 
kan Bluff, Kuh Khormuj, or Bu Riyal, will determine a vessel's 
position. 

The buoys are not to be depended on. 

From the southeastward steer to pass about 6 miles off Has al 
Halifa, and then continue northwestward, in not less than 6 fathoms 
water, and anchor according to draft southward of the light buoy 
at the outer anchorage. From southwestward of the peninsula, and 
in about 20 fathoms, Imamzada mosque and the British country 
residency and telegraph buildings at Rishahr will be first seen, 
showing white, especially in the afternoon. The depth decreases 
regularly as the coast is approached. 

Khor Pooda, the southeastern branch, extends southeastward from 
Pooda village and Ras Fudar ; it runs through a sandy plain, which 
covers at high water springs for many miles around ; it is about 300 
yards wide, in the entrance, but reduced to 50 y^rds in places farther 
up ; it has several branches, as charted. 

A small vessel can keep near the land, according to draft. 

At night steer northwestward, in not less than 10 f athoms^ water 
off the peninsula, and make the lights at the British residency and 
the light of the outer anchorage lightbuoy. If in doubt as to posi- 
tion anchor anywhere in a convenient depth and wait for daylight. 

From the northward^ in passing Ras ash Shatt (lat. 29° 06', 
long. 60° 40'), which is nearly covered at high water, do not shoal 
the water to less than 10 fathoms, and keep in that depth until the 
outer anchorage lightbuoy is sighted. At night Abu Shahr lights 
should be sighted when a little southward of Ras ash Shatt. 

Inner anchorage. — The German and Russian consulates, British 
(town) residency flagstaff, the conspicuous solitary palm northward 
of Bar Abbasak, and the village at the northern end of Jezirat 
Sheikh Saad are good marks for fixing the position. 

From the outer anchorage, approach with the British (town) resi- 
dency flagstaff bearing 76° ; when the German consulate bears 136° 
steer 0°, and when the residency flagstaff bears 108°, steer 28° to 
the anchorage, leaving the inner anchorage lightbuoy to the west- 
ward and Ras al Marg beacon to the eastward; the least water by 
this route is 2^ fathoms. 



KHUB BANDARGA. 266 

Mail steamers keep the residency flagstaff bearing 81® until the 
German consulate bears 138°, and then steer 17° to the anchorage: 
the least water by this route is 2J fathoms. 

From the westward it may be convenient to approach with the 
residency flagstaff bearing 103° until the German consulate bears 
149°, then steering 28° to the anchorage; there is a least depth of 2J 
fathoms by this route. 

From the southward a vessel can pass about 1 mile off Ras ash 
Shaghab, and steer 359° till the residency flagstaff bears 108° when 
a 28° course leads to the anchorage ; the least water by this route is 
2^ fathoms. 

Khiir Sultani is a large creek with a shallow bar, by which boats 
of light draft run up to the bund or embankment at Abu Shahr. It 
passes close along the eastern side of the town, where it is 200 yards 
wide, with from 4 to 7 fathoms, hard bottom ; thence it widens and 
runs southeastward between Eas Fudar (lat. 28° 58', long. 50° 52'), 
and Muharrak Island, where it bifurcates, the principal branch, Khur 
Liashkari, running northeastward southward of Jezirat Muharrak 
and Sheikh Saad. 

On the eastern side of Khur Sultani a rocky bank extends 2 miles 
northwestward from Muharrak Island, ending in the point of Alaf- 
dan Shoal, 1 mile northward of the town. Abreast of this bank the 
entrance to E3iur Sultani is about J mile wide, and has from 1 to IJ 
fathoms water; to the northward the channel spreads out over the 
great flat extending to the Lakfa Sands, with from about f to 1 
fathom water. 

There are three entrances to Khur Sultani across this flat, one just 
southward of Ras al Marg, known as Khur Bahrani, and used only 
by small boats ; the second eastward and southward of Eas al Jabri 
through Bandar al Ghawi; and the third and best about 400 yards 
northeastward of Ras al Marg beacon. Small craft using this chan- 
nel, which has | fathom least water, keep the Imamzada midway 
between the gate leading into, and the southwest corner of the wall 
surroimding, the Russian Consulate, 164°, and, when through the 
sands, bring the governor's flagstaff just open eastward of the custom- 
house, 152°, which leads into the khur. 

Bagalas of 10 feet draft enter the khur by this passage. Boats 
oi 7 feet draft enter at ordinary high water. Light draft gunboats 
have often entered and anchored near the town, but nothing larger 
than a bagala has done so for many years. 

Khur Bandarga^ by which Shif is approached, runs close round 
the northern end of Jezirat Sheikh Saad, and has 8 fathoms water 
off the tower, where it turns southeastward, passing 800 yards west- 
ward of Shif; it then continues a narrow boat channel eastward of 

1780O8*— 20 ^18 



266 PERSIAN GULF, NORTHERN SHORE. 

the island. The bar of the khur, IJ miles westward of the tower, 
has 3 feet water. 

The water is very shoal westward of Jezirat Sheikh Saad, and 
between it and Muharrak a rocky flat projects about 1 mile. 

Tihimiya Point, If miles north-northwestward of Jezirat Sheikh 
Saad, is a small sandy projection, with rocks extending some distance 
oflf it; here people journeying into the interior sometimes land at 
high water. 

Abu Shahr (Bushire) (Bushehr) Town (lat. 28° 59', long. 
50° 50') on the northern part of Abu Shahr Peninsula, a rocky ridge 
which does not exceed 40 feet in height, has a perimeter of about If 
miles. It is poorly built, the streets are narrow and dirty, and there is 
no attempt at draining, paving, or lighting. There is a wall, with 
many towers, on the land side, but numerous buildings have been 
erected outside it, and it is scarcely distinguishable from them ; there 
are several bad-girs or wind towers, but they are not conspicuous. 

Southward of the town, for upward of 1 mile, the ground is 
swampy, and, except a narrow strip along the west coast, covers at 
very high water. The land rises in a gradual slope to Imamzada 
Village and is partially cultivated; there are also several small 
hamletSj and many wells. 

Abu Shahr is the headquarters of the Persian Province of the 
Gulf ports, and the governor resides in a square fort at the south- 
eastern comer of the town. The garrison of the town and district 
consists of about 200 infantry and about 20 gunners, principally 
Persians and Arabs. The European community numbers about 40 
persons. The people are more Arab in blood than Persian, and they 
are occupied in seafaring, agriculture, and trade. There is a small 
Christian church in the town. 

Abu Shahr is the headquarters of the British political resident in 
the Persian Gulf. The town residency is a large building at the 
southwestern corner, with a flagstaff close to it, and is now used for 
office purposes, the resident living at the residency ^ mile south- 
ward of Imamzada. Near the town residency is the flagstaff of the 
Turkish consulate. 

Consulates. — ^The Russian consulate is f mile southward of the 
British town residency ; it is a conspicuous building with two towers 
and is surrounded by an extensive wall; on its northern tower is a 
flagstaff. The German, Dutch, and French consulates are farther 
southward, awaj^ from the town. 

Landing. — ^There are neither wharves nor piers. The only land- 
ing place is in Khur Sultani, where a good bund has been formed, 
and here all cargo is shipped and landed; the portion of the bund 
in general use is about 75 yards in length, and has a depth of about 2 
feet alongside. Boats are allowed to land at and to leave the bund 



ABU SHAHR — SUPPLIES — TRADE. 267 

during daylight ; at other times special permission miist be obtained 
from the customs passport department. 

Health. — Plague first appeared in Abu Shahr in 1910, and it was 
followed by severe outbreaks in 1911 and 1912 ; it reappeared in a 
very mild form in 1913. The town is otherwise healthy, especially 
during the hot summer. 

Quarantine. — The surgeon of the British residency is the port 
health officer. The quarantine regulations are very strict, and the 
authorities enforce all penalties. The quarantine station is at Kar 
Abbasak (lat. 29° 01', long. 50° 52'). Passengers less than 10 days 
out from Bombay, or other infected ports, are landed here, to their 
great discomfort, but those who are allowed to do their quarantine 
on board their vessel are required to pay the same fees as those who 
are landed, in order to maintain the quarantine establishment. 

Repairs can not be executed. 

Supplies. — Cattle, meat, and bread are procurable, but not salt 
meat. Vegetables are plentiful from January to March, although 
at other times they can not always be obtained. The water is 
generally bad and undrinkable. 

Water for boilers can be sent off in dhows, 5 tons at a time. 

Coal. — In normal times from 1,500 to 3,000 tons of coal was in 
stock. It is taken off to vessels in the anchorages in lighters of from 
20 to 25 tons, of which there are 12, but in fine weather only. There 
is a limited supply of firewood. 

Two steam launches are kept here to assist in discharging colliers 
and transports. 

Trade. — ^Abu Shahr is the port and terminus for the great and 
ancient caravan route which runs through Kazarun to Shiraz and 
Isfahan, and thence on to Tehran. A portion of the supplies and 
stocks is required for consumption in the town and its vicinity, but 
the larger part is intended to supply the great centers of Shiraz and 
Isfahan, which are respectively the capitals of provinces. 

The customs duties are very high and the regulations said to be 
most irksome. Nevertheless, a considerable trade is carried on with 
Basra, India, Great Britain, Turkey, Egypt, and various European 
ports, the traffic with the interior being mainly mule caravan. The 
distance to Shiraz is about 170 miles. 

Exports. — The chief exports are wheat, barley, and other grain, 
dates, almonds and pistachios, rose-water, drugs, gum insoluble and 
gum tragacanth, cotton, wool, woollen carpets, opium, skins, and 
unmanufactured tobacco. 

Imports. — The chief imports are matches, timber, candles, rice, 
sugar, tea, drugs, spices, clothing, kerosene, iron manufactures, cop- 
per and nickel, cotton, wool, mercery and haberdashery, furniture, 
skins^ earthenware and chinaware, indigo, and glass. 



X 



268 HAS BISTANA TO, AND INCLUDING, ABU SHAHB. 

Currency. — In the district nickel pieces of 1 and 2 shahis, silver 
pieces of 1 kran (very few^, 2 and 5 krans (few) are current, as 
well as Imperial Bank of Persia notes of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, etc., tumans. 

In the town of Abu Shahr rupees and sovereigns are commonly 
accepted. 

Weights. — ^The weights of importance are: 16 kiass=l Bushire 
man (7.75 pounds) ; 1 Shiraz man=:7.36 pounds; 1 Hashem man in 
Bushire=124 pounds; 1 Tabriz or customs man (also called bat- 
man) = 6.54 pounds; 1 kharwar=100 batmans (654 pounds). 

Communication. — ^The vessels of the British India Steam Navi- 
gation Co.'s fast mail service, and also those of their subsidiary 
mail service, between Bombay and Basra call at Abu Shahr (lat. 28® 
59', long. 50° 50') weekly both on their passage up and down the 

gulf. 

Transport between Abu Shahr and the interior is effected almost 
entirely by mules. The main caravan route to Shiraz is the only 
road of importance, and part of it, which traverses four steep moun- 
tain ranges, is precipitous and very difficult. 

The British Indian post office is situated in the British town 
residency. 

The telegraph office at Abu Shahr is always open. 

There are both British and Persian post and telegraph depart- 
ments; the latter is only used for conmiunication with the interior 
arid is very slow and unreliable. 

Shipping.— The boats of Abu Shahr (lat. 28° 59', long. 50° 50') 
fly a red flag, with a white two-edged sword in the center. 



CHAPTER XL 

PERSIAN GULF, NORTHEAST SHORE AND HEAD. 

ABU SHAHR (BUSHIRE) TO, AND INCLUDING, THE SHATT 

AL ARAB. 

(Lat. 29° 05', long. 50** 40', to lat. 33" 30', long. 44" 20'.) 

The coast. — Ranges of mountains lie some distance inland from 
the coast between Abu Shahr and the deltas of the great rivers ; but 
for many miles toward the interior the land is low with banks ex- 
tending some distance off. Southward of Duhat Dilam there are no 
detached^hoals off the coast. The gulf shoals gradually toward the 
head from the greatest depth of 38 fathoms, about 40 miles westward 
of Abu Shahr. The towns northward of Abu Shahr are small and 
the population chiefly Persian. 

Mountains. — Some 15 miles to the northward of Kuh Khormuj 
and 26 miles eastward of Abu Shahr, is a mountain ridge about 4,000 
feet high, deeply furrowed, with a lump on each end, and a third 
lump near the middle. Gisakan Bluff, 5,350 feet high, situated about 
22 miles northward of the 4,000- foot summit and 33 miles northeast- 
ward of Abu Shahr, is at the northern end of a range which has a 
step on the top. About 41 miles northeastward of this bluff is a 
round-topped mountain, 10,200 feet high, which is snowclad in win- 
ter. Northward of Gisakan Bluff the mountain range is more in- 
land, and appears generally to be lower; it continues to stretch 
northward, leaving a great plain toward the sea. 

Tides and tidal ciirrents. — The time of high water, full and 
change, varies from 7 h. 43 m. at Abu Shahr to about 11 h. 30 m. 
on the bar of the Shatt al Arab. The tidal currents are felt along 
the shore q,nd, northward of the parallel of Jezirat Kharag (lat. 
29° 16', long. 50° 21'), the whole way across the gulf, the velocity 
increasing toward the rivers. The nbrthgoing current sets along 
the Persian coast, as well as directly into the mouths of the rivers. 

The coast from Ras ash Shatt trends north-northwestward 73 
miles, to the head of Duhat Dilam (lat. 30° 11', long. 50° 5'), 
the northeastern bight of the Persian Gulf, and thence west-south- 
westward 28 miles to Ras ul Bahrgan, where the delta of the Meso- 
potamian rivers commences. Northward of the parallel of Jezirat 
Khargu, the depth is less than 20 fathoms across the gulf, and it 
decreases toward the rivers. 

269 



270 KHUR RUHILLA. 

The coast is low, and the mountains are some distance inland, with 
the exception of Kuh-i-Bang (Jabal Bag or Bang), 1,000 feet high, 
which lies 30 miles northward of Kharag Fort. The summit of this 
hill is 2 miles inland, and has a precipitous face to seaward ; from the 
southward it shows a remarkable bluflf. The range of which it is 
part extends 12 miles parallel with the coast. 

Northward of Gisakan Bluff are a series of ranges from 30 to 40 
miles inland, over which can be seen the summits of much higher 
mountains, covered with snow in winter. Separated from Kuh-i- 
Bang by a valley, is a range about 15 miles inland, from 2,000 to 
3,000 feet high, but with no conspicuous peak. Its southern end 
is 26 miles north-northeastward of Ras ash Shatt; the country to 
the southward appears to be low inland to the Gisakan Range. 

A range of lower hilk, trending east and west, comes within 4 
miles of the head of Duhat Dilam, and thence turns nothwestward 
into the interior, decreasing in height; this range ft the western- 
most of the Persian hills, the whole head of the gulf being a low 
alluvial plain. On this range, 25 miles eastward from Dilam Town, 
is a sharp peak, and 26 miles northwestward from that town is 
Funnel Hill, 550 feet high. 

Kuh Bebehan (BehbeMn), 47 miles northeastward of Dilam 
Town, is a great mountain of irregular outline, lying east and west ; 
the summit is 10,400 feet high, and is snowclad for six months in the 
year. 

Tidal currents. — ^The tidal currents set northward and south- 
ward along the coast northward to Duhat Dilam, between which and 
Ras ul Bahrgan they set south westward and northeastward; the 
velocity of the currents is from 1 to IJ knots. The velocity increases 
to^ about 2 and 3 knots as the rivers are approached. 

The coast from Ras ash Shatt trends north-northwestward 5 miles 
to the entrance to Khur Ruhilla and is low and sandy, with a few 
tufts of grass; the 5-fathom curve is about 2^ miles, and the 3- 
fathom curve 1^ miles, off it. 

Khur Ruhilla (Rud Hilleh) is the mouth of Ruhilla River, 
which is formed by the junction of the Shapur and Daliki Rivers 
about 30 miles inland ; the Ruhilla regularly floods after the melting 
of the snow in the mountains. 

The khur is navigable by small craft to Ruhilla Village, which is 
situated near a clump of date trees 6 miles northeastward of the 
entrance. The entrance is shallow, and the banks cover at high 
water. 

There are several other khurs in this locality; all the entrances 
are shallow with deeper water inside. 

The output of grain from the port of Khur Ruhilla was 2,711 
tons. 



PERSIAN GULF, NORTHEAST SHORE AND HEAD. 271 

Jezlrat Kharagy 19 miles west-northwestward of Ras ash Shatt 
and about 16 miles westward of the coast northward of Khur Euhilla, 
is 4i miles long north-northwest and south-southeast, and about 2^ 
miles broad. A range of table topped hills extends, north and south, 
through the island, and on a hill, 284 feet high^ near the middle, is a 
small tomb known as Dedabuun or Muhammad's watchman (lat. 29° 
15', long. 50° 19') ; there are several similar tombs on the island. 
The hills at the southern point end in precipitous bluffs with de- 
tached table liunps, and northwestward they decrease in height and 
terminate in cliffs from 20 to 30 feet high. Near the middle of the 
northern end of the island is a quoin shaped hill about 200 feet high, 
with a small building on the summit, somewhat conspicuous except 
from the northward. 

The west coast is a series of rocky points with sandy beaches be- 
tween, the hills ending abruptly in cliffs; the east coast is sandy. 
On the eastern side is a cultivated plain, a mile in extent, terminating 
in Fort Point, the low sandy northeastern extremity, on which are 
the ruins of a fort and a village, with a population of about 500, 
mostly fishermen. The best landing at low water is northward of 
the eastern angle of the fort; at high water there is landing any- 
where along the beach inside the reef. 

Kharag is surrounded by a fringing rocky reef, which extends about 
800 yards off the south and west coasts ; J mile off the north coastj and 
600 yards off the east coast, where there are from 4 to 7 fathoms close 
outside it. A sandspit extends 1,600 yards eastward from Fort 
Point, with 3^ fathoms water close to the point, 4J fathoms about the 
middle, 6 fathoms at the outer end, and 10 fathoms just eastward of 
it; there are from 6 to 8 fathoms close to the spit on either side. 

The island on moonlight nights sometimes shows as a white streak, 
but not until close to ; on a dark night, from its brown color, it can 
seldom be seen. 

Anchorage. — ^The most convenient summer anchorage, sheltered 
from shamals, is on the eastern side, in about 8 fathoms, 800 yards 
offshore, with the quoin-shaped hill pust open southward of the fort. 
In winter anchor farther out in about 10 fathoms, so that should a 
kaus come on the vessel could sift to northwestward of the fort and 
anchor in 7 fathoms, with the eastern angle of the fort bearing 160°, 
about 1,800 yards, where there would then be shelter. The holding 
ground, however, is rocky and indifferent, and during winter be ready 
to shift berth to either side of the point ; when the necessity for shift- 
ing has become apparent, the change should be effected without delay. 

Vessels from the anchorage or from abreast of Jezirat Kharag, if 
bound for the Shatt al Arab, steer direct to the light vesseL 



272 BAKDAB RIG. 

Supplies. — ^Fowls, eggs, milk, fish, and a few vegetables can be 
obtained from the natives. There are good wells near the east cioast. 
There are many gazelles on the hills and large flocks of goats. 

Jezirat Ehargu, the southern end of which (lat. 29® 18', long. 60® 
20') is 2 J miles northward of Fort Point, is 3 miles long north- 
northeast and south-southwest, 800 yards broad, and very low white 
sand. It is barren and uninhabited, but has a conspicuous tree about 

1 mile from its southern end. 

The island can not be seen at night until dangerously close to it. 

The northern end of Khargu is steep-to ; a flat, rock reef extends 
from 1,000 to 1,600 yards oflf the west and south coasts, with from 
6 to 10 fathoms close outside it, but from the southern part of the reef 
there is an extension with 4 and 4^ fathoms, rock, for i mile to the 
southeastward ; foul ground extends about J mile from the east coast 
with from 12 to 15 fathoms 400 yards off it. The best landing is at 
the northeastern point. ^ 

Channel. — ^In the channel between Jezair Kharag and Khargu the 
fairway between the reefs is 1 mile wide ; the soundings are irregular 
from 5 to 9 fathoms, hard bottom, and these depths are carried close 
to the reefs. 

Soundings. — The western and southern sides of Jezirat Kharag 
coast reef are steep-to, and the 20-fathom curve is from 1^ to 2 miles 
seaward of that island. There is a depth of 21 fathoms C miles east- 
ward of the southern part of the island, whence the deptli decreases 
to 12 fathoms 1 mile from the island. There is aLso a depth of 25 
fathoms 2 miles northeastward of Jezirat Khargu. Westward of 
Khargu there are depths of 12 fathoms close to the reef, increasing to 
20 fathoms at the distance of about 4 miles. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, at 
Jezirat Kharag at 8 h. m. ; springs rise 6J feet. The tidal cur- 
rents near these islands set northwest and southeast at a velocity 
sometimes exceeding 2 knots. 

The coast from Khur Ruhilla trends northward 17 miles to Ban- 
dar Eig ; it is low and sandy, and the 3-f athom curve is distant about 

2 miles. Khur Gasair, about half way between Ruhilla and Bandar 
Rig, is frequented by large boats; there is a small village near its 
mouth. 

Bandar Rig (Rig) (lat. 29° 28', long. 60° 38') is a small town 
northward of some date trees, inhabited partly by Arabs of Al Zaab 
Tribe. There is a small khur at the town, fronted by two ^sandy 
islets or banks, inside which native boats lie and take the ground at 
low water. Much grain is exported f ron| this place to other parts of 
the gulf. It and the adjacent country ]are under the governor of 
the gulf ports. 



ABU SHAHR TO, AND INCLUDING, THE SHATT AL ARAB. 273 

The coast from Bandar Eig trends northwestward 15 miles to 
Sabz Pushan Point; it is low and sandy. The 5-fathom curve is 
about 3^ miles, and the 3-f athom curve 1^ miles off it. 

Eanawa (Qanaveh), about 8 miles northwestward of Bandar 
Rig, and \ mile inland, is a large village, with a few date and other 
trees, and a large tomb with a spire. The inhabitants are chiefly 
agricultural, ^ust northwestward of the village is a large round 
banyan tree, very conspicuous. There is anchorage southwestward 
of the banyan tree in 3 fathoms nearly 1^ miles offshore; large 
vessels anchor farther out. The landing at low water is bad, as 
several ridges of dry sand, with about 2 feet water inside them, 
must be crossed. 

The country to the northward is under the Khan of Bebehan. 

Khur Khalil is the mouth of a tidal river, \\ miles southward~of 
Kanawa banyan tree; sands, which dry, extend about 400 yards off 
it. The Kanawa boats enter the khur at high water, and carry on 
a small coasting trade. 

Kalat Haidar, 4 miles northwestward of Kanawa, is a small vil- 
lage with a few date trees near it; the inhabitants are agricultural 
and are a poor but civil people, though wild in appearance. 

Supplies. — ^Very good fowls, cattle, and vegetables are obtainable 
at Kanawa. 

Sabz Pushan (Sabzptish&n) is a slightly projecting rocky point, 
rising steeply to hillocks from 40 to 60 feet high. On th^ summit 
is a small tomb, which can only be seen when close in. A rocky 
reef extends about 300 yards from the plant, and there is a little 
watercourse close eastward of it. 

The coast from Sabz Pushan trends northwestward 24 miles to 
Ras at Tanb. A small tomb stands on the coast hillocks, which are 
about 50 feet high, 7 miles northwestward of Sabz Pushan, under 
the highest part of Kuh-i-Bang; the land between it and Kuh-i-Bang 
is undulating, but rises toward the range. Between Sabz Pushan 
and the tomb, no reef extends more than 400 yards, and the 5-fathom 
curve is about 1^ miles off the coast, whence the water deepens to 
10 fathoms at the distance of 4 miles. 

Khur Sini, 17 miles northwestward of Sabz Pushan, is small, with 
deep water in it. Southward of it is Imam Husein (Imam Hasan), a 
conspicuous old mosque, with a small village and some trees near it. 
Khur al Abd, about 4 miles northwestward of Khur Sini, is small, 
and Khur Lulatain (Lailatain), about 3 miles farther northwest- 
ward, i&also small. The 5-fathom curve is about 2 miles off the coast 
at the tomb under Kuh-i-Bang, and 5 miles off Ras at Tanb; the 
depths decrease to the northward, the 10- fathom curve trending west- 
ward from about 10 miles westward of Kuh-i-Bang. 



1 -^ 



274 DILAM TOWN. 

Has at Tanb (lat. 29° 59', long. 50° 09') is the low sandy south- 
ern point of Duhat Dilam ; dry sands extend nearly 1 mile off it and 
shallows some distance beyond. The land inshore of the sandy coast 
is swampy for many miles. 

Duhat Dilam lies between Has at Tanb and Ras ul Bahrgan, 
about 30 miles to the westward; the shore is everywhere very low, 
and the 3-fathom curve is generally from 2 to 4 miles offshore, about 
8 miles eastward of Bas at Tanb there is, however, a small table hill, 
165 feet high, of light color, with vertical sides. In the plain north- 
ward of this hill are several forts and date groves. There are depths 
of 8 fathoms and less in the bay. 

Dilam, about 6^ miles northward of Ras at Tanb, is a town and 
fort. The square fort, in and around which the houses are built, is 
first seen when approaching it. About ^ mile southward of the fort 
are a few round trees, with a little cultivation. 

Mud flats dry off the town, rendering landing difficult; in these 
flats is a small creek, which dries, where native craft lie, their cargoes 
being loaded and unloaded on donkeys. 

The shore of the bay here is a mere strip of rocky land from 10 to 
15 feet high, from which swamps extend several miles inland. There 
is a small fort IJ miles northeastward of the town near some wells, 
from which the town is supplied with water. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage in 4 fathoms, soft mud, about 3^ 
miles off the town ; it is sheltered in shamals, but kaus probably cause 
much sea, though there is even then partial shelter. 

Supplies. — Fish, cattle, and poultry are plentiful and easily ob- 
tainable. Water is expensive and indifferent. 

Trade. — Dilam is the port of the district of Bebehan; grain, 
cotton, wool, ghi, etc., are exported, chiefly to Abu Shahr and Ku- 
weit. 

Communication. — Dilam is in telegraphic communication with 
Abu Shahr (Bushire). 

Shad Abul Shah (Sh&h Abul Sh&h) , on the hillocks at the head 
of Duhat Dilam, and 8 miles north-northwestward of Dilam, is a 
village with a large white domed tomb. 

It has a small creek and some coasting trade. 

The shore of the bay from Shah Abul Shah trends west-south- 
westward 28 miles to Ras ul Bahrgan, and shoal water extends 
nearly 4 miles off it. The soundings are regular, and it is safe to 
approach by the lead. The range of hills, which approaches to about 
3 miles northward of Shah Abul Shah, turns northwestward from 
about 8 miles northwestward of that village, and thence the land is 
exceedingly low across the head of the gulf to Kuweit, being the 
delta of the great rivers. 



PERSIAN GULF, NORTHEASTERN SHORE AND HEAD. 275 

Bas ul Bahrgan (lat. 30° 01', long. 49° 35') is a very low strip 
of sand nearly covered at high water, with 3 fathoms water 4 miles 
to the southward; inland, it is swampy for some miles. There are 
some date groves 3 miles from the point, and Mir Amman Tomb, 
probably on the banks of Hindiyan River. Mud flats, covered at 
high water, extend some miles on each side of the point, and ^ mile 
offshore on its southeastern side, so that for some miles eastward 
of the ras the soft mud makes landing impossible. 

Hindiyan River enters the gulf a few miles northwestward of 
Eas ul Bahrgan by apparently several mouths, but by one main 
channel, through a delta. The town of Hindiyan is about 30 miles 
up the river, which is very winding, some of the reaches approach- 
ing within 2 miles of the coast eastward of Ras ul Bahrgan, so that 
native boats, lying outside, send across to the river for water. The 
population of the town is about 500; it is a port for native craft, 
and cereals are exported. 

Sirima, about 9 miles northwestward of Ras ul Bahrgan, is a small 
cluster of trees on the low shore; it is a mark for the entrance of 
Hindiyan River, whose delta lies between these trees and the ras. 

The principal entrance to the Hindiyan is very shallow, and has 
been put partially surveyed. The approach to it, through the mud 
flat, is marked by poles with tins for topmarks, and a steamer of 
8 feet draft has ascended as far as Hindiyan. As a rule, the craft 
using this river are of from 20 to 30 tons. Ab Kateh is a small vil- 
lage about 6 miles up the river. 

Ras at Tullub, 17 miles west-northwestward of Ras ul Bahrgan, 
is a low projection of the mainland. . About 1 J nailes northwestward 
of it is the mouth of a river or creek, with extensive ruins on its 
banks. The coast northwestward of this point is nearly all covered 
at high water and has not been traced. 

Fasht al Miairiz^ extending about 12 miles south-southeastward 
from Ras at Tullub, is sand and mud, and dries in patches. It is 
separated from Ras at Tullub by Khur Ghazlan, a narrow passage 
with about 6 feet water. Khur Bahrgan, between Fasht al Miairiz 
and Ras ul Bahrgan flats, is about 3J miles wide, with from 3 to IJ 
fathoms water, and leads into Khur Ghazlan. 

Banna^ 2 miles westward of Ras at Tullub, is a low narrow island 
3^ miles long east and west, with a ruin on it. 

Daira Island (Dairah), 3^^ miles southwestward of Banna, and 
separated from it by Khur Wasta, is low and partly swampy. Aich 
Shaham, 3 miles southward of Daira, is a small sand bank with less 
than 6 feet water, and from 3 to 6 fathoms around. 

Northward of these islands, and eastward of Khur Musa, are 
many banks, which dry in patches, with deep unexplored channels 
between them. 



276 KHUE MUSA. 

Ehur Musa (Mtisa) trends northward from about 8 miles south- 
south westward of Daira Island; it receives the waters of Khur 
Dorak and probably a branch of the Karun. There is a least depth 
of 2^ fathoms on the bar of the khur. 

About 13 miles north-northwestward of Daira is Kabr an Nak- 
huda, a low islet from which the eastern bank of the khur extends 
southward 23 miles, and partly dries. Kaseir bint Sisuan (Kassar 
bin Siswan) (lat. 30° 13', long. 48° 59'), in the middle of the khur 
5 miles southward of Kabr an Nakhuda, is a rocky shoal about IJ 
miles long north and south, with less than 6 feet water ; it is steep-to, 
and can be passed on either side. 

Bu Suf , a white sand islet with a cairn, 7 feet high, lies about 
4 miles west-northwestward of Kabr an Nakhuda. Khur Bukhader 
(Abu Khadhair), the banks of which are steep-to, trends westward 
from about 2 miles westward of Bu Suf, and probably joins Karun 
River. About 14 miles farther northeastward, Khur Dorak trends 
west-northwestward and is somewhat tortuous in its lower reaches; 
it afterwards takes a general northerly direction. 

Khur Musa continues about 6 miles east-northeastward from its 
junction with Khur Dorak, and thence as Khur Mashur (Ma'shur) 
trends north-northeastward some 7 miles. 

There are no signs of habitation anywhere up the khur, the land is 
generally low and swampy, and no provisions are obtainable. 

Directions. — The passage up Khur Musa presents^ no difficulty, 
but the bar should be buoyed. Enter the khur air low water, with 
the sun astern, when the banks are most clearly seen. Should the 
water shoal, it is well to anchor, and send boats to sound and find 
the channel. Keep the eastern bank aboard, the course being about 
348° ; sometimes the position of the sun renders it advisable to keep 
the western bank aboard. When Kabr an Nakhuda (lat. 30° 18', 
long. 49° 00') bears about 70°, steer about 312°, and anchor when Bu 
Suf bears 95°, about 1^ miles. 

Khur Bukhader can be ascended some 5 miles above the anchor- 
age just mentioned by keeping in mid-channel ; farther up the chan- 
nel becomes too narrow for a vessel of any length to turn. In Khur 
Musa, above Bu Suf, keep on the western side, steering about 356° 
for 2J miles, when the khur turns first northeastward and then east- 
ward. A British naval vessel in leaving the khur in 1910 lost the 
channel several times in the southern 4 miles, owing to the banks not 
showing, and a southeasterly course had to be maintained for 4 
miles outside the bar before it was possible to steer toward the en- 
trance of the Shatt al Arab. 

Daurakistan (Dorakistan) , westward of Khur Musa, is a low 
swampy tract intersected by creeks, extending to Khur Bahmishir, 
a distance of about 18 miles; Bu Seif (Sif) is its southeastern point. 



ABU SHAHR TO, AND INCLUDING, THE SHATT AL ARAB. 277 

Khur Silaik Bahri, close westward of Bu Self, has about 6 feet water 
in the entrance, and is said to join Karun River. 

Khur Silij (Kuwairin), about 8 miles westward of Bu Seif, lilso 
joins Karun River ; neither of these khurs has been explored for any 
distance. 

Shatt al Arab— Approach. — ^Maidan Ali is the great shallow 
flat lying on the eastern side of the approach to Shatt al Arab ; the 
southern 3-fathom edge of the flat from about 10 miles southeastward 
of Bu Seif trends west-south westward about 17 miles, and the depths 
over the flat are generally regular, the lines of equal depth being 
probably nearly parallel to the shore. The bottom is mud and sand, 
the latter predominating as the shore is approached. The western 
side of Maidan Ali borders the Khur al Amaya, and soundings on its 
outer point may be useful in making the Shatt al Arab as well as 
Khur al Amaya in thick weather. 

Caution. — Off the entrance to the Shatt al Arab, and for some 
distance to the southward, experience has shown that forenoon obser- 
vations of the sun may sometimes give a position from 2 to 4 miles 
to the eastward and afternoon observations a position from 2 to 4 
miles to the westward of the true position. This appears to be 
caused by abnormal refraction arising from 'the unequal tempera- 
tures of the salt and fresh water streams and hot winds from the 
desert. 

Banks. — ^For about 20 miles southeastward and southward and 15 
miles southwestward of Maidan Ali the soundings are very uneven 
and afford little guide to navigation. Banks, with depths of from 
4^ to 9 fathoms, trend generally northwest and southeast, and the 
water is deep between them. 

Shoals. — ^There is a patch with 4^ fathoms water, 22 mile$, 151° 
from Bu Seif, and there are 4^-fathom patches 5 and 7 miles north- 
eastward of this patch. 

A shoal of small extent, with 3 fathoms water, lies about 16 miles 
southward of Bu Seif, and there are depths of less than 5 fathoms 
for 2 miles southeastward and northwestward from it. 

Palinurus shoal, 2 miles long north and south, and 1 mile broad, 
with 3 fathoms least water, sand bottom, lies about 24 miles 199° 
from Bu Seif. 

Khur al Amaya (lat. 29° 52', long. 48° 46'), on the western side 
of Maidan Ali, leads into Bahmanishir River. The khur is not 
marked in any way, as the banks do not dry until well inside the bar. 
The soundings decrease from 9 fathoms in the entrance to 3 and IJ 
fathoms northeastward of Marakat Abadan. 

The khur was formerly the eastern channel into the Shatt al Arab, 
but the passage into that river has silted up. Vessels of 7 feet 
draft can enter Bahmanishir River at low water, the least depth to 



278 BAHMANISHIR RIVEE. 



/ 



be passed over being a bar with li fathoms, soft mud, 10 miles out- 
side the mouth. Inside the bar the depths vary from IJ to 2 fathoms. 

Bahmaniahir River (Bahmishir) is the mouth of Karun Biver, 
and its course is about 60 miles in length from the entrance, 10 miles 
above the bar, to Muhammera, or 35 miles in a straight line. The 
following description is mainly from an examination made in one 
day only, in 1890. The river appears to be navigable for vessels of 
not more than 7 feet draft for about 30 miles from its mouth. There 
are two sharp bends near the middle of its course, the first commenc- 
ing 9 miles from the mouth. Its width near the mouth is from 3 to 
4 cables, but in the northern half of the river, in some places, only 
1^ cables. The banks near the mouth are sloping, and of soft mud, 
covered with a coarse grass above high-water mark; a few miles 
farther up the banks are harder and steeper. About 22 miles from 
the mouth villages and date gardens commence, and thence these 
line the banks almost all the way to the junction with the Karun. 
The northern part of the river for about 15 miles is very shallow and 
uneven, some of the mudbanks drying almost across the channel ; so 
that a British naval vessel, of 3 feet draft, grounded twice in steam- 
ing up it. 

Directions. — As there are no pilots for the Bahmanishir, a bagala 
man accustomed to the river should be obtained if possible. If 
obliged to do without local assistance, it is advisable to start with 
a rising tide ; bring the Shatt al Arab lightvessel to bear about 168° 
astern and steer 348° ; when the lightvessel is distant 6J miles steer 
about 320°, which course leads into Khur al Amaya, using great cau- 
tion, and if necessary anchoring and verifying position by sending 
a boat to sound. The reeds off Barr Nasar will probably be sighted 
ahead. 

Having run 5 miles, 320°, allowing for the tidal current setting 
northwestward, alter course to 348° for 1 mile, passing over the 
bar, when steer 326°; on this course the reeds at the mouth of the 
river begin to show, a tall square clump marking the southern point 
of the entrance, which is left to the westward. When within the_ 
entrance, the deepest water is close to the bank of the concave side 
in each bend, crossing over at the commencement of each change 
in the bend. 

These directions, which are taken from the plan, must be con- 
sidered only a guide, and necessarily the courses will be different if 
the vessel does not follow the route here given. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Khur al Amaya, at 
11 h. 30 m.; springs rise 10 feet, neaps 1\ feet. 

The velocity of the tidal currents in the khur is from 1 to 2 knots, 
aiid the currents continue about 45 minutes at springs and 25 min- 



PERSIAN GULF, NORTHERN SHORE AND HEAD. 279 

utes at neaps, after high and low water. The duration of slack 
water is about 20 minutes. 

Shatt al Arab. — ^The united currents of the Tigris and Euphrates 
Rivers are known to the Arabs by this name. The Shatt al Arab 
is a fine rivef, navigable as far as Basra, a distance of 70 miles from 
the outer bar buoy, by any vessels that can cross the bar at the 
entrance, but at certain seasons of the year a bar forms in the river 
from about 600 to 1,800 yards below Hafar Channel entrance. The 
width of the river at the mouth abreast the Turkish fort (lat. 29° 
57', long. 48° 32') is IJ miles and the depth in the fairway there is 
about 3 J fathoms, but the bars in the approach,' which are subject to 
change, have a least depth of If fathoms. The land is very low 
on both sides of the entrance, but differs much in appearance, that 
on the western or Turkish side being fertile and thickly covered 
with date trees, while the eastern or Persian bank is comparatively 
bare and barren for several miles up the river ; it is, however, being 
gradually brought under cultivation. 

Khur al Kafka^ the channel across broad flats, which form the 
bar, into the Shatt al Arab, lies between the two large banks Marakat 
Abadan and Marakat Abdalla, and is 13 miles in length from the 
Outer bar to abreast Eas al Bisha, the western entrance point of 
the river. 

Banks. — Marakat Abadan, on the eastern side of the khur, is 
mostly hard sand and mud, with some patches of soft mud; it has 
from about 1 foot to 1 fathom water, but patches on its northwestern 
part dry at low water extraordinary springs. Fishing stakes can 
generally be seen on this part of the bank. 

Tidal semaphore. — On the southern extremity of Marakat Aba- 
dan there is a white house on piles from which the actual depth of 
water in the track across the bar is shown by day and night. 

A mast 64 feet in height, from which the signals are shown, stands 
on a platform 15 feet above low water. It has three arms, the upper 
of which indicates fathoms, the second feet, and the third inches, 
in the following manner : 
Upper arm : 

At an angle of 45° to the left indicates 1 fathom. 

At an angle of 90° to the left indicates 2 fathoms. 

At an angle of 135° to the left indicates 3 fathoms. 

At an angle of 135° to the right indicates 4 fathoms. 

At an angle of 90° to the right indicates 5 fathoms. 

At an angle of 45° to the right indicates 6 fathoms. 
Middle arm : 

At an angle of 45° to the right indicates 1 foot. 

At an angle of 90° to the right indicates 2 feet. 



280 TIDAL SEMAPHORE. 

Middle arm — Continued. 

At an aAgle of 135° to the right indicates 3 feet. 

At an angle of 135** to the left indicates 4 feet. 

At an angle of 90"^ to the left indicates 5 feet. 
Lower arm : 

At an angle of 45® to the left indicates 3 inches. 

At an angle of 90° to the left indicates 6 inches. 

At an angle of 135° to the left indicates 9 inches. 
By night. — The following signals are hoisted on a bracket on the 
south side of the mast, 50 feet above the platform, the lights being 
11 feet apart: 
R 

Ei=12feet. E=16 feet. W=20 feet 

R 



R 


- 


W 


W=13 feet. 
R 


w 

^ —17 feet 


W=21 feet. 
W 


R 


W 


W 


R=14 feet. 


W=18 feet. 


R— 22 feet 


W 


R 


W 


E— 15 feet. 


W 

-J, =19 feet. 

W 


W 

R=23 feet. 



(a) One red over one white light:— llfeet. 

(6) A green light exhibited below any of the other light signals 
denotes the immediate half foot and will be shown as long as there 
are 6 or more inches above the even foot. 

Information with regard to tidal constants. — The following 
method of finding the time of high water at various places between 
the outer bar and Basra has been found to be approximately 
correct : 
Time of high water at — 

Outer Bar, time of high water Bushire, 4 hours. 
Fao, time of high water Bushire, 5 hours. 
Abada'n, time of high water Bushire, 6 hours. 
Muhommera, time of high water Bushire, 7 hours. 
Basra, time of high water Bushire, 8 hours. 
In calculating time of high water from above only the higher tide 
of the day at Bushire should be used. 

If a Shamal is blowing, about 50 minutes should be added to ; and 
if a Kaus, about 15 minutes should be substracted from the above 
times. 



ABU SHAHR TO, AND INCLUDING, THE SHATT AL'AEAB. 281 

For high water springs about one hour should be deducted, and 
for high water neaps about one hour should be added to the above 
times. 

It has been found on an average that ships at anchor in the river 
between Fao and Basra swing to the flood stream about two hours 
before high water, and to the ebb stream about two hours after high 
water, except in summer, when ships rarely swing to the flood 
current. 

Note. — Tidal predictions for Basra are published by the Survey of 
India. Tidal predictions for Shatt-al-Arab bar is published in a 
supplement to the British Admiralty Tide Tables, Part I, 1920. 

Marakat Abdalla ('Abdullah), on the western side of the khur, is 
soft mud, and dries in patches at extraordinary spring tides for 
about 3 miles southeastward from Ras al Bisha ; there are depths of 
from 1 foot to 1 fathom on the eastern part of the bank. Both 
banks, which extend about 12 miles southeastward^of Ras al Bisha, 
slope rather gradually toward the khur, and consequently they are 
not indicated, except during kaus, when the sea breaks on the banks 
at intervals. 

Depths. — The khur has general depths of from 2 J to 3f fathoms 
water, the shoalest place being the Outer Bar, where there .were If 
fathoms in 1911; the Inner bar, eastward of Ras al Bisha, had a 
least depth of 2 J fathoms; above the Inner bar the water soon deep- 
ens to 3 and 3J fathoms. 

The water at the outer bar is generally very discolored; the dis- 
colored water comes down with the tidal current, and is clearly 
marked ; it is no guide as to the depth of water. 

Kola Patch, on the western side of the outer bar, is hard sand, 
with a least depth of 4 feet; it is often marked when the wind op- 
poses the current, and the sea breaks on it during kaus. 

The banks at the entrance to the Shatt al Arab are liable to change. 

Navigation. — Vessels of more than 11 feet draft must wait for 
the flood to cross the bar (lat. 29° 50', long. 48° 43'). At high 
water springs, the highest tide being always the night tide in winter 
and the day tide in summer, vessels of about 20 feet draft can be 
navigated up the Shatt al Arab to Basra. Vessels of 16 feet draft 
may navigate the Shatt al Arab as far as Kurna (lat. 31° 00', long. 
47° 25'), at the junction of the Tigris and Euphrates, about 39 
miles above Basra and 117 miles from the Light Vessel. From 
Kurma it is 421 miles to Baghdad by the Tigris River. Vessels of 
such draft can only do this with safety by crossing the bar on the 
top of high water of the highest tide of the 24 hours. 

At neaps, the draft possible for this navigation is restricted to 
about 17 feet. 

173608^—20 19 



282 SHATT AL ARAB RIVER — BUOYAGE. 

As the mud is very soft, powerful vessels are often forced 
through a foot or more of it. Inward bound vessels of more than 
20 feet draft are generally lightened to the requisite draft by steam 
lighters outside the bar, and outward bound vessels complete their 
loading there to more than that draft. 

Four steam lighters, with a total carrying capacity of 4,000 tons, 
are kept at Basra for the purpose of lightening or completing the 
loading of vessels outside the bar. 

Lightvessel.— A lightvessel (lat. 29° 44', long. 48° 48'), painted 
red, and marked "Shatt al Arab" in white letters on both sides, 
with one mast, is moored about 7 miles southeastward of Kola patch, 
and exhibits, at 32 feet above the sea, a white flashing light every 10 
seconds, which should be seen from a distance of 10 miles. 

The vessel is maintained by the Indian Government. 

Pilot vessel. — A steam pilot vessel is usually to be foimd near the 
lightvessel. 

During strong northwest gales the pilot vessel is shifted about 3 
miles northward of the lightvessel. 

Buoyage. — The amended positions and description of buoys in 
the Shatt al Arab Eiver entrance are now as follows (1919), dredg- 
ing completed 1917: 

(a) The outer bar (Fairway) gas buoy, black and white in hori- 
zontal bands, exhibiting a flashing white light, is moored in 7 
fathoms, low water ordinary spring tides, about 2.8 miles 141° from 
the tidal semaphore. 

(&) The outer conical gas buoy, painted red (starboard hand 
buoy), exhibiting a flashing green light, is moored in 12 feet, low 
water ordinary springs, about 1.7 miles 139° from the tidal sema- 
phore. 

(c) The outer bar (middle) conical gas buoy, painted red (star- 
board hand buoy), exhibiting a flashing red light, is moored in 11 
feet, low water ordinary springs, about 1,750 yards 269° from the 
tidal semaphore. 

{d) Buoy No. 1, a can buoy painted black (port hand buoy), is 
moored in 10 feet, low water ordinary springs, 1.7 milciS 157° from 
the tidal semaphore. 

{e) Buoy No. 2, a red nun (starboard hand buoy), in 9 feet, low 
water ordinary springs, about 1,300 yards 172° from the tidal sema- 
phore. 

(/) Buoy No. 2, a black .can (port hand buoy) , in 9 feet, low water 
ordinary springs, about 1.14 miles 257° from the tidal semaphore. 

((/) Buoy No. 3, a black can (port hand .buoy), in 100 feet, low 
water ordinary springs, about 1.65 miles 287° from the tidal sema- 
phore. 



PERSIAN GULF, NpRTHEAST SHORE AND HEAD. 283 

(A) Buoy No. 4, a black can (port hand buoy), in 13 feet, low 
water ordinary springs, about 2.4 miles 303° from the tidal sema- 
phore. 

(i) Buoy No. 5, a black can (port hand buoy), in 13 feet, low 
water ordinary springs, about 3.2 miles 310° from the tidal sema- 
phore. 

(j) Buoy No. 6, a black can (port hand buoy), in 13 feet, low 
water ordinary springs, about 4.1 miles 314° from the tidal sema- 
phore. 

(A;) Inner conical gas buoy, painted black (port hand buoy), ex- 
hibiting a flashing green light, in 17. feet; low water ordinary 
springs, about 4.9 miles 317° from the tidal semaphore. 

(Z) Buoy No. 7, a black can (port hand buoy), in 13 feet, low 
water ordinary springs, about 8.4 miles 115° from Fao flagstaff. 

(m) Buoy No. 8, a black can (port hand buoy), in 13 feet, low 
water ordinary springs, about 6.9 miles 113° from Fao flagstaff. 

(71) Inner bar gas buoy, exhibiting a flashing white light, in 16 
feet, low water ordinary springs, about 6.5 miles 109° 30' from Fao 
flagstaff. 

Approximate position of tidal semaphore: 29° 50' 21" N., 48° 
42' 58" E. 

Approximate position of Fao flagstaff: 29° 58' 24" N., 48° 
28' 57" E. 

Prohibited anchorage. — ^Anchorage is prohibited westward of a 
line drawn 126° from the fairway light buoy and westward of a line 
drawn 340° from the Shatt al Arab Lightvessel. 

Wrecks. — ^A wreck, with mast and gaff showing (in January, 
1919) lies 1.8 miles 92° from the Outer Bar Buoy; it is a danger to 
vessels taking anchorage eastward of the buoy. 

The wreck of a dhow (submerged) lies about 3 miles eastward of 
Eas al Bisha. 

Beacon. — A wooden mast, 50 feet high, stands on the north shore, 
2| miles, 65°, from the Turkish Fort. 

Directions — Inward. — From westward of Jezirat Kharag, steer 
direct for the Shatt al Arab Lightvessel, and thence to the Outer 
Bar Lightbuoy ; in thick weather or when uncertain of the position, 
steer toward the Maidan Ali until in 5 fathoms water, when steer 
westward in that depth on the flat southward of it until the light- 
vessel, on Outer Bar Lightbuoy, is sighted. The soundings are very 
uneven for some 15 miles southeastward of the lightvessel, and from 
this direction they are not a good guide. 

Note. — ^Until the channel has been rebuoyed, the dredging being 
completed, vessels should employ a pilot, 



284 KHUB AL KAFKA — TIDES. 

Outward. — When outward bound in a large steamer, wait at Fao 
(lat 29° 58', long. 48° 30') until she swings to the flood, in order 
to be at the outer bar at high water; but swinging to the flood at 
Fao can not always be depended upon, as during spates, which occur 
in spring and early summer, there are times when there is little or 
no flood current. In this case a vessel might not swing at all, or 
only at high water, which would make her late on the bar. 

A good guide is to note the rise of the tide by some mark ori 
shore, and proceed by that. 

From Fao, steer about 110°, or to midway between Inner bar and 
No. 9 buoy^, and leave the black buoys on the starboard hand, and 
Old Bar Buoy on the port hand, at the distances given for entering. 

Caution. — In consequence of the frequent changes in the channel, 
the directions just given must be followed with considerable caution, 
observing that the latest edition of the plan, owing to more recent 
changes, can not always be implicitly relied on. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, on the outer bar of Khur 
al Kafka at 11 h. 30 m. ; springs rise 10 feet, neaps 7^ feet, and it 
is high water, full and change, at the Persian fort (lat. 29° 59', 
long. 48° 32') at 11 h. 50 m. ; springs rise 9 feet, neaps 6 J feet, but 
both the time and rise are variable, depending chiefly on the wind 
and the state of the river. The tides appear to be somewhat irregular 
on the bar, a considerable rise taking place during the last 2 hours 
of the flood, and comparatively little during the first 4 hours, and 
a considerable fall taking place during the last 2 hours of the ebb 
and comparatively little during the first 4 hours; further observa- 
tions are required to verify this. 

In summer the day tides and in winter the night tides are much 
the higher. In winter the heights of the day and night high waters 
are more nearly equal at neaps, but differ from 3 to 4 feet at springs ; 
the difference in the heights of the day and night low waters is 
greatest at neaps, being then from 4 to 4J feet and at springs from 
1 J to 3 feet. The highest tides occur in April and May ; the lowest 
generally in October and November. Both height and time of tide 
are greatly affected by the prevailing winds. After a moderate 
shamal the water falls lower than at other times ; on the other hand, 
the most water will be found during and for a short time after a 
continuance of southerly winds. 

It is high water, full and change, at Fao at h. 12 m. ; springs rise 
8^ to 9 feet, neaps 6 to 7 feet. During August and September at 
springs the day tides are the highest, but during neaps the night 
tides are the highest. During September, October, and November 
the lowest high water and the lowest low waters are experienced, the 
low waters occasionally falling below the datum of soundings and 
rising to 8 feet at neaps. During October, November, and December 



ABU SHAHR TO, AND INCLUDING, THE SHATT AL ARAB. 285 



the night tides are always the highest, and from January the day 
tides are highest. 

Tidal currents. — Near the Outer Bar lightbuoy at springs the 
ebb' current sets southeastward at a velocity of from 2 to 3 knots; at 
neaps from 1 to 1^ knots. The flood current sets northwestward, but 
is usually not so strong. The velocity of the currents during the last 
2 hours is said to be nearly double that during the first 4 hours, but 
further information is required. 

In the channel the currents follow the general direction of the 
banks; the velocity of the ebb varies from 2 to 3 knots at springs 
and from 1^ to 2 knots at neaps; the velocity of the flood varies from 
li to 2i knots at springs and from 1 to 1^ knots at neaps. 

The flood current continues as an average 80 minutes after high 
water at springs and is irregular at neaps ; the ebb current continues 
30 minutes after low water at springs and 50 minutes at neaps ; dur- 
ing a shamal slack water occurs nearly at high and low water. The 
duration of slack water varies from 15 to 30 minutes at springs. 

Pilots^ in vessels of suitable draft, are not entirely necessary. A 
British naval vessel and others have frequently proceeded from sea 
to Basra and the reverse without a pilot. In a vessel of much draft 
it is, however, advisable to have the services of a pilot. 

Pilots for the river can generally be obtained at Abu Shahr 
(Bushire) and sometimes at Linga, and unless otherwise arranged 
at the time of hiring they expect to be landed on the return voyage, 
at the place where hired. 

Distance ta'blea. — Persian Oulf to Baghdad, 

SHATT-AL-ARAB AND TIGRIS RIVERS. 



Place. 



Shstt-al-Aiab Ughtvessel . 

To outer bar 

Fao 

Abadan ." 

IfohammenUi 

Basra 

Ourxnat Ail 

Kuma 

Eaa'stomb 

Aboruba 

Q'alatSaUh 

AbuSidra 

Amarah 

Kamait 

AliShargi 



Miles. 



5 

22 

48 

60 

78 

83 

117 

144 

158 

170 

185 

199 

226 

240 



Place. 



Shatt-al-Arab lightvessel . 

Filalfllah 

AliGharbi 

Shaikh Saad 

Arab village (G. H. Q.). . 

Kut el Amarah 

Bghailah 

Azizay ah 

ElKutineh 

Baghdadiyah 

Lejj 

Bustan 

Ctesiphon 

Diahah River 

Baghdad 



MOes. 



260 
276 
306 
319 
346 
389 
442 
453 
462 
490 
501 
508 
520 
538 



EUPHRATES RIVER. 



Place. 



Kuma 

Medina 

Chahbaish 

Hakika 

Suk-esh-Sheynkh . 

Nasiriyah 

Samawa 



Miles. 



13 
27 
49 
55 
75 
140 



KARUN RIVER. 



Place. 



Mohammerah . 

Marid 

Ahwaz 

Shustar 



MUes. 



10 

lie 

191 



286 FAO. 

Fao (rao) (lat. 29° 58', long. 48° 30'), 3^ mUes above Ras al 
Bisha, is a village with a population of about 400, chiefly herdsmen 
and cultivators of the soil. 

Light. — ^A fixed red light is exhibited at 25 feet above high water 
from a post near the telegraph offices at Fao, and should be seen 
from a distance of 6 miles. 

Telegraph. — The British Persian Gulf telegraph cable (1864) ter- 
minates here, and the British and Turkish telegraph offices are situ- 
-ated in a brick building of two stories, near the river bank, and there 
are two very large dark trees close behind it ; the British office is for 
cable messages, the other for the land line. Messages are received 
here from all parts by the Turkish office, but considerable difficulty is 
caused to their reception by the quarantine regulations in force. 

Customs — Quarantine. — Fao has a Turkish customhouse and 
quarantine department. The quarantine regulations are peculiar and 
very irksome, no vessel, except as stated below, being allowed to 
communicate with Fao until she has been up the river to Basra and 
obtained pratique there. Telegrams for transmission can, however, 
be handed in at the quarantine station from a ship not having pra- 
tique, and the Turkish official in charge permits the officers of the 
British telegraph station to speak to the occupants of a boat at the 
landing, provided that they do so in his presence. 

Naval vessels from Abu Shahr (Bushire), Katif, or Kuweit, can 
be given pratique by the Turkish quarantine officer at Fao. To 
obtain pratique, before any other communication is held with the 
shore, an officer, preferably the medical officer of the vessel, should 
communicate with the Turkish quarantine officer, and sign an " Inter- 
rogatoire " form, provided by the latter. 

Naval vessels from India, which have been five days at sea, will 
be given pratique at Fao, after inspection and production of a medi- 
cal certificate. 

Basra steamers touch at Fao on their way to and from Basra. 

Landing. — ^The best landing is in a small creek just above the 
telegraph office at Fao, with steps where small boats can land from 
3 hours before until 3 hours after high water, but the creek nearly 
dries. A wooden jetty has been constructed between the telegraph 
office and the creek. There is also a rough jetty made of stones over 
the mud, a little below the lightpost; the quarantine ground is at 
the inner end of this jetty. There is deep water a few yards from the 
outer end. 

Supplies. — Sheep, beef, fowls, eggs, and fruit can be obtained 
from the Persian shore opposite Fao. There are seven water tanks, 
each with a capacity of 400 gallons^ 



PERStAN GULF, NORTHEAST SHORE AND HEAD. 287 

Communication. — The fast mail steamers of the British Indif 
l^team Navigation Co., to and from Bombay and Basra, call a\ 
Fao once a week. 

Shatt al Arab — General description. — The land on the eastern 
side of the river southward of Hafar Channel is the long, narrow 
Jezirat al Khidr (Abadan ('Abadan) Island), which lies between 
the Shatt al Arab and the Bahmishir, and is Persian territory. The 
Shatt al Arab, from its mouth to within 16 miles of Basra, is the 
boundary between Turkey and Persia. 

The banks of the river are very low on both sides to and beyond 
Basra, and are intersected by numerous canals for irrigation; the 
land is often under water, except small raised banks between the 
plantations. The belt of land near the river from Fao to a few miles 
above Kurna (lat. 31°, 00', long. 47° 25') is exceedingly fertile 
and produces very fine dates, also fruit and vegetables of various 
kinds, with grain, etc. 

The date groves extend from ^ mile to 2 miles from the river 
bank; behind them all is a desert or swamp. There are many wild 
hogs and large herds of cattle and buffaloes along the banks of the 
river ; the latter often swim across to graze on the islands. There is 
excellent duck and snipe shooting on the banks of the river, especi- 
ally at Fao and above Basra; partridges also are plentiful. 

Between the plantations of trees are sandy tracts of land along the 
banks ; these are uncultivated, though probably as fertile as the rest. 
Supplies of fruit, vegetables, and cattle can often be obtained at 
villages while waiting tide. 

On the ebb, the water is fresh and fit for drinking even at Fao, 
except in autumn; then the river is low and the water slightly 
brackish; 10 miles farther up it is at all times fresh. 

When between the regular banks with vegetation, the eye is the 
chief guide for navigation. The appearance of the two banks at the 
entrance is very different, the Turkish side being thickly planted 
with dates, while the Persian side is comparatively bare until about 
2 miles above Fao. Eas al Bisha has some small date trees on it, and 
the Turkish fort, on the bank about If miles to the northwestward, 
is 10 feet high, built of white stone, and conspicuous; the Persian 
fort, on the left bank, 2 miles, 352° from the Turkish fort, is also 
conspicuous and has a flagstaff. The seaward and lower part of the 
banks is thickly overgrown with reeds and coarse grass; the soil, 
being a soft alluvial mud, i^ so soft that it is almost impossible to 
land, and landing anywhere near the forts should not be attempted. 

Fao to Kabda Point. — There are date trees on the right bank 
for about 2 miles above Fao, whence a large thick grove, with a small 
village near its southern end, and inside it the large fort and village 



288 KABDA POINT TO AL KHAST. 

of Maamir (Ma'amir), continues some 5 miles. For about 2 miles 
northwestward of this grove the bank is without ti*ees and closely 
intersected by irrigation creeks. Ad Dura (Daurah) date grove, in 
which is a small village of the same name, then commences; at its 
southern end is a kiln, which is conspicuous from the southward, but 
obscured from the northward; the grove apparently merges north- 
ward in the long series of groves and villages of Dawasir. 

Kabda Point (lat. 30° 11', long. 48° 25') is the long rounded 
projection of the right bank some 3^ miles northeastward of the 
kiln. 

On the left bank opposite Fao are some herdsmen's huts and a few 
round trees; a boat creek leads into Bahmishir River. A little 
farther up begins a large date grove, with Kasba Village; the grove 
continues 3^ miles, and at its northern end is a square fort. The 
bank northward of the fort is very low, with small bushes for about 2 
niiles; then Manyuhi date trees commence and extend northwest- 
ward along the bank nearly to Chellabi Point, where there is a small 
mound; the point is just above the kiln on the opposite side. There 
are no trees on the left bank for many miles above Chellabi Point. 
Behind the Manyuhi trees is a fort and tomb, and 2^ miles above 
Chellabi Point is a group of huts, surrounded and almost hidden by 
date trees. 

No detailed directions are given for navigating the river, the plan 
being a sufficient guide, observing that the deeper water lies generally 
towards the concave side. Shoal water extends from 600 to 1200 
yards off the right bank from If miles northwestward of Fao to 
about 1 mile northward of Maamir, and 600 yards around Kabda 
Point. Shoal water also extends 400 yards from the left bank along 
Kasba date grove and 800 yards, or more than half way across the 
river, from about 1^ miles northward of these trees nearly to Chellabi 
Point ; a large portion of this shoal dries and for upwards of 1 mile 
in length it barely covers and is an island. 

From Fao, keep rather toward the right bank for about 1 mile, 
and then steer to pass about 600 yards off Kasba Point, and keep 
about 400 to 600 yards off the left bank until a little above the small 
square fort on that side ; then gradually cross over to the right bank 
about 2 miles northward of Maamir, and keep near that bank past 
the irrigation creeks and almost up to the kiln, when gradually 
turn toward the left bank above Chelliabi Point; when past Kabda 
Point shoal, with the northeastern extremity of Kabda Point bearing 
about 320°, return to the right bank. 

Kabda Point to Al Khast. — ^Kabda reach of the river from 
Kabda Point (lat. 30° 11', long. 48° 25') trends northwestward 
about 11 miles to Abadan anchorage, and all along its right bank 



ABU SHAHR TO, AND INCLUDING, THE SHATT AL ABAB. 289 

are the villages of Dawasir and date trees. The right bank appears 
to be fairly steep-to until about 2 miles below Abadan anchorage, 
when jBshing stakes and mud banks extend about 300 yards off it. 

A string of islands and shoals extends from about 600 yards north- 
eastward of Kabda Point 7^ miles along the left bank of this reach 
to abreast the southeastern part of shateit village; they are known 
by the name, apparently common to all, of Dawasir Island. The 
southeastern of the shoals dries half a mile from the southeastern 
island, and has less than 2 fathoms for 1,400 yards farther; the shoal 
at the northwestern end of the islands appears to be extending out- 
ward. Parts of the islands are cultivated, and there are 3 fathoms 
water close to their western sides. 

The left bank is almost treeless, except a conspicuous clump at a 
ruined village within the southern part of the main Dawasir Island, 
northeastward of which are two tombs. There is a large date plan- 
tation at Shateit, and a smaller one at Bawarda, 2^ miles farther 
northwestward. 

In Kabda reach keep the right bank abord, voiding the south- 
eastern extreme of the Dawasir Island shoals, and, when past Shateit 
village, gradually close and keep on the left bank to Abadan an- 
chorage. 

Abadan Anchorage ('Ab&d&n) is about f mile above Bawarda, 
and on the left bank of the river here is the oil refinery of the 
Anglo-Persian Oil Co. (Ltd.), the oil being brought by pipe-line 
from the oil fields at Masjid-es-Suleiman, about 140 miles north- 
northeastward. There are many large buildings at the refinery, and 
the tall chimneys are conspicuous. The 5-fathom curve is about 
100 yards off the left bank and J mile off the right bank, the 
channel between, with from 6 to 10 fathoms water, being about 250 
yards wide. 

There is a pier at the refinery, and steamers secure alongside in 
21 feet water. A red fixed light is exhibited at each outer end of 
the pier. 

Three buoys are moored southeastward of the pier; the south- 
eastern buoy carries a white fixed light, but the buoy cants over with 
the current, so the light is obscured by the buoy from a vessel going 
with the current until past it. 

Northwestward of the pier a small black buoy marks the wreck 
of a lighter, about 100 yards off the bank. 

It is advisable to anchor above the pier in order to be out of the 
way of vessels going alongside it. 

Tides and tidal currents. — The tidal rise at Abadan is about 8 
feet at springs. The flood current attains a velocity of 1^ knots, 
and the ebb a velocity of 3 knots. 



290 ABADAN ANCHORAGE, 

Cable. — A cable having been laid across the river from the en- 
trance to the western Boundary nullah, anchorage is prohibited in 
its neighborhood. 

Prohibited anchorage. — Vessels are cautioned not to anchor with 
the Turkish police station south of Dabba Island, bearing eastward 
of 180°, nor with the consulate flagstaff at Muhammera bearing 
between 25° and 50°, nor within ^ mile of the Muhammera shore. 

Abadan Anchorage to Haf ar Channel. — Al Khast Eeach com- 
mences immediately above Abadan Anchorage and trends westward 
and west-southwestward about 3 miles; it then turns rather abruptly 
west-northwestward and north-northwestward nearly 6 miles to 
Hafar Channel entrance. Above Abadan and northward of Al 
Khast is Bareim (Baraim), a small village, where a shallow branch 
of the river, a mere boat passage, continues about 3 miles northwest- 
ward and rejoins the main stream at the large Harta (Harthah) 
Village. Muhalla Island is situated between the shallow branch and 
the main stream, and its southwestern part is very low ; both banks 
of the boat passage are thickly covered with date groves. 

Seihan (Zain) Village, with a fort and date grove, is situated on 
the right bank just above the curve w'estward of Al Khast, and there 
is a treeless area about 1 mile in extent on both sides of it where the 
telegraph poles can be seen ; about 1^ miles above Seihan is 9, creek, 
with a customhouse on its northern side, running through the middle 
of a date grove. Thence the country is more open to Hafar Channel, 
telegraph poles are seen, the date trees scattered, and the land is 
variously cultivated. From about f of a mile above the custom- 
house just mentioned to abreast Harta Village, the right bank is 
bordered by a series of mud islands, which mostly cover, and shoals, 
to the distance of nearly i mile. 

From Abadan Anchorage keep the left bank of the river aboard 
and pass southward of the eastern end of Muhalla Island; then 
gradually cross and keep on the right bank till abreast the custom- 
house above mentioned, when proceed along the west coast of 
Muhalla Island, and pass close off Harta Village. 

About 1,400 yards above Harta (lat. 30° 23', long. 48° 12') is a 
mud shoal with 2J fathoms water in mid-channel. This shoal, with 
other patches northward of it, appears to be a prolongation of the 
bar next described, and constantly shifts. 

Bar. — From 400 to 1,600 yards southward of the entrance to Hafar 
channel the ship channel of Shatt al Arab is obstructed by a bar, 
over which a depth of 10 feet is charted in the fairway, but the 
depths appear to vary and there is sometimes a depth of 16 feet. 
About J mile south-southeastward of the Quarantine flagstaff and 
nearly in mid-channel are, at times, depths of from 4 to 6 feet, hard 
sand. This shoal forms periodically, and usually between February 



PERSIAN GULF, NORTHEAST SHORE AND HEAD. 291 

and June. The least depth of water over it is when Karun river is 
in flood before the Tigris, and the greatest when the contrary is the 
case. Caution is necessary here, especially when steaming with the 
current. 

The track above Harta (lat. 30° 23', long. 48° 12') appears to lie 
rather on the right bank, westward of the shoal parts of the bar, 
and in mid-channel past Haf ar Channel entrance, J mile below which 
is the southeastern end of Dabba, a low grassy island about 4J miles 
long, with a shallow spit extending southeastward 700 yards from 
its southeastern end; the island, excepting its southeastern end, is 
thickly covered with date trees from 20 to 30 feet high. The 
western side of the British Consulate bearing 347° led eastward of 
the spit extending southeastward from Dabba in 1909, but this does 
not agree with the plan. 

Hafar Channel to Basra. — From the Hafar Channel, Dabba 
Eeach of the Shatt al Arab trends westward 13 miles ; the river then 
trends northwestward about 4J miles to the entrance to Ashar creek, 
some 3 miles up which is the town of Basra, both banks of the Shatt 
being lined with date groves the whole distance. On the right bank 
opposite Hafar Channel is Mutawa Village. 

The water is deep at the entrance to Hafar Channel, off which the 
tidal current must be guarded against. 

A good position for anchoring is with the palance and British con- 
sulate flagstaffs, on the northwestern side of the entrance to Hafar 
Channel, in 68° rather nearer the Muhammera Bank than Dabba 

Island. 

There is a palace of the Shaikh of Muhammera at Fahliya 
(Failiyeh), on the left bank, 2J miles above Hafar Channel. 

The ship channel varies from 400 to 600 yards in width between 
Dabba Island and the Persian shore of the Shatt al Arab to the 
northward; the deepest water follows round the concave shore, but 
passes close northward of the western end of Dabba, and southward 
of Sham shamiya, a small low island on which is a conspicuous white 
customhouse; a spit extends about 600 yards eastward from this 
island, but it is always wholly or partially visible. In 1909, the 
Shaikh of Muhammera's palace just open northward of Dabba 
Island led through the chanel at the western end of Dabba. From 
Sham shamiya the fairway is rather toward the right bank all the 
way to Basra, the left bank being two low, narrow islands, barely 
separated frojn each other, 11 miles long; the eastern island is 
named Toweyea (Tawailah), and the western one Quarantine 
(Ajerawiye) (Ajairawiyah) ; at the western end of the latter is a 
quarantine camp. 



292 AL BASRA. 

Wrecks. — A wreck lies nearly in mid-cliannel about IJ miles 
above the eastern end of Quarantine Island : and the wreck of a coal 
lighter was lying, in 1898, nearly in mid-channel, with the Quaran- 
tine flagstaff at the western end of the island bearing 40°, and 
anchorage should be avoided here. 

Boundary. — Some 5 miles above Hafar Channel the Turkish- 
Persian boundary trends northward, and both banks of the Shatt al 
Arab become Turkish territory. 

Al Basra (known as Basra), the chief port of the extensive dis- 
tricts of which Baghdad, in Turkey, and Kirmanshah, in Persia, 
are the commercial centers, is in Basra Reach of the Shatt al Arab, 
which trends north-northwestward from the western end of Quaran- 
tine Island (lat. 30° 31', long. 47° 53'). 

For about 2 miles northward from abreast the western end of 
Quarantine Island the left bank of Basra Reach is bordered by a 
drying mud bank which extends off 100 yards, and the 30- foot curve 
is distant nearly 250 yards, but the right bank is almost steep-to. 
The channel is from 250 to 300 yards wide between the 3-fathom 
curve. 

Ships arriving at Basra will be berthed by a harbor master, 
under instructions from the port officer, who will come on board at 
Saraji, about 1^ miles below the old British consulate. 

Anchorge—There is anchorage in mid-channel in Basra Reach 
in from 34 to 48 feet. Vessels should moor with the anchors up and 
down the river, and plenty of cable on each, as the currents are 
strong ; small local steam craft should be given a wide berth, as they 
usually lie at single anchor with a long scope of cable. It is better to 
moor near the right bank, as vessels almost invariably swing with 
their sterns toward the left bank. In the date season there are often 
15 or more steamers moored in Basra Reach, when it is difficult to 
see where there is a vacant berth. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water, full and change, in 
Basra anchorage at 6 h. m., or about 6^ hours later than at the 
outer bar ; springs rise about 9 feet. The velocity of the ebb current 
varies from 3 to 6 knots, ajid that of the flood from 2 to 4 knots; 
the duration of the ebb current is about twice that of the flood. 

Basra Town, on the right bank of the Shatt al Arab, and about 67 
miles from the bar, is the seat of Government of the vilayet of 
Basra, which extends some 600 miles along the lower Euphrates and 
Tigris Rivers, and on the western side of the Persian Gulf southward 
to Ojar, opposite Bahrein; the vilayet includes the sandjaks of 
Amara, Basra, and Muntafik. 

The walled town, some 3 miles up Ashar Creek (Nahr elAshar), 
contains the bazaars and Turkish Government offices; outside the 
walls extensive suburbs, divided by gardens and date groves, line 



ABU SHAHR TO, AND INCLUDING, THE SHATT AL ARAB. 293 

both sides of the creek down to its mouth, and the river bank also 
both above and below the creek. A light wooden bridge crosses 
Ashar Creek about a mile from its mouth. The soil is rich and well 
cultivated, producing all kinds of fruits. 

Southward of Ashar Creek is the Turkish arsenal or dockyard^ the 
British consulate and flagstaff, the Turkish commodore's house, the 
offices of European merchants, and the United States Consulate. 
The French, Dutch, and Persian consulates stand on the Ashar. 
Northward of the creek are the customhouse, and the shaikh of 
Muhammera's palace, a conspicuous building with two towers. On 
the left bank of the river abreast Ashar Creek is Tanuma Hospital 
and flagstaff. 

The population numbers about 40,000, mostly Arabs. There are 
some Europeans and Indians, about 3,000 Persians, and 1,000 Jews. 

A naval depot is established at Basra. 

A-pier, 360 feet in length with a crosshead 120 feet by 20 feet, and 
a depth alongside of 6 feet at low river, is situated abreast Tanuma, 
Hospital. Light railroad lines are laid on it, and a crane is to be 
erected, to lift 5 tons. Buoys are moored near the pier, for the use of 
H. M. small craft. There is also a boat slip, and another pier, as 
charted. 

Climate and health. — The prevalent northwesterly wind of sum- 
mer is dry and hot. July,. August, and September are intensely 
hot; December and January cold, often with frost; the rest of the 
year resembles the spring and sunmier of southern Europe. In the 
autumn months the nights are generally cool, and it does not get hot 
until about 10 h. a. m., the afternoons being intensely hot. 

Outbreaks of bubonic plague occurred in 1910, and epidemics of 
cholera occurred in that year and in 1911. Malarial fever and ague 
are rather common. During June, when the run rises about 5 a. m., 
it is intensely hot by 8 a. m., and cool nights are the exception. 

Quarantine. — Pratique must be obtained from the quarantine 
station, which is close to the Turkish commodore's house. Vessels 
from India arriving at Basra (lat. 30° 31', long. 47° 52') in good 
sanitary condition undergo as many days' quarantine as are neces- 
sary to complete a period of five days from the last Indian port, in 
addition to disinfection and destruction of rats ; those arriving after 
having completed five days since leaving the last Indian port un- 
dergo a medical visit, disinfection, and destruction of rats, and re- 
ceive pratique immediately after disinfection provided the medical 
visit is favorable. The above regulations apply only to vessels car- 
rying a qualified doctor ; others undergo a supplementary quarantine 
of 24 hours, in addition. 

Destruction of rats does not delay the grant of free pratique, as 
this operation may be effected during or after quarantine, but no 



2 94 BASRA — SUPPLIES — TRADE. 

fresh cargo can be put on board until it has been performed. There 
are also regulations for vessels carrying pilgrims. 

The quarantine regulations are strictly carried out. 

Communication. — In normal times the vessels of the British 
India Steam Navigation Co.'s fast mail service between Bombay and 
Basra leave Bombay weekly on Thursday and arrive at Basra on the 
following Thursday, but arrival may be later if unable to cross the 
bar in time to proceed up the river, and the vessels may be detained at 
Kurachi to await arrival of outward English mails from Bombay; 
the vessels of this service leave Basra on Saturdays. The vessels of 
the subsidiary mail service leave Bombay weekly on Thursday and 
reach Basra in 14 or 15 days; these leave Basra weekly on Monday 
or Tuesday and arrive at Bombay in about 12 days. Steamers of the 
Anglo- Algerian Steamship Co. (Ltd.), Ellenhan & Bucknall Steam- 
ship Co. (Ltd.), and West Hartlepool Steamship Co. (Ltd.), from 
Europe; and Bombay-Persia Steam Navigation Co., Arab Steamers 
(Ltd.), Haji Sultan Ali Shustari Line, from Bombay, also proceed 
to Basra. 

Telegraph. — ^The Turkish telegraph office receives messages for 
all parts of the world, but there are delays at times owing to the line 
being constantly broken, and the office is always closed at midnight.' 
There is no connection by telegraph between Basra and Muhammera. 

Supplies.— Meat, bread, vegetables, and fruit can be procured; 
the prices vary. Basra (lat. 30° 31', long. 47° 52') is the best place 
in the Persian Gulf for obtaining fresh provisions. The river water 
should be used for Washing* purposes only. A very limited supply of 
stores may be had occasionally. 

Coal is obtainable; in normal times the quantity in, stock was 
usually from 1,600 to 2,300 tons, some 5,300 tons being imported an- 
nually. There are three coal wharves, 200 feet, 410 feet, and 500 feet 
in length ; depth alongside not known, but the coal is brought to ves- 
sels in lighters. 

Repairs. — Small repairs can be effected at the arsenal. Small 
castings can be made, though there is no proper foundry. In the 
machine shop there are three lathes, a punching machine, and some 
others ; the largest lathe can turn a shaft 6 feet long by 8 inches in 
diameter. 

Railroads. — From Basra a railroad runs t];i rough Kornah to 
Amarah, following the general direction of the Tigris, and from Kut 
to Baghdad there is a branch connected with the great general sys- 
tem running into Europe via Mosul, Aleppo, and Adana, but it is 
not at present in contemplation to join up Amarah and Kut, as 
the main Baghdad line is intended to follow the course of the Eu- 
phrates, 



PERSIAN GULF, NORTHEAST SHORE AND HEAD. 295 

Trade.^Basra is the trade gate of Mesopotamia, and also at pres- 
ent of a portion of western Persia ; a considerable trade is carried on 
with India. 

In 1912 the exports consisted chiefly of dates, barley, wheat, gall- 
nuts, seeds, opium, horses, hides, ghi, carpets, wool, etc. In the 
same year the imports were chiefly cotton and wool cloths, coal, gun- 
nies, tobacco, sugar, coffee, copper, iron, petroleum, provisions, spices, 
stationery, wood for date boxes, planks, yarn, and twist. 

Currency. — The coins current in Basra are the Turkish lira (£T) 
of 100 gold piastres, or 108 silver piastres,=:18s. 2d.; majidi (M) 
=3s 4d. ; rupee=ls. 4d. ; Persian kran=:4d,; metallic=^d. 

Weights. — Dry measure, for grain, butter, wool, skins: 1 
oke=i2.83 pounds; 2^ okes=l hojiya (7.075 pounds); 24 hojiyas=: 
1 maund (169.68 pounds) ; 20 maunds=l tagar (3,394) pounds. 

Avoirdupois for meat, provisions, groceries: 400 dirhems=l oke 
(2.83 pounds) ; 2| okes=l hojiya (7.075 pounds) ; 4 hojiyas=l 
maund (28.3 pounds). 

Measures for dates: 54 okes=one maund (152.82 pounds); 40 
maunds=:l large kara (6,113 pounds) ; 20 maunds=l small kara 
(3,056.5 pounds). 

Customhouse measure: 312 dirhemsi=one oke "ashari" (2.2 
pounds) . 

Land or surface measure: 1 dra=19 inches; 6^ dras=l gusba 
(10 feet 3^ inches). 

MacGill (Magi'l) , the native name of which is Kut al Farangi, on 
the right bank about 4 miles above Basra, has a repairing yard be- 
longing to Messrs. Lynch, where fairly extensive repairs can be ex- 
ecuted. 

Basra reach may be said to end at MacGill, which is sometimes 
visited by Government vessels, but previous permission must be 
obtained from the Turkish authorities. Anchor near the left bank 
to avoid the strength of the stream. 

A depot for material has been formed here by the Baghdad Rail- 
road Co., and a substantial jetty built, with two carrying cranes cap- 
able of lifting heavy weights. The depth alongside the jetty is 9 fath- 
oms. Additional jetties have recently been built, all of which can 
accommodate ocean-going steamers. There is also a mud dock for 
shallow-draft steamers. 

Wharves. — A permanent structure of teak, 1,000 yards in length, 
capable of accommodating six large steamers, has been built at Mac- 
Gill (Makil) ; it is fitted with 11 electric gantry cranes, and is served 
by the railway. There is a depth of 30 feet at low water. 

At lower MacGill there is wharfage accommodation for two ves- 
sels. There are also six berths for river steamers. 

Repairs. — There is a complete engineers' yard and store depot at 
MacGill. 



296 BASRA TO KURNA. - 

Warehouses are being completed at MacGill, which will shortly 
be available for housing cargo, in bond or otherwise; they can be 
rented by importers. 

Basra to Euma. — ^Basra Beach may be said to end at MacGill, 
where the water is deep and both banks steep-to. See distance 
table. 

From MacGill the river trends to the northwestward, and for 2J 
miles is divided by two long low islands; vessels should take the 
northeast channel. 

Abreast the gap between the two islands the New Euphrates 
River, or Kurmat Ali, flows in from the westward. This river is 
deep for the first few miles, after which it is split up by many is- 
lands, and becomes a shallow lake or swamp. Telegraph wires 
cross the entrance at a height of about 70 feet. 

The west bank of the Shatt al A,rab, both above and below the 
New Euphrates, is lined with conspicuous brick kihis. 

The river thence leads nearly north for about 7 miles. The Katia- 
ban Canal flows in on the eastern bank, and is said to connect with 
the Karun Eiver. The east bank of the river from Basra to this 
point is lined with date groves; north of the canal is an open sandy 
desert. 

The west bank has a thin fringe of date palms, beyond which is 
desert, which is sometimes flooded. 

At 2 miles north of the canal the river turns to the .northwest- 
ward, with general depths of 4 fathoms near the* north bank; near 
the south bank it is shoal for the first 2 miles, after which it is 
steep-to, with deep water close to a prominent point, after which 
vessels should keep to that side of the river. 

For 17 miles there is no difficulty in the navigation. Asb-shafi 
Creek, with five brick kilns at its entrance, is conspicuous on the 
west bank, which northward of this is open plain. 

For about a mile northward of Ash-shafi Creek the river is shal- 
low, with a depth of 2 fathoms at low river, but soon deepens again 
to 3 and 3^ fathoms. The river then narrows somewhat, and 
curves round to the northward and north-northeastward, the west 
bank, which is thickly planted with date palms, being steep-to with 
4 fathoms of water close alongside. 

Shaib Canal flows in on the east bank, where the river is nar- 
rowest ; it is a deep river, which trends off to the northeastward and 
northward, with many turns, and with depths of 2 to 3 fathoms for 
the first 12 miles, but it is too narrow for anything larger than a 
steam launch. After passing the entrance to the Shaib Canal the 
main river bends round to the northwestward, and widens out into 
a broad reach 2^ miles long, most of which, however, is shallow, 
forming the bar of the combined Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The 



ABU SHAHR TO, AND INCLUDING, THE SHATT AL ARAB. 297 

deepest water is close along the north shore, the channel being, 
however, very narrow, with a depth of only 8^ feet at high water 
and low river. 

After passing the bar the river narrows again and becomes deep, 
there being 6 fathoms at the jimction of the rivers. 

Between Basra and Kuma the bottom is everywhere mud. 

Kuma (Eurnali) is situated on the right bank of the Tigris, at 
its junction with the Euphrates. It is a place of about 700 houses 
and has a telegraph office. See distance table. 

Tigris Briver is narrow and difficult of navigation on account of 
its numerous curves. The depths are from 2 to 4 fathoms for the 
first 10 miles above Kurna, but the current is swift. The river is 
nowhere wide enough to turn around in. 

From Kurna to Amarah, a distance of about 90 miles, is the most 
difficult part of the river ; vessels have to be handled with great care, 
and are constantly delayed. The general depth is about 13 feet at 
high river and 6 feet at low. 

Amarah, on the east bank, contains about 1,500 houses, the popu- 
lation consisting of settled Arabs, with some Persians and Sabians. 
Wheat and barley are exported, and there is usually a small supply 
of coal. 

From Amarah to Kut-al- Amarah, navigation presents no difficulty 
to vessels of suitable draft. The width is generally about 300 yards, 
with a depth of 26 feet at high river, and 6 feet at low. 

At Kut-al- Amarah, the Hai branch, the ancient Tigris, leaves the 
right bank of the river. 

From Kut-at- Amarah to Baghdad, a distance of 216 miles, naviga- 
tion is rarely interrupted, though there are many shoals. The width 
of the river is generally from 300 to 400 yards, with a depth of 26 
feet at high, and 6 at low, river. 

Above Baghdad navigation is usually only by rafts, though small 
steamers can ascend to Samarra. 

Kuma to Ezra's tomb (27 miles) : The river between Kuma and 
Ezra's tomb is marked by black posts on the right bank and white 
poles on the left, to denote the course of the river when the banks 
are covered during floods. 

The river between Kurna and Ezra's tomb is always good, but 
there are some bad bends, the worst being at Humaiyan, Saiifah, 
and the southern bend of Ma j rum reach. The traffic in the narrows 
is worked with regard to the fact that the movements of downward- 
bound vessels are controlled by the various signal stations, so that 
upward-bound vessels must conform to those movements, and such 
vessels must " bank in," if necessary, to allow downward-bound ves- 
sels to pass, and for this purpose certain places have been selected 
as "banking-in" stations, where upgoing vessels must stop; these 

173608°— 22 20 



298 ' TIGmS BIYER. 

stations are marked by mooring posts painted with black and white 
horizontal stripes. 

Ezra's tomb to Kalat Saleh (26 miles) : The section Gumaija 
Shargi to Abu Ruba is the worst part of The Narrows. In the low- 
water season this reach is extremely difficult, owing to the narrow 
and tortuous course of the channel combined with the very strong 
current. 

Great care must be taken to avoid grounding on the spits which 
run out for a considerable distance at the worst bends. From Abu 
Euba to Kalat Saleh, with the exception of Jufakh reach, the river is 
good though narrow. 

Kalat Saleh to Amarah (29 miles) : The above-mentioned channels 
between Kalat Saleh and Amarah deprives the Tigris of a large 
amount of water, which causes the river to narrow to a width of 
about 60 or 70 yards below Kalat Saleh, forming that section of 
the river referred to above as The Narrows, that is to say, the 
Chahala Canal on the left bank of the river at Amarah; the Majar 
Kabir Canal, 2 miles above Abu Sidra, on the right bank ; the Mich- 
riyah Canal, now partly dammed, a mile above Kalat Saleh, on the 
left bank. 

The worst reach in the Kalat Saleh- Amarah section is the Muza- 
niyah reach, about 4 miles above Kalat Saleh; with the exception 
of this reach the river is generally good the whole year. 

The Narrows control signal stations are situated at the upper end 
of Muzaniyah reach and at the Michriyah Canal; there are stakes 
also at these places for " banking in " purposes. 

Amarah to Ali Gharbi (77 miles) : Between Amarah and Sadiyah 
or Sayid Canal good water is found all the year round. From the 
canal to Ali Gharbi there is good water nearly all the year round, 
but soundings should be taken continuously in this section. 

Ali Gharbi to Sheikh Saad (30 miles) : During the low-water sea- 
son there are three bad reaches in this section, viz.. Said Abbas, 
Mandaliyah, and Abu Dud. The channels in these reaches are very 
liable to change ; it is advisable to keep a careful record of the sound- 
ings for reference. 

As vessels approaching the sharp bend at the bottom of Manda- 
liyah reach are unable to see one another, a good lookout should be 
kept on the signal station there, to ascertain if the channel is clear 
or not. 

Sheikh Saad to Kut Camp (36 miles) : Between Sheikh Saad and 
Kut Camp the river is good for navigation all the year round, and 
with care no difficulties should be experienced. 

General : Kises in the river are caused by rain and melting snow. 

" Rain-rises " as a rule commence about the middle of November ; 
the first rises invariably fall very rapidly — a fall of 6 feet during 



PEKSIAN GULF, NORTHERN SHORE AND HEAD. 299 

a night has often been experienced in the upper reaches, but by the 
end of December the river is usually full. After the second " rain- 
rise " the river continues good during the remainder of the winter 
months. 

" Snow rises " start early in March, and by the end of that month' 
or early in April the river is in full flood; about the middle of April 
rises from this cause cease, but a rise may occur, owing to late rains. 
In May the river commences to fall, and great care must be taken in 
navigating it, as channels are not then formed; when the scour of 
the river has formed the channels, navigation becomes easier. 

In June there is good water, but the channels must be carefully 
kept ; in July the channels are apt to be most erratic ; in August the 
channels begin to form ; in September the river reaches its lowest 
level, and during this month trading steamers have made their worst 
passages ; in October, at the first snap of cold or cooler weather, the 
sand banks appear to harden and the channels scour out several 
inches deeper. 

Navigation in the Tigris varies with each season of the year, and 
as each year in itself varies, no hard and fast rules can be laid down. 

In a good or favorable year the " rain rises " come regularly, and 
though the water may fall slightly the river is always gaining. 

In bad years, the river perhaps falling later, a very high rise — 
anything up to 12 feet at Baghdad — ^may come any time in December 
or January; occasionally the river falls almost to its lowest (sum- 
mer) level. 

During low water occasional groundings are almost impossible to 
avoid, and local pilots are employed. 

Suitable ships, of not more than 4 feet draft with independent en- 
gines, having steam capstans forward and aft and good ground gear, 
can navigate the Tigris from Al Basra to Baghdad at all seasons of 
the year. 

Speaking generally, the best water is found on the outside of 
curves, but this is not invariably the case. 

As the water in the river falls the channels often change, so that 
in certain sections local pilots should be engaged. Pilots can usually 
be got at Basra, Amarah, Ali Gharbi, Kut, Baghailah, Aziziyah, and 
Baghdad. 

The nature of the river bottom between Basra and Baghdad is 
mud, and no rocks are found between these places. Ships taking the 
ground can usually haul off by laying out anchors. 

The tendency of the current is to quickly wash away the mud on 
the upstream side of a ship, and to form a bank on the other, which 
sometimes rises above the water in three or four hours. 

Baghdad, 460 miles above Basra, is built on both sides of the 
Tigris. A boat bridge of 40 pontoons crosses the river at Kazarah, a 



800 BAGHDAD. 

short distance below Baghdad. The population is about 140,000, and 
supplies are plentiful. 

Euphrates River. — ^The difference between the Euphrates and the 
Tigris is very marked ; whereas the latter has a 3 to 4 knot current 
the Euphrates has little, if any. The difference in appearance is also 
very marked at Kurna, the Tigris water being muddy and chocolate 
in color, and the Euphrates very dark and comparatively clear. The 
Tigris water is said, however, to be the more wholesome of the two. 
See distance table. 

From Kurna the river trends west-southwestward, and has a 
2-fathom patch a short way up, but soon deepens to 3 or 4 fathoms, 
and for the first 20 miles has no difficulty for a vessel drawing 12 
feet. . About 7 miles from Kurna there is a great U-shaped bend, 
which, however, is not sharp, and the concave side is always deep. 

After 20 miles the water gradually shoals until 2 fathoms is 
reached, at about 2J miles below the large village of Chahbish. The 
water further shoals to 9 feet before reaching the village, the deepest 
water being close to the north bank. At the village itself there is 
from 12 to 18 feet. Shallow-draft vessels drawing 4 feet can reach 
the entrance of the Hamar Lake, about 6 miles above Chahbish, but 
the depth of the lake is only from 2 to 3 feet. The bottom is every- 
where very soft mud. 

River traffic. — In 1912 the traffic between Basra and Baghdad 
was maintained by steamers of the Idarah Nahriyah, or Turkish 
Government river administration, three belonging to the Euphrates 
and Tigris Steam Navigation Co. (Messrs. Lynch), which leave 
Basra every Saturday for Baghdad, arid three of the Arab Steam- 
ship Co. 

The vessels were of the American river type with disconnecting 
engines, the largest being 230 feet long and 45 feet across the paddle 
boxes, in 1906, and towing barges alongside, each could convey from 
340 to 400 tons of cargo in the high-river season and about 280 tons 
in the low-river season. The steamers reach Baghdad in five days 
and return in four days, and maintain the connection between Bagh- 
dad and the Indian mail steamers. Three small stern- wheel steamers 
belonging to a native company (Agha Ja' far's) also ply on the river 
between Basra and Baghdad. A good deal of grain and certain 
bulky goods are carried by river sailing craft. 

Native boats of about 30 tons, with 15 hands, take from 30 to 40 
days in tracking to Baghdad. 

Hafar Channel^ generally called the Karun, leads eastward from 
the Shatt al Arab, 40 miles above Fao, into Karun Eiver. It is about 
400 yards wide, 2 miles in length, and has from 3 to 4 fathoms water; 
both b^nks are lined with date trees. 



ABU SHAHR TO, AND INCLUDING, THE SHATT AL ARAB. 301 

Kuhammera (lat. 30° 26', long, 48° 11'), on the northern side of 
Haf ar Channel, about 1 mile within its entrance, is a town of rapidly 
growing importance, owing partly to the Anglo-Persian Oil Co. 
(Ltd.) 'having established its offices there, and it has a population 
of about 12,000 ; it has a bazaar, and is said to be comparatively cool 
and healthy. 

The town is under the Shaikh of Muhammera, who, under the 
sovereignty of the Persian Government, controls the country east- 
ward of the river to the Hindiyan district, and northward to 30 miles 
above Ahwaz. 

The British consulate is on the northwestern point of Haf ar Chan- 
nel -entrance, and there is an old palace, with a flagstaff, now the 
customhouse, about 200 yards westward of the consulate. 

Vessels lie off the town close to the bank, but there is no room 
to swing, and they generally anchor in the Shatt al Arab just above 
its junction with the Haf ar Channel ; a vessel anchored at the junc- 
tion continually yaws from the effect of the currents from the two 
rivers, and the holding ground is not good there. There is said to be 
a good berth in Hafar Channel just above the consulate and east- 
ward of a permanent hulk, but it is not recommended for a short 
stay, as it is difficult to get out of the channel unless swung to the 
flood. 

It appears to be high water at Muhammera about 6 hours after 
high water on the outer bar. 

There is a wharf on the southern side of the northwestern entrance 
point of the channel. 

There are disused barracks and a Persian quarantine station on the 
southeastern point of the entrance, opposite the British Consulate. 

Trade. — ^The principal imports are matches, wood, rice, sugar, tea, 
drugs, kerosene, mineral products, textile products, wool, jute, mer- 
cery, hardware, and pottery, including tiles and bricks, and the ex- 
ports are wheat, barley, almonds, dates, gums, cotton, wool, opium, 
and tobacco. 

The currency consists of Turkish pounds, rupees, and krans. 

Shipping. — Steamers of the Anglo-Algerian Steamship Co. 
(Ltd.), EUerman & Bucknall Steamship Co. (Ltd.), West Hartlepool 
Steam Navigation Co. (Ltd.), from Europe, and of the British India 
Steam Navigation Co. (Ltd.), Bombay- Persia Steam Navigation Co., 
and Arab Steamers (Ltd.), from Bombay, call at Muhammera. 

Conununication. — The vessels of the British India Steam Navi- 
gation Co.'s fast and subsidiary mail services between Bombay and 
Basra each call weekly at Muhammera on their passages up and 
down the Shatt al Arab. There is a launch service between Basra 
and Muhanmiera* 



302 KARUK RIVER. 

A large number of native and Indian dhows, of from 80 to 120 tons, 
visit Muhammera in the date season (September-October). 

Port and telegraph. — ^There are Indian and Persian post offices 
and a telegraph office at Muhammera. 

Language. — The Persian language is spoken at Muhammeira con- 
currently with Arabic. 

Supplies. — ^Meat is fairly plentiful, but the supply of vegetables 
varies, and there is no bread. Supplies can be obtained at the 
bazaar. The mouth of the Haf ar is a good place at which to take in 
water, as it is purer and cooler than that of the Shatt al Arab ; in 
summer, a difference of 16° has been found in the temperature of the 
two streams. 

Coal. — Messrs Strick, Scott & Co. stock a certain quantity of coal 
for sale at Muhammera ; some 30 tons might be obtained from Basra 
with notice beforehand. It is sent off in lighters. The coal wharf 
is about 300 feet in length, but its whole frontage dries. 

Earun River (K&rdn) trends northeastward from the eastern 
end of Hafar Channel, whence (lat. 30° 27', long. 48° 13') the 
Bahmishir, into which the Karun flows, runs southeastward to the 
sea; but the main volume of water from the Karun flows through 
the Hafar into the Shatt al Arab. From Muhammera to Ahwaz, a 
distance of 117 miles, the course of the river is tortuous between low 
banks, through an almost desert country, but abounding with a great 
variety of wild fowl. The first vegetation is above Reuben's tomb, 
16 miles north-northeastward of Muhammera, when the banks be- 
come fringed with light scrub, the country being extensive plains. 

Navigability. — ^The Karun is navigable by river steamers of 2 
feet draft at any time and of 5 feet draft when the river is high, but 
this does not agree with the 22-foot rise of river mentioned below, 
though it may be accounted for by the tortuous channel, etc. The 
river is from 400 to 1,000 yards wide, and the channel is very narrow 
in places, especially at the bends, where, as usual, the deepest water 
is generally on the concave side. Sand banks extend from most of the 
points, sometimes half way across. As far as Kut ab (ad) Doola 
('Abdullah), a village on the southeastern side of the river, 7^ miles 
below Ahwaz, the bottom is mostly sand, or sand and mud, and free 
from rocks. Vessels of 12 feet draft reach Samana Bend, 14 miles 
above Muhammera; but, off the point there, the channel is narrow 
and the bend very sharp. 

The river is said to rise 22 feet about January ; the velocity of the 
current in a high river is from 4 to 6 knots, and in a low river about 
2 knots. There is least water from August to October, inclusive, 
when for 20 miles below Ahwaz the navigation is difficult for a 



Persia:^ gulf, northeast shore and head. 303 

steamer of 3^ feet draft. The tide is felt as far as Ali-bin-Husein's 
(Husain's) tomb, 30 miles above the entrance. 

Farsiat Village is on the southeastern bank, about 65 miles above 
the entrance; at 2 miles below it, and projecting about 30 feet from 
the opposite side of the river, is a rock, covered at high river. Off 
Kut ab Doola are rocks, probably the remains of old buildings, with 
about 3 feet water. From this village to Bandar Nasri the river is 
much encumbered with sand banks and subject to constantly chang- 
ing channels. From Bandar Nasri to Ahwaz, a little more than 1 
mile, there is a great rise in the river bed and a series of heavy un- 
navigable rapids, followed by a navigable stream above the rapids. 
Off Bandar Nasri is a small natural basin, where vessels unload, and 
goods for transhipment to the upper waters are conveyed thither by 
tram. 

Ahwaz (Ahw&z) (lat. 31° 28', long. 48° 43') is a modern town 
with, including Bandar Nasri (Nasiri), a population of about 4,000. 
and is the center of the grain district ; it is reported to be 200 feet 
above the sea. 

A range of hills, about 220 feet above the surrounding plain, marks 
the position of Ahwaz ; three small peaks lie close together, and the 
highest, 420 feet above the sea, is about 2 miles southeastward of 
the town. 

Ahwaz to Shushtax. — The river above the rapids is sinuous, from 
200 to 300 yards wide, and flows between banks from 15 to 20 feet 
high, which gradually becomes steeper near Band-i-Kir, about 36 
miles above Ahwaz ; this place can be reached by shallow-draft river 
steamers. The country on each side of the river is extensive plains. 

The bottom is rocky from Ahwaz to Grana reach ; above that it is 
sand or sand and mud. Wais is a large village about 26^ miles above 
Ahwaz, at the southern end of a long reach. At Band-i-Kir the 
river divides into three branches, named Ab-i-Gargar (Gargar 
River), Ab-i-Shatait (Shatait River), and Ab-i-Diz (Diz River). 

At Band-i-Kir vessels bound for Shushtar enter the Ab-i-Gtirgar, 
the eastern branch, for although the Ab-i-Shatait, the middle branch, 
also leads to Shushtar, it is completely barred about 1 mile above 
Band-i-Kir by a ridge of rocks, which renders it impassable to a 
steam vessel and nearly so to native boats. At Band-i-Kir the stream 
is from 40 to 100 yards wide, with general depths of from 3 to 6 
feet, under the telegraph wires there a rocky ridge leaves a very 
narrow channel, barely permitting the passage of the steamers. Be- 
tween Saiyid Hassan and Dalatad the channel is full of dangerous 
snags, evidently very firmly rooted. 

Kyat Peak, a triangular shaped summit of the nearest range of 
hills, is an excellent mark. 



804 SHUSHTAB. 

The banks of the river in this locality are from 30 to 40 feet high, 
and a few miles above Band-i-Kir the remains of an old ruined city 
are discernible, embedded in the cliff. The steamers stop abreast of 
Shalailiyeh village, which lies about 2 miles from the river bank. 
A few miles higher navigation ceases. 

Shushtax (lat. 31° 48', long. 49° 00') is a large town, with a popu- 
lation of about 10,000; it is the seat of the governor of Arabistan, 
an ofBcial appointed by the Persian Government, and has a consider- 
able garrison. Cargo is conveyed to it from the steamers' stopping 
place by pack mules, the distance being about 7 miles. The principal 
exports are grain, cotton, wool, gum, and oil seeds ; and the imports, 
piece and general goods from Bombay, iron from Europe, and tea 
from India. There are manufactures of inferior carpents and native 
fabrics. 

In August, 1891, the S. S. Shuahan^ a stern wheeler, 80 feet long, 
30 feet beam, and 2^ feet draft, ascended the Ab-i-Diz, which start- 
ing from Band-i-Kir, follows a very tortuous course through flat 
uncultivated country and vast jungles as far as Kut 'Abdush Shah. 
Entering by a channel 20 yards wide, the vessel proceeded for 
1^ hours through a winding channel, with three feet of wateir ; it then 
deepened to an average of 9 feet, except where barred by long 
sand banks about every 5 miles; in the crossings there were depths 
of 3 feet. 

On the third day the Shushan arrived at Kut Bandar. Here a reef 
of rocks extends across the river, through which is a straight channel 
4 feet deep. Then passing through intricate channels the vessel 
arrived at Umm al Wawieh, about 10 miles beyond Kut Bandar, and 
about 20 miles from Dizful by road. 

Not being able to proceed farther, the return journey was com- 
menced on the following day, and much difficulty was experienced 
through grounding and striking in the bends. The ascent occupied 
61 hours and the descent 36 hours. 

During spring and winter the Ab-i-Diz can be navigated as far 
as Kut 'Abdush Shah, about 80 miles by river, and a farther 10 miles 
by road^ from Dizful, a town with a population of about 15,000, 
which exports rice, oil seeds, cotton, and native fabrics, and is a dis- 
tributing center for imports. 

Communication. — ^The British and Persian steamers run about 
weekly between Muhammera and Ahwaz, the upward passage taking 
30 hours and the return 13 hours. There are Persian post and tele- 
graph offices at Bandar Nasri (Ahwaz), Dizful, and Shushtar. 



APPENDIX I. 



305 



Li8t of principal ports and anchorages. 





Depth at 

M. L. 
W. 8. in 
channel 
of ap- 
proach. 


Depth at 

M. L. 
W. S.in 
anchor- 
age. 


Range of tide. 


* 


Port. 


Springs. 


Neaps. 


Remarks. 

« 


Abu Shahr (Bushire). . 

Bahrein Harbor 

BandiLi* A hhftA. 


FathovM. 

? 

1(M) 
5 


FaihovM. 

6-8 

5-4 
3-5 

5J-4 
5-10 


Feet. 
6 

12 
10 

no 

9 


Fe€t. 
5 
5 


Outer anchorage, 4} to 5 fathoms. 
AnAhorAffA Ls aho^it 3 miles ofTahnrA. 


Biwidii .,,... 






Ba-"?r» , 


•7i 



8 


Vessels of 20 feet draft can sometimes 


;rft.<^VBa7 


reach Basra, depending on bar of the 
Shatt al Arab. 


Kuweit Itarbor 

Tiinea (Lingnh) 


Outer anchorage 6 to 10 fathoms: deep 
water in approach. 


9 


6 


The cove is from i to ^ mile in width. 







>Deep water. 



•Bar. 



INDEX. 



A.. 

Fage. 

Ab-i-Diz 303 

Ab-i-Gai^ar 303 

Ab-i-shatait 303 

Abadan Anchorage 289 

to Hafar Channel 290 

tidal currents 289 

tides 289 

Abu al Mawar 74, 75 

Bushehr . . . , 260 

town 266 

Bushire 260 

town 266 

Dhabi 94 

Dhuluf 120 

Dud 298 

Fatairah 152 

Fatera 152 

Hail 92 

Halaifa 152 

Jezza 157 

Flat 157 

— ■— Jezzah 157 

Khadhair 276 

Kharab 131 

Mahur 128 

Shahr 16, 132, 136, 204, 234, 260 

Peninsula 256 

tidal currents 257 

town 266 

coal i. 267 

communication 268 

consulates 266 

currency 268 

' exports 267 

health 267 

imports 267 

landing 266 

quarantine 267 

repairs 267 

shipping 268 

supplies 267 

to Shatt al Arab 42 

trade 267 

weights 268 

Sidra 298 



Page. 

AbuThabi 18,94 

Anchorage 95 

caution 95 

directions 95 

Fort 94 

Khur 96 

pilots 96 

supplies 96 

tides 95 

Abyadh 61 

Accuracy of chart 2 

Acute Bend 222 

AdDair, village 128 

Daiyir, village 128 

Dir, village 128 

Adala Bank 137 

Aden to Persian Gulf 39 

AdhDhuwaihin 108 

Ahwaz 303 

to Shushtar 303 

Aich Shaham 275 

Aida Cove 83 

Aids 5 

Aika 47 

Aiyint : 61 

Ajairawiyah '. 291 

Ajerawiye 291 

Akhan 249 

AlAdan 142 

Aghthi 156 

Ajman 90 

depths 90 

Khur, the 90 

Akkaz Reef 154 

Amair Island 144 

Ashira 141 

Badi 69 

village 69 

Basra , 292 

Anchorage 292 

climate 293 

coal 294 

communication 294 

currency '. 295 

health 293 

Naval Depot 293 

307 



308 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Al Basra quarantine 293 

railroads 294 

repairs 294 

supplies 294 

telegraph 294 

tidal currents 292 

tides 292 

to Baghdad..., 299 

town 292 

trade 294 

Bida 115,125,126 

Harbor ,■ 113 

— depths.!^ 113. 

entrance 113 

Reefs 113 

Fort 114 

Bidia, town 133 

Budaiya 125 

Bustan 52 

Buza 224.228,229 

Fantas 152 

Fasikah 67 

Faska 67 

Fazaya 107 

Fiha , 101 

Fujaira 68 

Anchorage 69 

Shoal 69 

to Sharja 69 

Ghareya 117 

Hadd 129 

village 131 

Haira :... 90 

Hairah 90 

Hamiryah 89 

Hamri>'a 89 

Hasa 123 

Hawajir 149 

Hawar 119,120,122 

offlyingreefs 122 

Heis 47 

Howeila 117 

Huwailah : 117 

Isha 100,101 

Jazira 53 

Jibbalslet 81 

Jiri 84 

Jawasim 232 

Junaina 101 

Kandvin Island 146 

Karsha, village 70 

Katif 119, 136, 139. 140, 142 

Bay 124 



Poge. 

Al Khadhra 66 

Khast Reach 290 

Kran 146 

Kumra 149 

Matbakh *. . . . 116 

Matra 59, 61 

Castle 59 

communication 59 

Peak 59 

— Menama 18, 124, 125, 133 

— Piers 133 

-^ radio 133 

r town 129 

Menamah 133 

Wakra 97,112 

landing 112 

supplies 112 

to Ras Abul Mushut Coast. 1 12 

AlaMulk 221,222 

Alafdan Shoal 265 

Ali Gharbi to Sheikh. 298 

Aliyah Island 116 

Alia Mulk Point 215,216 

Reef 215,217 

Shoals 217 

Amara 292 

Amarah 297 

to Ali Gharbi 298 

Kut-al- Amarah: 297 

Anich Fort 139 

'AnikFort :: 139 

ArRifa : 124 

Riyat 117 

Rufa 124 

Ruweis 118 

Arab, village. ... : 209 

Arabi Inland 146 

Arabia 133 

Arabian Sea 27 

Arad Peninsula 129 

Arbak South Fort 59 

Arzana Island 103 

Pearl Banks 103 

Arzanah Island 103 

As Salaibikhat 153 

Suwaik 66 

supplies 66 

Ash-shafi Creek 296 

Ash Shameiliya 85 

'Ashairik 121 

Ashar Creek 292 

Aslu 249 

Notch 250 



INDEX. 



309 



Page. 

Aslu towB 250 

supplies 250 

Asses Ears 174 

Aetalu Island , 170 

Astola Island 170 

. Channel 171 

At Sea 13 

Auha Islet ,.. 156 

Auhah Islet 156 

Beacon 156 

tides 156 

Auli 253 

Awal 124 

Ayanat 251 

Ayenat , 251 

Az Zowar, village 156 

Aziziyah 299 

B. 

Bab Mnkhalif... 79 

Bacon Shoal 222 

Baghailah " 299 

Baghdad 299 

Bahmanishir River 278 

— directions 278 

tides 278 

Bahmishir River 278 

Bahrein 119 

east coast of , . 126 

■ eastern reefs. 122 

Harbor 129 

Buoys , . 4 .; . 129 

depths 129 

entering the 132 

Lightbuoys 129 

Island 16,124 

Islands 133 

climate 134 

communication 136 

currency .• 135 

• Government 133 

health 134 

— hospitals 134 

measures 135 

— population , 133 

post 136 

supplies 134 

trade 135 

weights 135 

to Ojar, directions 126 

Bald Kahn 249 

BaidhehKhan 249 

Bakha, village 84 



Page. 

Bakhah 84 

Baklang Rock 185 

Banak 250 

Band-i-Kir 303 

Bandar Abbas 202,204 

climate 203 

Coast 205 

communication 204 

currency. 204 

-landing , 204 

— Pier 204 

measures. 204 

^ supplies' 203 

trade 204 

weights 204 

— — alGhawi 263 

BaidKhan 249 

Basatin 246 

Gharbi anchorage. 210 

Hairan 175 

Hamairan.... 228 

ash Shuwaik 154 

Kallatu 247 

-coast from 247 

Khairan 51- 

tides 52 

Ganz 178 

Gunz 178 

Jissa 52 

'■ — Anchorage 52 

supplies 52 

tides 52 

village 52 

Jissah *.... 52 

— - Mansuri 242 

Mishaab 149 

Mualline 229 

Nasri 303 

Rig 272 

the coast from j,,«^^ 273 

Salsul 215 

Flat 217 

Sirik 197 

Subad 53 

Tibben 247 

Bandi Shark 210 

Bani Bu Ali 47 

Ghazal Tribes 44 

Jabir - - 50 

Jannabah. 47 

Sinan tribe — . 50 

Banna.... 275 

BarAbbasak 263 



310 



IKD£X« 



Page. 

BaralKatr 117 

Barak 250 

Shoal 251 

Baraki 257 

Bardistan 253 

Bareim, village 290 

Barka 64 

Anchorage 65 

Barkah 64 

Bam Hill 250 

BasKhargu 211 

Basaitin, village 128 

Bashakird 189 

Bashi 257 

Banks 258 

Baaidu 222 

Anchorage 223 

Flat 212 

Pier 224 

Point 222 

Road 26 

, southwest approach 223 

Anchorage 223 

— : depths 223 

— directions 223 

Basra 292 

toKuna 296 

Basul River 169 

Batina 68 

Coast 62 

supplies 62 

Batinah 62 

Batt Mountain 167 

Batuna 254 

, coast westward from 254 

Bawarda 289 

Bazbaz 249 

Bazim al Gharbi 100 

directions 100 

wood 100 

Reef 99 

Beacon Shoal 222 

Beacon 222 

Beauchamp Reef 162 

Bedawin camps 158 

Bella 162 

Bevan Patch 208 

Bildani Reefs 148 

Shoals 148 

BirPeak 185 

BirkaSifla 218 

Birkeh Band-i-Ali 213 1 



Pags. 

Birkeh Siflin 218 

Biscal Bay.: 215 

Range 215 

Biscal Bay 215 

Range 215 

Blstana, village 232 

Biyaban 196 

Coast 196 

Plain 189 

Pro\nnce 76 

Shoal 196 

Bombay 136 

to Persian Gulf 39 

Basra 136 

Ba Abali 66 

Athama 132 

approach 131 

' Mahir 128 

RiyalPeak 256 

Suf 276 

Thaluf 120 

Tini 102 

Bulkhair 257 

Buma Sali Tower 55 

Buoys 5 

Burdekhun, town 256 

BurjAbulLif 140 

-Fort 139 

Busaitin, village 128 

Bushire to Shatt al Arab 42 

Bustaneh Banks......' 213 

Point 213 

village 232 

Bustanu, village 247 

C. 

Chahala canal 298 

ChahbarBay 182 

Anchorage 183 

depths 182 

— directions 183 

light 183 

Point 182 

prohibited anchorage 183 

the shore from 182 

town 183 

climate. - 184 

communication 184 

supplies 184 

trade 184 

Chahbish 300 

Chahu 221 

viUage 220 



INDEX. 



Sll 



Page. 

CliakuliKuh 172 

Charaif.. 249 

Charak ". 237 

Anchorage 238 

Bay 237 

supplies 238 

Charts 1 

largestscale 3 

small scale 3 

Chaschus 137,138 

Banks 124 

Reef 120 

Chellabi Point .*. 288 

Chiju 213 

Chil River 180 

ChirChuma 163 

Islet 163 

Chiru 239,241 

Anchorage 242 

Pdnt 242 

Coast from 242 

Flat 242 

tidal curr^its. . . 242 

tides 242 

Chumalsland 163 

Clarence Strait 206, 207, 213, 

217, 220, 221, 223 

Cliff Island ..125,126 

CliveRock 64 

Coast piloting 11 

Coate Rock 123, 226 

. Compass roses on charts 4 

D. 

Dabai 92 

Dabba 291 

Island 291 

Daghmar 48 

DahatKathama 155 

Anchorage 155 

head of harbor , . 155 

Daimaniyat Islands.., 63 

soundings 64 

Daira Island 275 

Dairah .92 

Island 275 

Point 93 

Daiyinah Island 104 

Daiyir 263 

Daka Shoal 146 

Baku, village 243 

Dalatad 303 

Daliki River 270 



Page. 

Dalma 98 

Island 104 

Anchorage 105 

supplies 105 

Danunan 138 

IhtfSait 61 

Rock 61 

Darguwan 215 

Darin, town .^. . 139 

Dariyocham 165 

Darsait 61 

Darya Cham 165 

Anchorage 165 

Das Island 103 

caution 103 

Dasht River 178 

Daurakistan 276 

Dawasir Island 289 

Dayir 253 

Anchorage 253 

Rocks 253 

supplies 253 

tidal currents 253 

Dedabuun 271 

Dekhun, village 243 

DemiZar 168 

Deristan 211 

Bay 210 

Devils Gap 49 

Dhadnah, village 69 

Diamaniyat Islands 45 

Dibai 18,92 

Anchorage 92 

Khur 92 

commimication 93 

Dibba 70 

Dih 239 

Dil 66 

DHam 274 

Anchorage 274 

communication 274 

supplies 274 

trade 274 

Dilbar 257 

Dilwar, village 257 

Dimna 153 

Dimnah.. 153 

Diraku 220 

Direng Hills 253 

Diyina Island 104 

Diz River 303 

Dwful 304 

Dobat Dibba 70 



312 



VSTDEX. 



Page. 

Doha 115 

village, 58 

Dohab 115 

Dohat Abu Ali 142, 143 

Tala 153,154 

adDafiBay 144 

Ain as Saih 123 

^ Sih 123,124 

a^Adhwan 121 

Asli 149 

— Kawaisat 108 

— ^ an Nakhla 107 

Nakhalah 107 

az Zaur , 150 

Balbul 147 

Dhaliim 123 

-^Dibah 70 

Dibba : 70 

supplies 70 

— -Haffa 71 

Kabal.: 70 

Eathama 152 

Khulte 79 

Lusail.......... 116 

Musalamiya 144 

Salwa 119, 120 

Sharja 72 

Sharjah 72 

— r-Shisa 75 

Thalum 123 

Dorakistan 276 

Duan, village ,' 236 

DuhatDilam 274 

Kabal 73 

Salwa 122 

Dukuhak Islets. ! , , 214 

Dulu, village 220 

Duwairah Passage 54 

Duweira Passage 54 

E. 

East Bay 174 

Euphrates Patch 201 

River 279,300 

traffic 300 

Ezra's Tomb to Kalat 298 

F. 

Fahaheel 152 

Fahaihil 152 

Fahal 62 

Island -. 56 

Fahliya 291 

FailakaFlat 157 



Page. 

Failaka Island 156,168 

Faireijat Islets 108 

Fakal Aflad 76 

Fanailis 1 52 

Fanaitis 152 

Fanakha .., 81 

Fanakhah 81 

Faneitifl 142 

Fao 286 

communication 287 

customs 286 

landing 286 

quarantine 286 

Supplieiis 286 

— telegraph 286 

to Kabda Point 287 

Farur Shoal 235 

soundings 236 

Fash al Hadeiba 157 

Fasht 90 

adDibal 122,131,132 

-^^ caution 122 

al aich 159 

aik 159 

arrif... Ill 

Eling 143,146 

Hadeiba 153 

Anchorage 154 

Anchorage Buoy 153 

Buoy 153 

Light 153 

Jarim 130 

Jather 155 

Jathir „ 155 

Kash 145,147 

Miairiz 275 

Odaid 106,110 

Yarim.... 120,129,130,132,136 

Bu Saafa. 141, 143 

Umm Janna 109 

Fathom curves a caution 3 

Filam, village 74 

Film, village 74 

Fine Peak 78,84 

Finger Peak 215 

Fins : 49 

Tower 49 

Fishers Rock 53 

Fixing position ^ * . 12 

Flat Pass 224 

, the 212 

tidal currents 213 

Fogsignals 8 



INDEX. 



313 



Page. 

Fort Point 271 

Fuairit 117 

Fudar, village 84 

Funnel Hill 254 

Bank 255 

Fuwairat 117 

G. 

Gabrig River 189 

Gahha Shoal 193,198 

caution 198 

Grair Mountain 177 

Ganaveh 273 

Ganz, village , 178 

Gap -77 

Island ! 77 

Gargar River 303 

Gaz River 197 

Geshim, village 216 

Ghalat Kalba 68 

Ghamtha, village 84 

Ghanatha ^ 93 

Ghara Islands 108 

Gharum Cove 80 

Ghaus-al-Kabir 18 

Gberefa 68 

Ghubb 'Ali 81 

Ghubbat Akabah 72 

Ghazirah 73 

Shabus 74 

Ghurabi 93 

Girau 197 

Gisakan Bluff 264 

Good Hope, Cape to Persian Gulf 40 

Gorangati 165 

Great Pearl Bank, the 88 

Quoin 77,78 

depths 77 

tidal currents 77 

White Peak 200 

Grubb's notch 223, 227 

Gumaija Shorgi to Abu Ruba 298 

Guran 220 

Bank 221 

directions 221 

village 220 



Guri 220 

Guru 197,198 

Coast 198 

tidal currents 197 

tides 197 

Gurzeh 24 1 

Gutteh 115 

173608''— 20 21 



Pas;e. 

Gutten Fort 114 

Gwadar 176 

B ay 1 74 

^ directions 174 

tides 174 

communication 176 

Head 174 

Promontory 174 

supplies 176 

town 174 

trade 176 

West Bay 177 

and Ras al Kuh, coast between. 177 

navigation 177 



Gwatar Bay 178 

depths ♦ 179 

rivers 180 

Shoal 179 

tides 180 

Flat 180 

village 180 



H. 

Hab River 20, 162 

Shoals 163 

Hadd 133 

al Hamara 149 

Hafar Channel 291, 300 

entrance 279 

to Basra 291 

Hai Branch 291 

Hail 63 

al 'Umair 63 

Haiwa 48 

Halat al Mubarraz i 99 

an Nannas, village 126 

Dalma 110 

Hail Islet .f 99 

J- Masuma 105 



Haleh 249 

Halila Bay 258 

Halul 115 

Island 97, 118, 131, 245 

Anchorage 118 

Beacon 118 

Cairn 118 

Landing 118 

soundings Il8 

Hamadiya 123 

Hamar Lake 300 

Hana Cove 83 

Anchorage 83 

Hanah 83 



314 



INDEX, 



rage. 

Hanyufa Bay 94 

Haptalar Island 170 

Kara Hills 162 

Haraf , village 83 

Haraka Bight 130 

Harira, town of 240 

Harmul 67 

Harta, village 2«0 

Hasina 237 

Hasineh 237 

Hassa, village 81 

Hawar Island 121 

Heija 47 

Henjam 80, 212 

Sound 208, 211 

Herkuz ». 146 

Hindiyan River 275 

Hingol River 166 

Hingor River 166 

Anchorag: 166 

Harmuz : . 199, 205 

Anchorage 201 

Shoals 201 

village 200 

Humaiyan 297 

Humuz 201 

Anchorage 201 

Channel 201 

directions 202 

4^^^^^ mark 201 

Shoals 201 

soundings 201 

supplies 201 

tides 202 

Hydrographic IjuUetins 6 

I. 

i Mahdi 174 

Imam Husein 273 

Ziyarat, village 256 

Imamzada -. 259 

J. 

Jabal Bahmadi 193 

Bakhun 200 

Bis 1 96 

Bistana 227, 236 

Dangiya 193 

Direng 132,-252 

-^Ghurab 166 

Ginao 200,217 

Hab 166 

Hara 165 



Page. 

Jabal Hinglaj 166 

Karya 196 

Coast 196 

Mahdi 174 

Mu shi 209 

Sar 173 

Shahu 189 

Shimil 200 

SiriAyenat 250,255 

Yafal 250 

Turanja 238 

Turanjeh 238 

Yarid 236 

Zarrain 172 

Coast westward 172 

Jabel Bistana 232 

Jadum 136 

sand bank 130 

Jagin River 189 

Jaharah 155 

Jahrah 155 

Jalali Fort 54 

Janna 145 

Anchorage 145 

Coast 145 

directions 145 

Island 144 

Jashk 20 

— Bay 191 

Anchorage i 191 

directions 191 

^^ Light 191 

tides 192 

Cape 27,191,196 

Shoals 191 

Buoy , 191 

: clearing marks 191 

soundings 192 

Creek 191,192 

East Bay 190 

Anchorage 190 

: Beacon....*. 190 

Landing 190 

telegraph cables 190 

Fort 193 

village 192 

communication 192 

Landing 192 

Lloyd's Signal Station 192 

supplies 192 

telegraph 192 

Jazirat Abil Abeyaz 101 



INDEX. 



315 



Page. 

Jazirat Abu AH 142,144,145 

Sir 79 

alAli 116 

Bahrani 98 

Batinah 142 

Ghanan 79 

Hamar 102 

Hamra 88 

Janah 143 

Jaraid 143 

Jinna 143,145,147 

inshore passages 144 

Shoals 143 

Jinnah 143 

Jiraida 143 

Karan 147 

Khur 88 

Kraiyin 147 

Kran 145,147 

Kurain 147 

Mukta 148,1419 

Arabi : 146 

Beacon 147 

tidal currents 147 

tides 147 

asSafla.. 113 

Babiyan 159 

Bubiyan 119,158 

Farsi 146 

Beacon 146 

Island 146 

Harkis 147 

Herkuz 145, 147 

Beacon 147 

Coast 147 

Janna 142 

Jun 64 

tides 64 

Kantur 99 

Kamain: 103 

Karu 150 

tidal currents 150 

Kubbar ,. 151,157 

Beacon 151 

tidal currents 151 

Kun 78 

Kurein 154,157 

Mishiryat Ill 

— NabbiSaU 127 

Salali 99 

SlrBeiuYas 98 

Suadi 65 

^^ Anchorage 65, 66 



Page. 

Jazirat Suadi coast 65 

soundings 66 

tides 65 

water 65 

Ummal Failjarin 71, 75 

— caution 75 

tidal currents ... 75 



Majarib 98 

Umman Beacon 154 

Zakhnuniya 122, 123 

Jazza -. . 243 

Jebel AbuDaud 50,51 

Dawd 50 

Kashasha 98 

Add 65 

al Harim 78 

Odaid 108 

Wataid 105 

Ali 93 

'Amundah 148 

Amundi 148 

Arab 217, 221 

Banaya 150 

Bani Jabir 40 

Bardka. 105 

Barakah 105 

Beni Jabir 48, 49 

Dhalaifain 142 

Dhanni 102 

Dukhan 124, 126, 128, 132, 138 

landmark 125 

north coast 125 

Fataisa 94 

Harton 215, 221 

Kakhl 55 

Kalhat 48 

Karyat 49 

Khamis 47 

Khaweir 142, 143, 146 

Mowa 122 

Munifa 147 

Nakhl 62 

Salsul 214 

Shem ." 81 

Sibi 74, 75, 82 

Tain 55, 62 

Thaluf 148 

Thanni 102 

' Wutaid...... 105 

Jehara _. 155 

Jezirat Abu Musa 226 

caution 228 

coast 228 



316 



INDSX. 



Pa»e. 

Jezirat Abu Musa mainland ^ 226 

soundings 227 

supplies 227 

tides 227 

al All 114 

directions 114 

Shoal 114 

■■ tides 114 

Khidr 287 

at Tawila. 205 

Chahardak 166 

Chabardam 166 

Farur 24, 235 

directions 236 

Henjano 208,210 

caution 211 

communication 21 1 

— directions 210 

Lloyds Signal Station 211 

supplies 211 

tidal currents 210 

tides 210 

Hindarabi 242 

Anchora^^e 243 

caution 343 

Reef 242 

Hormuz 198, 200, 202 

Jabrin 255 

Kais 24, 239 

Anchorage 240 

directions 240 

Lightship 239 

supplies 241 

tidal currents 240 

■ tides 240 

Kais. to Has al Mutaf 41 

' Kharaba 64 

Kharag 269, 271 

Anchorage 271 

supplies. 272 

Khargu 269, 271 

Channel 272 

: soundings 272 

tidal ciurents 272 

tides 272 

Larak 205 

Anchorage 205 

Muharrak 265 

Nabiyu Farur 235 

soundings 235 

Tanb 223,226 

^^ Shaikh Shuaib 243 

Sheikh Saad 260,263 



Page. 

Jezirat Sheikh Shuaib 243 

Channel the 245 

• directions 245 

-Shoals 245 

supplies : . . 245 

tidal currents 245 

tides 245' 

Shi twar 244 

Anchorage 244 

Sini 234 

Anchorage 234 

soundings 235 

Suwadi 65 

Tanb 41, 223, 224 

Anchorage 225 

Landing :. . . 226 

Light 225 

Lighthouse 213 

Shoals 225 

tidal currents 226 

tides 226 

to Jezirat Kais 41 

Tunb 224 

Umm al Kuram 254 

Jilat al Husain 124 

Jinwri, village 180 

Jirza 241 

Jisha 231 

Jisheh 231 

Jiunri, village 180 

Jufakh Reach ?98 

K. 
Kabba 81 

Kabbah 81 

Kabda Point 288 

to Al Khast 288 

Kabr an Nakhuda 276 

Kachal 76,77 

Islet 78 

Kachalu '. 76 

Kada 83 

Cove 83 

Kafai Island ! 109 

Kahura, village 216 

Kais 18 

KakiKuh 181 

Kal 'At al Husain 124 

Kalai 'Ah 130 

Kalali 131 

village 128 

Kalat 241 

alAbeid 241 

^— .coast from 241 



INDEX. 



317 



Page. 

Kal at Haidai : 273 

■ HajjiKaritu 220 

Saleh 298 

— toAmorah 298 

Kalatu..: 247 

Kalbu Cove 58 

Kalbuh Cove 58 

Kale Lashtan 228 

Kalhat. . . . ' 48 

Kaliya 130 

Anchorage 130 

Rocks ". 138 

Kalla, village 198 

Kamgar Hills 169 

Kamir Peak 223 

Kana, village 82 

Kanawa 273 

supplies 273 

Kangun 252 

Anchorage 252 

supplies 252 

Kantab 52 

Karachi 27 

Harbor . . w 161 

Karam 69 

Karri, village 257 

Karun River 302 

, navigability 302 

Karyat 50 

al Kabira 50 

Anchorage 50 

Kabirah 50 



as Saghira 50 

soundings 50 

at Saghira Shoal 51 

Range 55 

Kaseir bint Sesuan 276 

'^Kasr 148 

Kassad 248 

Kassar 149 

al Baya : 107 

Mitma 148,149 

bin Siswan 276 

Diwan 127, 128 



Katagar, coast of 178 

Katahad Jaradeh....! 121, 122 

Kataiban Canal 296 

Katar 115 

supplies 116 

Katat Araifiyan 149, 151, 152 

Ekhchejera 122 

Katr 133 

Kaur Galog 187 



Page. 

Kaur Rapch 187 

Kaus 25 

Kawuni 213 

Khagun, village 199 

Khaima Khur ■. 85 

town 85 

Khaisat Sum 51 

Khaki Kuh 181 

Khalil 63 

Khamir 204 

Peak 224 

Range 218 

town 217, 218 

shore 218 

■ south 218 

Khan, village 92 

Khafiab Bay , 82 

Anchorage 83 

depths 82 

town 83 

supplies 83 

Khasaifah 129 

Khaseifa 129 

Islet 129 

Reef 120 

Khaura Bank 120, 137 

directions 137 

al Sabiyah 158 

Kanari 213 

Pooda 264 

Tawala 214 

KhunSurkh 213 

Khur 86 

Abdalla 159 

Anchorage 160 

Channel 159 

ad Duan 108 

— ^ al Abd 273 

Amaya 277 

Bab 120,136,137 

— '■ Baiza 88 

. Baidah 88 

Bizam 100 

Geit 159 

Hajar 45 

Anchorages 46 

tides 46 

Kafka 279 

banks 279 

beacons 283 

buoyage 283 

depths 281 

directions 283,284 



318 



INDEX, 



Page. 
Khur al Kafka directions caution . . . 284 

inward 283 

outward 284 

Light vessel 282 

navigation 281 

Pilot vessel 282 

pilots.... 285 

prohibited anchorage. 283 

tidal constants, infor- 
mation with regard to 280 

semaphore 279 

at night 280 



currents 285 

tides 284 

wrecks : 283 

Odaid 94,108 

Anchorage 109 

directions 109 

Ankara 177 

Ash Sham 81 

Shem 76,81 

Anchorage 82 

tides 82 

Ayaz 254 

Bahmishir. 276 

Bahrani 265 

Bandarga 265 

Bashubar 100 

Bukhader 276 

Darak 187 

Dasht 179 

Deira 263 

Dhokira 117 

Shoals 117 

Dorak 276 

Donik 187 

Fakan 69 

Coast 69 

supplies 69 

Fasht 120, 126, 136, 137, 138 

Galag 187 

Garan 222. 

Gasair 272 

Ghazlan 275 

Ghiib Ali 76, 81 

Guran 219 

Halj , 99 

directions 100 

Hamad 193 

Hasan 121 

Jafuri 220 

Jarama 44 

depths 46 



Page. 

Khur Jarama directions ...... 46, 47 

supplies , 47 

tide 47 

Jiyuni 180 

Kalba 62,65,68 

Coast. 68 

soimdings 68 

Kaliya 127 

Anchorage 128 

Beacon 128 

depths 127 

directions 128 

Shoals 127 

tidal currents 128 

tides 128 

Kalmat 20, 169 

, coast westward from 109 

Kantur 93 

Kawi 80 

Anchorage 80 

Temperature 80 

— Tidal currents 80 

Tides 80 

Khalil 273 

Khuweir 258 

, the coast northwestward of 258 

Lashkari 260 

Lulatain 273 

Mala 71 

Maniji 167 

Mannaiji 167 

Masaga 219.220,222 

Mashur 276 

Minab 199 

Minaw. 198,199,200 

Musa ; 276 

directions 276 

Rabij 187- 

Anchorage 188 

Tides. 188 

Rasdan 155 

Riihilla 270 

. coast westward from 272 

Sabiya 150,158,159 

depths. 157 

Saihat *. 139 

Shajij 116 

Shakik 116 

SilaikBahri 277 

Silij 277 

Sini 273 

Sultani 260. 265 

Wasta 275 



INDEX. 



319 



Page. 

Khur Ziyarat. 256 

— , coast from 256 

soundings 258 

Khurs 139 

Khuwair 62,63 

Ehwaja Khizar 170 

Khwesat 155 

KldahCove 83 

Kinj Dap River 181 

River 181 

Kirman 202 

Kishkuh 211 

Kishm .* 80, 199, 206, 221 

Anchorage 206 

Coast 207 

depths 207 

directions 1 207 

Fort flagstaff 207 

Great Table Hill 214 

Island. 16, 205, 208, 213, 219, 221, 222 

Light Buoy 206 

pilots 207 

Point 202 

Road : 198 

Shoals 206, 207 

— — supplies 207 

tidal currents 207 

tides 207 

'At Araifiyan 151 

'A tain XJshairij 155 

Kochu 181 

Kogan, village ; 257 

Koh-i-Namak Sar range of hills 214 

Kohr Tawala 215 

Kola Patch 152, 281 

Kor Tawala 214 

Korat 243 

elUsif ; 187 

Komah 294 

Kubbat Akaba 72 

alHail 62 

, villages 62 

Gharzira 73 

depths 74 

tides : 74 

Shabus 74 

Kubbatt Ghazira 74 

Kuh Bebehan 270 

tidal currents 270 

- — Darabul T. . 179 

Daram Range 174 

Ginau 200 

Gukardi 188 



Pago. 

Kuh-i-Bang 270 

KuhiMund 256 

Murbarak 195 

Bluff 195 

Kalat 186 

Khormuj 257 

Khurmuj 1 . 257 

Saiji 174 

Tuzhdan '. 177 

- — Ushadan 193 



Kuhistak 198 

, village 198 

supplies 199 

Kuhr Jaramah 46 

Kumzar 76 

Kunar Siya 220 

Kunark, village 183 

Ku©ari Point 196 

River 197 

Kung , 229 

Anchorage 229 

Kurat 243 

Kureya 123 

Kurma 281 

Kurmat 296 

Kuma 297 

to Amarah 297 

Ezra's tomb 297 

Kurnah 297 

Kuryat 50 

Kut-ab Doola 302 

Kut 'Abdush Shab 304 

al Farangi 295 

Kut-at- Amarah to Baghdad 297 

Kutat Abu Taleh 155 

Kutotain Ousherij Reef 155 

Kuwai Plateau 217 

Point 216 

tides 221 

Kuwait 157 

Kuweit 27,119,142, 157, 274 

approach 152 

Bay 155 

communication 158 

depths 152 

Harbor 152 

directions 157 

landing 158 

supplies 157 

tidal currents 154 

tides 154 

trade 158 

Kyat Peak 303 



320 



INDEX. 



li. 

Page. 

Lafka Sands 262 

Laft 219 

Creek.. 219 

Kedim 218,221 

Point..... 216 

village 216 

point 213, 216, 219, 221, 222 

tidal currents 216 

supplies 219 

Lailiya Eistrict 124 

Lakki Hills 161 

Ridge 162 

Lalyah District 124 

LasBailah 20 

Beila 20 

currency ' 22 

• measures 23 

population 21 

trade 22 

weights 23 

" — Bela 20 

Hat Islets 110 

Makran 20 

currency 22 

measures 22 

population 21 

trade 22 

Y^i^ht^ 23 

Lawar, village 257 

Laz, village 244 

Laza, village 243 

Light lists 6 

Lights 5 

Lima 72 

Anchorage 72 

— -Coast .' 73 

Peak 72 

supplies 73 

Linga 18,212,229 

Anchorage: 230 

communication 231 

currency 231 

landing 230 

— — measures 231 

Peak 227,237 

pilots 231 

repairs 231 

supplies 220 

trade 231 

weights 231 

wireless telegraph 230 

Lingeh 229 



Page. 

Little Dar Salt 61 

Doha. . .'. 115 

Quoin Islet Light 77 

Liya 125 

Liyah, village 91 

Liwa 67 

Local magnetic disturbance 4 

Low Point 217 

Luwa 67 

M. 

Maamir 288 

Mac Gill 295 

repairs 295 

warehouses 296 

wharves 295 

Machahi 243 

Machasib 110 

Mada, village 81 

Madaira Reef 150 

Madumari, village 257 

Madura reef 150 

Magam, village 246 

Magil >..: 295 

Mahamaliva Islet \.. 106 

Mahana al Kabira 127 

Saghira 127 

Maidan ali 277 

banks 277 

shoals 277 

Majar Kabir Canal 298 

Majis 67 

MaJTum Reach 297 

Makalla Bay 54 

Wabar 49 

Makalah Bay 54 

Makbarah 65 

Makhailif 67 

Makheilif 67 

Makhi 83 

Maklab Bay 82 

Makki Bluff 186 

Ma kran 20 

coast 27 

climate 30 

winds 27. 

curency 22 

currents . 34^ 

measures 23' 

pppulation 21 

temperature 32 

trade 22 

weights 23 



INDEX. 



321 



Page. 

Malcolm Inlet 73 

Mandaliyah 298 

Manora Point lighthouse 161 

Marakat Abadan 277, 279 

Abdalla 159 

Marakibat Sadun 138 

Mariner Shoal 21 3, 223, 224 

Martha Peak 124 

Marwadi 126 

Reef 136,138 

Mashi Fort 239 

village 239 

Mashila 258 

Mashjan 156 

Mashkan 156 

Masjid-es-Suleiman 289 

Maskat 44 

Cove 53 

Anchorage 55 

r- directions 55 

at night 56 

caution 56 

mooring buoys • 54 

Fier 54 

range lights 54 

tides 55 

'■ — wreck 54 

Island : 62 

to the entrance 41 

town 56 

— ; — coal 56 

communication 57 

• consuls 57 

currency 58 

; — health 57 

Hospital 57 

measures 58 

— shipping 58 

supplies 56 

tides 230 

trade 57 

water 56 

weights 58 

Masn 'ah 66 

Masna 66 

Mason Shoal 191,, 198 

Matairah 59 

Mateira 59 

Mathra Hill 138 

Peak 138 

Matra 56 

Bay 59 



Page. 

Matra Bay Anchorage 59 

Rock 59 

Matrah Bay 59 

Maundrell Shoal 208 

Mayalu 251 

Mean sea level 2 

Meherhuni Hill 216 

Menama Chimp 128 

town 133 

Merani, fort of 54 

Mercator chart 3 

Meriton Bay 101 

Channels through the reefs. 101 

: — direc- 
tions 101 

Michriyah Canal 298 

Middle Banks 217 

Milne Head 214 

Minab, town 199 

Mountains 199 

overhanging peak 199 

trade 199 

Minau Fort 199 

town 199. 

Mir Amman Ton b 275 

Mirani, fort of 54 

Mishaab "^ 142, 149 

Moghab Bay 53 

Monze Cape 161 

Mudrah Peak 124 

Mufka 260 

Mugam 246 

Mughab Bay 53 

Mughara 215 

Mughu 235 

Bay 236 

Anchorage 237 

Shoal 236 

village 236 

supplies 237 

Mugmalam 194 

Muhalla Island : . 290 

Muhammads Watchman 271 

Muhammera 16, 278, 301 

Bank 291 

coal 302 

communication 301 

language 302 

Port 302 

shipping 301 

supplies 302 

telegraph 302 



322 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Mulhammera to Ahwaz 302 

trade 301 

Muharrak 128 

Island 120, 

122, 128, 129, 131, 133, 260 

water 128 

Mukaka, village 74 

Mukarrah Island 132 

Mukbara .65 

Mukhaila 254 

Coast northward from, caution.. 256 

soundings 256 

tides 254 

MuktaSpit 149 

Mund River 256 

Muntafik 292 

Murair 68 

Mureir 68 

Musalamiya 147 

Island 142,144 

Musandam Island 19, 76, 77, 197 

Peninsula 70, 74, 76, 78 

, north coast 78 

, west coast 78 

Mushi Patch Shoal 209 

Mushkan Rocks 79 

Mutaf Shoal 254 

Mutawa, village 291 

Muzaniyab Reach 298 

N. 

Naband 303,249 

Bay 248 

Anchorage .- 249 

■ directions 249 

~ — shoals 249 

supplies 250 

Nabiyu Tanb 224,227 

Narconas Point 220 

Naita Islet 107 

Strait 107 

Najhan Coast, the 110 

Najwa 137 

Reef 120,138,140 

Nakhiliv 254 

Nakhl Range 62 

Takki 250 

Nakhlistan 220 

Nakhuli, village 246 

Nakiyan Coast, the 110 

Nakl Hashim 249 

Namakdan 212 



Page. 

Nancowry Shoal 161 

Nancowry Shoal, to pass southward of 161 

Nargiszar 257 

Narrows, the 298 

Naahi 26 

Nazifi, village 82 

New Euphrates River. 296 

North Bank 223 

Hill 123 

Islet 179 

Notes on charts 4 

Notices to Mariners 6 

Nufka'eh 260 

O. 

O'kair 123 

Oil, useof 13 

Ojar 123,292 

Coast 123 

depths .• 123 

to Bahrein, directions 126 

OldBasidu -. 220 

Oman '. 19 

Government 20 

Gulf of 19 

cyclones 28 

— = land breezes 23 

native craft 38 

northeasters 28 

remarks... 28 

sea breezes 28 

shamals 28 

southwest shore 34 

tidal currents 35 

winds 27 

Peninsula 15, 69 

trade.... 20 

Oman 257 

Omara Isthmus 167 

supplies 168 

telegraph 168 

East Bay 168 

ti(3al currents 168 

West Bay 168 

P. 

Pab Mountains 162 

PadiZar 168,177 

Pahul, village 214 

Paipusht 216 

coastal range 216 

, village 215 



IKDBX. 



323 



Psge. 

Palinuni3 Shoal 277 

Panjshir 180 

Pasni, to^Ti 171 

:- Anchorage 172 

communication 172 

— = supplies 172 

trade 172 

Patrick Stewart Patch 208 

Paul, village 214 

PazimBay.. 184 

Perforated Rock '. 79 

Persian Coast 136 

Gulf 15,74 

approach 35 

barometer 33 

buoys 39 

climate 29 

coal 39 

communication 37 

-■ currents r 33 

dew 33 

directions 198 

docks : 39 

fogs 33 

head 269 

health 17 

Islands 97 

land breezes 26 

-: Lights 39 

native craft 38 

northeast shore. . . , 269 

ob tai ning information 38 

Passage 40 

pearl fishery 18 

physical geography 15 

pilots 37, 98 

population 16 

ports 16 

presents 38 

products 18 

radio 38 

roads 37 

sea breezes 26 

soundings 23 

southern shore 97 

steamships 37, 40 

supplies 17 

— swells 36 

telegraph 37 

tides 34,98 

to Adin 39 

Bombay 40 

Cape of Good Hope... 40 



Page. 

Persian Gulf towns 16 

trade 17 

waves 36 

winds 24,25,26,27 

alternating 26 

named by natives. 25, 26, 27 

Pier Point 80 

Pillar Rock 55 

Pilot charts * 6 

Piloting 9 

Pilots 6 

Pinnacle Rock 53 

Planes of reference 1 

Polyconic chart. 4 

Porali River 164 

Portuguese Fort.... 125, 126, 132, 138, 200 

Coast 125 

Lighthouse Rock 125 

: — west coast 125 

Proserpine Rock 196 

Publications 1 

Puhal Point 214, 218, 220, 221 

Pul Patch 217 

Point 214 

Pur Ali River 162 

River 165 

Putal Patch 217 

Q. 

Quarantine Island 292 

Quoin Hill 196,221 

Peak 182 

Qouins 77 

Qwatar, village 180 

R. 

• 

Radda 18 

Radio compass stations 9 

Ragged Peak 200 

Rak al Ha j j i 99 

Yadda 136 

as Surra 137,138 

az Zakum 99 

Kareinein Ill 

caution Ill 

Suwaik 78 

Raka Island 125 

Rakatal Ali.. 202 

asSafli 201 

Rams 85 

Rapch River 187 

Ras Abu Ali 143 

Daud 51 



324 



INDEX. 



Page. ! 

Ras Abul Mushut 113 

Reefs 113 

Akhtar 251 

al Abreiaha 158 

Abyaz 61 

Ain 120,130 

Ajuza 153,157 

Buoy 153 

Shoal 153 

Allack 110 

Ardh 152 

Arz. . .149, 151, 152, 153, 156, 157 

Beacon 152 

tidal currents 152 

Bab 76 

Bahrgan 275 

Bar. 124, 126, 127 

Baz * 58 

Bisha *.. 159,283 

Gait 159 

Geit : 159,160 

Ghaf 63 

Shoals 63 

Ghar 144,146,147 

Island 146 

Ghurab 94 

Hadd 19,44 

Anchorage 44 

currents 44 

soundings 45 

supplies 44 

temperature 44 

tides 44 

Haiya 45 

Halifa 264 

Hamar 61, 62 

Coast 62 

Mountains 62 

soundins?? 62 



Hamma 45 

Hatam 81 

Hayari 66 

Hazra 108 

Jabri 262 

Jadi 84 

Jasra 126,127,128 

Junaiz 44 

Kahaf 98 

Kahi 156 

Kaid 159 

Kaliya 142,146,151 

Kaliyah 151 

Kanada 53 



Pa?e. 

Rsg al Kateifan 116 

— ' Khafji 149 

breakers 149 

Khaima 70, 85 

Anchorage 86 

-^ depths '. 86 

— = shoal 86 

supplies 87 

the coast from 87 

' Anchor- 
age 87 

re9f3.. 87 

tidal currents 86, 87 

tides 86 

town 85 

Khaimah 85 

Ehairan 51 

Khan 252, 256 

tidal currents 257 

Kuh.15, 68, 76, 194, 195, 196, 193 

Ancliorage 194 

Coast 195 

Marg... 262 

Marrar 252 

Maruna 117 

Mashia 209 

Beacon 209 

Buoys 210 

Mishaab 141, 148 

Mutaf 254 

Anchorage 255 

directions 255 

tidal currents 255 

to Abu Shahr 42 

Bushire 42 

Sila 106 

Yadda 136 

Yahi 156, 157 

anNuf 116 

ar Ruman 125, 126, 133 

as Sala 138 

Sawad 122 

Shabb 131, 137 

Silla 106 

ash Shaghab 260 

Shajar 49 

Shateif 53, 60, 61, 62 

Shatt 261 

approach 231 

banks 262 

boat channel 264 

buoys 262 

depths 261 



INDEX. 



325 



Page. 

Ras ash Shatt directions 264 

northward, from 

the 264 

southeastw a r d , 

from the 264 

inner anchorage. . 263, 264 

lightbuoys 262 

Lights 262 

outer anchorage 262 

pilots 263 

prohibited anchorage. 262 

tidal currents 263 

tides 263 

Shawari 228 

Shinas 232 

Coast 232 

tidal currents 232 

Shir 195, 196 

Bank 196 

caution 196 

Shuam 85 

depth 85 

Asheirij 154, 155 

Buoys 155 

Ashiraj.. 120,121 

Anchorage 121 

Coast 121 

marks 121 

at Tanajib 147,148,149 

Coast 148 

• Tanb..: 274 

Tullub 275 

az Zaur 149, 150 

Zor 150 

Barabakh 142 

Bardhalk 149 

Bardhalj 149, 150 

Bashin 71, 74, 75 

Basel 169 

— ^Basul 169 

Biddiya 144,145 

Bildani 147 

Bistana 195, 233, 234 

Shoal 233 

soundings 233 

'■ tidal currents 236 

Brifl 181 

soundings 181 

Bu Abut 114 

Amran 113,120,121 

Buraji 46 

Beacon 46 

Kamheiz 108 



Page. 

RasBuser 209 

Dastakan 212, 213, 223 

hummocks 212 

soundings 212 

Dhaletza 44 

Dibba 68, 69, 74 

Eint... 61 

el Khur 187 

Fasta 19, 179 

depths 179 

Shoal 181 

the coast from 180 

Fudar 260 

Ganz 178 

Garnan 178 

Gunz 1 78 

Shoals 178 

soundings 178 

Haffa 71 

Haffah 71 

Halila 258 

Anchorage 258 

the coast from 259 

water 259 

Hamra 72 

Hanyura 87, 93 

Hasa 93 

Jabrin 24, 255 

Jaddi 172 

Jagin 186,189 

Jinuri 178 

Jiyuni 178 

Kabr Hindi 70, 75, 76 

Kadhamah 155 

Kaisa 75 

Kalbu..,.^ 54 

Kamiti 175 

Kantut 93 

Kapar 173 

Coast westward from 173 

Kathama 155 

Khali 138 

Khargu 208 

Kharyu 207, 223, 228, 231 

Coast 232 

Kizkizan .^ 51 

Kowasir 59 

Kuchar 162, 165 

the coast westward of 166 

Kuchari 165 

Kuchri 165 

Kuhlab 183 

— • the coast from 184 



. 326 



INDBX. 



Page. 

Raa Kutaifan 116 

Kuwakib 124,137 

Laffan 94, 117 

Lima 72 

Limah 72 

Luliya 69 

Maidani 188 

landing 188 

Shoal....* 188 

soundings 189 

Malan 20, 166 

soundings 166 

the coast westward of 167 

Marovi 73 

Masheirib 107 

Maskat 53 

al Mishaab Coast 149 

tidal currents 149 

Muari 20,161 

Light 161 

soundings 161 

to Gwadar Head, coast 161 

Mukhalif 79 

Musandam 15, 76, 78 

Naband 248 

tidal currents 248 

Nakhilu 243 

Nessa 114 

Nuh 175 

boat harbor 175 

soundings 175 

Spit 175 

Ormara 167 

soundings 1 68 

Ormarah 167 

Pazim 184 

Pishkau 177 

Anchorage 178 

soundings 178 

the coast westward from. . . 178 

Puzim 184 

Rakan 117 

Rakkin 97, 117, 121, 131 

general remarks 119 

tidal currents 119 

tides 118,119 

to Ras Tanura 120 

Rashidi 185 

Safaniya 148 

Sakani 168 

the coast from 168 

Salagh 211 

Salak 208,210,211 



'Pngfi. 

Ras Salak Coaat 211 

Samid 73 

Samut 72 

Sarkan 73 

Seiha.. 123 

Shahath 81 

Shahid 173 

Shamal Bandar 173 

soundings 173 

Sharh 47 

Sharita 74,79 

Sheikh Masud 81, 83, 84 

— tidal currents 84 

Sherh 47 

Sur 173 

Suwat 70, 71 

Tank 186 

discolored water 186 

soundings 186 

the coapt from 186 

Tanura 19, 138, 140, 142, 145 

Anchorage 140 

Coaat 141 

directions 140 

tidal currents 141 

tides 141 

— ^ to Ras Rakkin 120 

Tanurahr 140 

Tarkun ^ 211 

Coast 212 

Rock 212 

Tawana 237 

coast westward from 238 

ul Bahrgan 269 

Umm al Hasa 117 

Kuram 254 

Yarid 23 7 

Yurd 237 

Zarevan 130, 133 

Beacon 130 

pilots 130 

tidal currents 130 

tides 130 

Rashib 101 

Rashidi Promontory 185 

Red Island 75 

Reideim 99 

Rennie Shoal 131 

tidal streams 131 

Rifa' ash Shark! 124 

Rishahr Fort 259 

Point 259 

Anchorage 259 



rSDEX. 



327 



Page. 

Rishahr Point Banks 258 

Lloyd^s Signal Station 259 

prohibited anchorage 259 

Shoal 258 

the coast from 260 

^ time signal 259 

Kiyam Cove 59 

, village 59 

RudHiUeh 270 

Rud-i-kul River 214 

Rufa Fort 131 

Ruhilla River 270 

, village 270 

Rustani 257 

, the coast northward from 257 

Runs al Jebel 15, 70, 74, 87 

Inlets. 70 

— = inhabitants 71 

Mountains 71 

Peninsula 74 

-7 Promontory 78 

soundings 71 

Ruus-al-Jibal 70 

Ruwul Zadna 69, 70 

S. 

Sabz Pushan 273 

, coast northwestward of 273 

Sadaich River 188 

Saddle Hill 52 

Sadiyah 298 

Safliyah Island 113 

Saghira 45 

Saham 67 

Said Abbas 298 

Saih at 139 

Saiifah 297 

Sail Rock 170 

"Sailing directions 6 

Saiyid Hassan 303 

Sajah 129 

Sakamkam 69 

Salama 77, 78 

wa Binataha 75, 77, 198 

: to Maakat 43 

Salamah 77 

wa Binat ha 77 

Samarra 297 

Sambarun 242 

Sanaisalah Fort 47 

Sar 173 

Saraji, 292 

Sarocan Hill 196 





Page* 

Satadip Island 170 

Sawami 101 

Sawur River 173 

Saya 129 

Sayid Canal 298 

Seihan, village 290 

Seneisala Fort 47 

Sha'am 85 

Shab 49 

Shabus 74 

Shad Abul Shah 274 

ShadiKhur J71 

Shah Abul Shah 274 

Allum Shoal 118,245 

Shahab , 49 

Shahbandar 199 

Shahbar Bay, tidal currents 183 

tides 183 

Shahin Ruh 247 

Shaib Canal 296 

ShaikMusa 216,221 

Shaikh Mas'ud 84 

of Bahrein 123 

Janna 144 

Kuweit 152 

Shalailiyeh 304 

Sham Shamuja 291 

Shamal 24 

Shapur River 270 

Sharja 18, 90 

Anchorage 91 

Depths : 91 

^Khur, the 91 

Landing 91 

Supplies 91 

Sharjah 90 

Shatait River 303 

Shateif Cove 60 

, village 60 

Shattal Arab 15, 

158, 159, 160, 264, 277, 279 

approach 277 

-Bar 290 

^ cable 290 

caution 277 

down the gulf 42 

■_ general description . . . 287 

Lightvessel 157 

prohibited anchorage. 290 

wrecks 292 

Sheikh Gata Bank 120,137 

Saad to Kut Camp 298 

Shem Island 82 



328 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Shem Peninsula 81 

Shi'aibah 151 

Shi.iba 149,151 

Shif 261 

Shilu 251 

Shinas 67, 68, 232 

Anchorage '. 68 

Bay 232 

Shiran Island 104 

Patch 104 

Shivuh, village 246 

Shiwu, village 246 

Anchorage 247 

supplies 247 

Shuam 78, 85 

Shura' awah Island 104 

Shushtar.... 304 

communication 304 

Shuza 207, ^08 

Sib 62,63 

Anchorage 63 

Coast 63 

Sibi Island 82 

, village 82 

Sidab 53 

SidiBay ,80 

Sifa 51 

Sifat ash sheikh -....' 51 

Simahi 132 

village 128 

Simahij village 128 

Sir Abu Nu Air Island 96 

' Anchorage 96 

Bani Yas 101 

Beni Yas 101 

Bu Na'air Island 96 

i Yalfal 250 

Sira 53 

al Gharbi 1 53 

Gharbia Point 55 

Sirat al Gharbiyah 53 

Sirgan River 185 

Siri Ayanat 250 

Sirima 275 

Sirra Hill Fort 152,157 

village 234 

Sim Spit :... 213 

village 213 

Sitra Island 127 

Reef 127 

village 127 

Sitrah Island 127 

SiyaKuh 181 



Page. 

SiyahKuh 181 

Sohar 67 

Anchorage 67 

Peak 67, 68 

Sokotra 19 

Sonmiani 163 

Sonmiyani 163 

Bar 162 

Bay 162 

Shoal 162 

soundings 162 

the shore of 165 

Harbor. 20 

directions 164 

depths 164 

tidal current^ 165 

tides 165 

Soundings 12 

South Cove. . : 80 

South Islet 179 

Southeast Cove 80 

Stiffe Bank 245 

Suadi Point 64, 65 

Subakha 106 

Subakhah Matti lOB 

Submarine bells 9 

Sudab 53 

Sugar Loaf Hill 221 

Range 216 

Suhaili 26 

Sur 47 

Anchorage 48 

— r- supplies 48 

tide ^ 48 

' trade 48 

Suraf 189 

Sum 205 

Suwaik. 78 

Suzeh 208 

Table Hill Cairo 209 

Point 221 

Tagi 250 

Tahiri 251 

Anchorage 251 

Bay 251 

supplies 251 

Tah mad u 256 

Taiwa 48 

Talar Hills 169 

TalliZabanat 124 

Tallu Hills 167 



INDEX. 



329 



Page. 

Tangak, village 260 

Tangistan 257 

Tank, village 186 

Tarr 169 

Taru 197 

Tarut 139 

Fort 139 

Island 141 

Tavuneh 237 

Tawailah 291 

Tawakkul Islet 78 

Tawana 238 

Tawakkul Islet 77 

Taylor Rock 150, 151 

Telegraph Islet 82 

Tersai, village 220 

Thahran 124 

Tharub 156 

Tibat, village 84 

Tibba, village 84 

Tidal currents 7 

Tide tables, the 8 

Tides 7 

Tigris River 279,297 

Tiwi 48 

Tiz Point 182 

, village 182 

Toweya 291 

TrucialOman 133 

Tumbak : 251 

Turn, village 197 

U. 

Um-al-Kaiwain Khur 88 

UmNasan Island 125 

tidal currents 126 

Peak 126 

UmmalHatab ;.. 106 

Hul Ill 

Kaiwain 87,89,227 

Anchorage 89 

entrance 89 

Point 88 

Anchorage 89 

depths 89 

Maradim 150 

depths 150 

173608—20 22 



Pagi. 

Umm al Wawieh 304 

asSahal 149 

-Haaah 117 

Kareimatein 47 

Kasr 159 

Mukraimatain 47 

Sila 254 



Vindar River 164 

W. 

Wadi Hail al Ghaf 49 

Semail 62 

Shab 49 

Wahabi 123 

Wali of Barka 66 

Warba Island 1 59, 160 

Webb Bank 171 

West Hartlepool 204 

Peak 217 

Spit 130,136 

White HilL 62 

Pillar Rock 195 

T. 

Yas Island : 101 

Yasat 106 

Anchorage 106 

Yiti..... 52 

Zabanat 124 

Zabut Island 105 

Zadna, village 69 



Zai 85 

Zainubi Point 215 

, village 215 

Zellag 126 

Coast 126 

landing 126 

Zirko 102 

Zirkuh 102 

caution 103 

Peak 100 

Zora Khur 90 

Zubara...: 69,121 



y 



BRANCH HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICES. 

These offices are located as follows: 

Boston 14th floor, Customhouse. 

New York Rooms 301, 302, Maritime Exchange, 7a-80 Broad Street. 

Philadelphia Main floor, The Bourse Building. 

Baltimore Room 123, Customhouse. 

Norfolk Room 2, Customhouse, 

Savannah Second floor. Customhouse. 

New Orleans Room 215, Customhouse. 

Galveston : Room 301, Customhouse. 

San Francisco —Merchants' Exchange. 

Portland, Oreg Room 407, Customhouse. 

Seattle Room 408, Lowman Building. 

Sault Sainte Marie Room 10, Federal Building. 

Duluth Room 1000, Torrey Building. 

Cleveland L Rooms 406-408, Federal Building. 

Chicago Room 531, Post Office Building. 

Buffalo ___Room 340, Post Office Building. 

Note. — By authority of the Governor of the Panama Canal some of the duties of the 
Branch Hydrographic Ofllces are performed by the Captain of the Port at Cristobal and 
the Captain of the Port at Balboa. A set of reference charts and sailing directions 
may be consulted there, and ship masters may receive the Pilot Charts, Notice to 
Mariners, and Hydrographic Bulletins in return for marine data and weather reports. 
Observers' blanks and comparisons of navigational instruments may be obtained at the 
same time. 

The branch offices do not sell any publications, but issue the 
Pilot Charts, Hydrographic Bulletins, Notices to Mariners, and 
Reprints to cooperating observers. 

They are supplied with the latest information and publications 
pertaining to navigation, and masters and officers of vessels are 
cordially invited to visit them, and consult freely the officers in 
charge. Office hours, 9 a. m. to 4.30 p. m. 

AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE 

PUBLICATIONS. 

IN THE UNITED STATES AND ISLANDS. 

Aberdeen, Wash. — The Evans Drug Co. 
Astoria, Oreg. — The Beebe Co., Astoria Branch. 
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. — The Captain of the Port. 
Baltimore, Md.— John E. Hand & Sons Co., 17 South Gay Street. 
Bellingham, Wash.— E. T. Mathes Book Co., 110 West Holly Street 
Boston, Mass. — Charles C. Hutchinson, 154 State Street. 

W. E. Hadlock & Co., 152 State Street. 

Kelvin & Wilfrid O. White, 112 State Street. 
Charleston, S. C. — Henry B. Kirk, 10 Broad Street. 
Chicago, 111.— A. C. McClurg, 330 East Ohio Street. 
Cleveland, Ohio.— Upson Walton Co., 1294-1310 West Eleventh Street. 
Cristobal, Canal Zone. — The Captain of the Port. 
Duluth, Minn. — Joseph Vanderyacht. 
Eastport, Me. — S. L. Wadsworth & Son, 5-8 Central Wharf, 

331 



332 HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE AGENTS. 

Galveston, Tex. — Fred E. Triibe, 2415 Market Street. 

Purdy Brothers, 2217 Market Street. 
Gloucester, Mass. — Geo. H. Bibber, 161 Main Street. 
Gulfport, Miss. — Southern Stationer3^ Co., 2504 Fourteenth Street 
Honolulu, Hawaii. — Hawaiian News Co. 
Jacksonville, Fla.— H. & W. B. Drew Co., 45 West Bay Street. 
Ketchikan, Alaska. — Ryus Drug Co. 
Key West, Fla.— Alfred Brost. 
Manila, Philippines. — Luzon Stevedoring Co. 
Mobile, Ala. — Cowles Ship Supply Co., 13-19 Dauphin Street. 
New Orleans, La. — Woodward, Wight & Co., Howard Avenue and Constance 

Street. 
Rolf Seeberg Ship Chandlery Co., P. O. Box 1230. 
J. S. Sareussen, 210 Tchoupitoulas Street. 
Newport, R. I.— W. H. Tibbetts, 185 Thames Street. 
Newport News, Va. — John E. Hand & Sons Co., 2310 West Avenue. 
New York, N. Y.— T. S. & J. D. Negus, 140 Water Street 

John Bliss & Co., 128 Front Street. 
JNIichael Rupp & Co., 112 Broad Street 
C. S. Hammond & Co., 30 Church Street 
Kelvin & Wilfrid O. White, 38 Water Street 
Norfolk, Va. — William Freeman & Son, 243 Granby Street. 
Pensacola, Fla.— McKenzieOer ting & Co., 603 South Palafox Street 
Philadelphia, Pa.— Riggs & Bro., 310 Market Street 

John E. Hand & Sons Co., 208 Chestnut Street 
Portland, Me. — Wm. Senter & Co., 51 Exchange Street. 
Portland, Oreg. — The Beebe Co., First and Washington Streets. 

The J. K. Gill Co., Third and Alder Streets. 
Port Townsend, Wash.— W. J. Fritz, 320 Water Street 
Port Arthur, Tex. — N. M. Nielsen. 

Rockland, Me. — Huston Tuttle Book Co., 405 Main Street 
St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. — S. Fischer, Harbor Master. 
San Diego, Calif. — Arey-Jones Co., 933 Fourth Street. 
San Francisco, Calif. — Geo. E. Butler, Alaska Commercial Building, 

Louis Weule Co., 6 California Street. 
H. J. H. Lorenzen, 12 Market Street 
A. Lietz Co., 61 Post Street. 
San Juan, Porto Rico. — Joseph A. Rose, Lighthouse Service. 
San Pedro, Calif. — Marine Hardware Co., 509 Beacon Street. 
Savannah, Ga. — Savannah Ship Chandlery & Supply Co., 25 East Bay Street 
Seattle, Wash.— Lowman & Hanford Co., 616-620 First Avenue. 

Max Kuner Co., 804 First Avenue. 
Tacoma, Wash. — Cole-Martin Co., 926 Pacific Avenue. 
Tampa, Fla. — Tampa Book & Stationery Co., 513 Franklin Street 
Washington, D. C— W. H. Lowdermilk & Co., 1418 F Street NW. 

Brentano's, F and Twelfth Streets NW. 
Wilmington, N. C. — Thos. F. W^ood, 1-5 Princess Street 

IN FOREIGN COUNTBIES. 

Belize, British Honduras. — A. E. Morlan. 

Buenos Aires, Argentina. — Rodolfo Boesenbere, 824 Victoria Street 

Canso, N. S.— A. N. Whitman & Son. 



HYDBOGRAPHIC OFFICE AGENTS. 333 

Habana, Cuba. — Eduardo Mencl6, 10 Mercaderes. 

Halifax, N. S.— Philips & Marshall, 29 Bedford Row. 

Manzanillo, Cuba. — Enrique Lauten, Marti 44. 

Montreal, Canada. — Harrison & Co., 53 Metcalfe Street. 

Port Hawkesbury, C. B. I., N. S. — ^Alexander Bain. 

Prince Rupert, B. C, Canada.— McRae Bros. (Ltd.), P. O. Drawer 1690. 

Quebec, Canada.— T. J. Moore & Co., 118-120 Mountain Hill. 

St. John, N. B.— J. & A. McMillan, 98 Prince William Street. 

Shanghai, China. — Capt. W. I. Eisler, care American post office. 

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